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History of the 

Dar al-Ulum 
Deoband 

VOLUME TWO 



THE GREAT RELIGIOUS ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MUSLIMS OF THE 
SUBCONTINENT 



THE HEADSPRING OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION & CULTURE AND 
THE REVIVAL OF THE COMMUNITY 



A Historical Survey of the Great Religious and Educational Services 
and Political Activities of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband 



By order of the Majlis-e Shura, 
& Under instruction of 

Hakim al-lslam Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, 
Vice-chancellor, 

Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi's 
Tarikh-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband (Vol. Two) 



Translated into English by 

Prof. Murtaz Husain F. Quraishi, 

S.B. Garda Arts College, 

Navsari-396 445. 

Gujarat. 

November, 1981 



HISTORY OF THE DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND 
VOLUME TWO 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED INCLUDING THE RIGHT OF 

REPRODUCTION & TRANSLATION BY DAR AL-ULUM 

DEOBAND 



Foreword = by Hakim al-lslam Hazrat Maulana Qari 

Muhammad Tayyib 
Vice-chancellor, Dar al-Ulum, Deoband 

Author : Sayyid Mahbood Rizvi 

English Translator: Prof. Murtaz Husain F. Quraishi, 



Garda College, Navsari -396 445. 



First Print: 1981, Two thousand. 



Sahitya Mudranalaya, City Mill Compound, 
Kankaria Road, Ahmedabad - 380 022. 



Inland 


Rs. 175/ 


Foreign 


: £ . 16/- 




: $ 35/- 



PUBLISHED BY 

MAULANA ABDUL HAQ, 

IDARA-E IHTEMAM, DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND, U.P., INDIA 



TRANSLATOR'S NOTE 



The first volume of the History of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, reached 
Deoband just a week before the much-awaited Centenary Session, but 
the authorities were so busy in giving finishing touches to the gigantic 
preparations that were going on for more than two years, for this unique 
session, that there was no time to open the parcels of this volume to 
put a few copies on show. The translation of the second volume was 
ready to go to the press six months later but it was not considered 
advisable to print it without including a brief report on the said 
memorable session. As the whole staff of the Dar al-Ulum engaged itself 
in winding up the said preparations, the report, compiled by Mr Azhar 
Siddiqui in Urdu, took time to prepare and came to me quite late. The 
same has been added by me to the original text as Appendix III. It is 
indeed a fitting appendage to these two volumes, for it will give a fair 
idea to the reader about the value and position of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. 

The translation of the first volume had to be sent to the press in great 
haste and so some translation-mistakes detected by me later in the 
printed book should be pointed out here. On page 165 the word Kordah 
appeared as a proper noun,- it in fact means "a sleepy village". The 6th 
Tine- on page 141 should be: "it is necessary to fill the kiln", but some 
how this affirmative sentence became negative. And because of the word 
"na'ib muhtamim" in the text somewhere, Maulana Abdul Haq became 
pro-vice-chancellor. He was in fact a personal assistant to the vice- 
chancellor. The presence of all these — and similar other, if any — 
mistakes is regretted. 

Another reason of delay in the printing of this volume was the late 
inauguration of the brandnew Linoterm Machine (of English make), exactly 
one year after the said session, i.e., on 23rd March, 1981. Vishnubhai 
Pandya had suggested to print this volume on this machine. His elder 
son, Shreyas Pandya, suggested the 'Kable' type for this volume. It is 
really very attractive. 



Thanking him and his younger brother, Yagnesh for their courtesy and 
sincere co-operation; and my colleague. Prof. Miss Kety M. Dudha, head 
of the English Dept. in my college, for her careful reading of the 
typescript, I also thank, on my own as well as on behalf of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, Mr Vishnubhai S. Pandya for the same liberal concessions 
in printing charges he had given earlier also, though dearness is soaring 
unrestrained. 



MURTAZ HUSAIN FAIYAZ HUSAIN QURAISHI. 



Selodwad, Navsari - 396 445, Gujarat, 
Sunday, 19th Zil-hijjah, A.H. 1401 
— October 18, 1981. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Translator's Note i 

Table of Contents iii 

Foreword ... by Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib 1 

Preface by Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi 3 

CHAPTER IV 

The Celebrated Ulema 7 

MEMOIR OF THE GRADUATES OF THE DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND. 

1 Maulana Mir Baz Khan 11 

2. Maulana Fateh Muhammad Thanvi 12 

3. Maulana Qazi Muhi al-Din Khan Moradabadi 14 

4. Maulana Abd al-Haq Pur Qazvi 15 

5. Maulana Abd Allah Ansari Anbathvi 16 

6. Maulana Muhammad Murad Farouqi Muzaffarnagari 16 

7. Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi 17 

8. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan 19 

9. Maulana Fakhr al-Hasan Gangohi 21 

10. Maulana Siddiq Ahmed Anbathvi 22 

1 1 . Maulana Abd al-Qadeer Deobandi 23 

12. Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Hasan Amrohi 23 

13. Maulana Abd al-Ali Meeruthi 26 

14. Maulana Hakim Rahim Allah Bijnori 26 

15. Maulana Mansoor Ali Khan Moradabadi 27 

1 6. Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman 28 

17. Maulana Hakim Muhammad Hasan Deobandi 31 

1 8. Maulana Nazir Hasan Deobandi 31 

19. Maulana Abd al-Rahman Gangohi 32 

20. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi 32 

21 . Maulana Abd al-Momin Deobandi 35 

22. Maulana Hakim Jameel al-Din 36 

23. Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed Deobandi 37 

24. Maulana Habib al-Rahman Deobandi 39 

25. Hakim Abd al-Wahhab alias Hakim Nabina 40 

26. Maularia Ghulam Rasul Hazarvi 41 



27. Maulana Murtaza Hasan Chandpuri 42 

28. Maulana Muhammad Yasin Sirhindi Bareillvi 43 

29. Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi 43 

30. Maulana Sana Allah Amritsari 45 

31 . Maulana Saif al-Rahman Kabuli 46 

32. Maulana Hakim Muhammad Ishaq Kathori 47 

33. Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri 49 

34. Maulana Shah Waris Hasan 51 

35. Hazrat Maulana Amin al-Din Dehelvi 52 

36. Maulana Muhammad Sadiq Karachvi 52 

37. Maulana Mufti Kifayat Allah Dehelvi 53 

38. Maulana Majid Ali Jaunpuri .- 55 

39. Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madani 55 

40. Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Madani 57 

41 . Maulana Karim Bakhsh Sanbhali 58 

42. Maulana Abd al-Majeed Sanbhali 58 

43. Maulana Abd al-Sam'ee Deobandi 59 

44. Maulana Abd al-Aziz Gujranwalvi 59 

45. Maulana Muhammad Sehsarami 60 

46. Maulana Abd al-Razzaq Peshawari 60 

47. Maulana Muhammad Sahool Bhagalpuri 60 

48. Maulana Mian Asghar Husain Deobandi 61 

49. Maulana Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari 62 

50. Maulana Izaz Ali Amrohi 64 

51. Maulana Ahmed Buzurg Surti 66 

52. Maulana Rasul Khan Hazarvi 67 

53. Allamah Shabbir Ahmed Usmani 68 

54. Maulana Mazhar al-Din Sherkoti 71 

55. Maulana Fazl-e Rabbi Peshawari 71 

56. Allamah Muhammad Ibrahimn Balliavi 72 

57. Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Ahmed 74 

58. Maulana Sha'iq Ahmed Usmani 76 

59. Maulana Khwaja Abd al-Hayy Farouqi 77 

60. Maulana Abd al-Shakoor Deobandi 78 

61 . Maulana Hakim Abd al-Ali Lakhnavi : 79 

62. Maulana Mubarak Husain Sanbhali 80 

63. Maulana Shabbir Ali Thanvi ; 81 

64. Maulana Ihsan Allah Khan Tajwar 82 

65. Maulana Ozair Gul Peshawari 83 



66. Maulana Manazir Ahsan Gilani 84 

67. Maulana Abd al-Rahman Campbellpuri 86 

68. Maulana Khair Muhammad Jullundhari 87 

69. Maulana Shams al-Haq Afghani 87 

70. Maulana Habib al-Rahman A'zami 88 

71 . Maulana Dr Mustafa Hasan Alavi 90 

72. Maulana Shah Vasi Allah A'zami 91 

73. Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shaf'ee Deobandi 93 

74. Maulana Mufit Isma'il Bismillah 94 

75. Maulana Sayyid Meerak Shah Kashmiri 95 

76. Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib 96 

77. Maulana Muhammad Chiragh Gujranwalvi 99 

78. Maulana Muhammad Idris Kandhlavi 99 

79. Maulana Mufti Mahmud Ahmed Nanautavi 100 

80. Maulana Ghulam Ghaus Hazarvi 101 

81 . Maulana Athar Ali Bengali 101 

82. Maulana Najm al-Din Jehlumi 102 

83. Maulana Badr-e A'lam Mceruthi 102 

84. Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Shah Kashmiri Mir Wa'iz 103 

85. Maulana Habib al-Rahman Ludhianvi ,105 

86. Maulana Mufti Atiq al-Rahman Usmani 106 

87. Maulana Hifz al-Rahman Sioharvi 107 

88. Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Mian Deobandi 109 

89. Maulana Muhammad Bin Musa Afriqi 111 

90. Maulana Sa'eed Ahmed Akbarabadi 112 

91. Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Naumani 113 

92. Maulana Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi 114 

93. Maulana Qazi Zayn al-A'bidin Sajjad Meeruthi 114 

94-. Maulana Shams al-Haq Faridpuri 116 

95. Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Hasan 117 

96. Maulana Qazi Sajjad Husain Karatpuri 118 

97. Maulana Masih Allah Khan 119 

98. Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Binnori 120 

99. Maulana Sayyid Minnat Allah Rahmani 121 

100. Maulana Sharif Hasan Deobandi 123 

101. Maulana Ashraf Ali Kamarlai 124 

102. Maulana Mufti Mahmud 124 



CHAPTER V 
SADR MUDARRISIN (PRINCIPALS] 126 

1. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi 126 

2. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Dehelvi 131 

3. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan 132 

Beginning of the Struggle for the Independence of India ... 135 

A Baseless Charge 143 

4. Maulana Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri 149 

5. Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madam 154 

Division of the Post of Principal 156 

6. Maulana Sayyid Fakhr a]-din Ahmed 157 

7. Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi 159 

8. Maulana Sharif Hasan Deobandi 161 

9. Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Hasan Moradabadi 162 

10. Maulana Naseer Ahmed Khan 163 

ARBAB-E IHTEMAM (VICE-CHANCELLORS] 

1. Haii Sayyid Muhammad Abid 164 

2. Maulana Rafi" al-Din 167 

3. Haji Sayyid Fazl Haq Deobandi 168 

4. Maulana Muhammad Munir Nanautavi 169 

5. Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed 170 

6. Maulana Habib al-Rahman 173 

7. Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib 175 

8. Allamah Shabbir Ahmed Usmani 178 

THE EMINENT MUFTIS OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 182 

1. Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman 183 

2. Hazrat Maulana Izaz Ali 187 

3. Mufti Riyaz al-Din 189 

4. Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shaf'ee 190 



Vli 

5. Maulana Mufti Muhammad Sahool 190 

6. Maulana Kifayat Allah Gangohi 191 

7. Maulana Muhammad Farouq Ahmed 191 

8. Maulana Mufti Mahdi Hasan 192 

9. Maulana Mufti Mahmud Hasan Gangohi 194 

10. Maulana Mufti Nizam al-Din 195 

CHAPTER VI 

The System of Education in the Dar al-Ulum 196 

First Period 197 

Second Period 198 

Third Period 199 

Fourth Period 200 

The Curriculum of the Dar al-Ulum 202 

The Eight-year Course of the Arabic Classes 203 

Primary Classes 210 

The Removal of a Doubt 211 

Method of Teaching 213 

Educational Features of the Dar al-Ulum 217 

Our Old System of Education 218 

Free Education 219 

Educational Autonomy 219 

Time-table 223 

Rules of Admission 223 

Educational Classes 224 

Examinations 224 

Rules of Examinations 225 

Educational Stipends 226 

Prize-distribution 228 

Testimonial, Sanad (Degree) & "Turban" 229 

The Muslims' Avoidance of the English Education 229 

CHAPTER VII 

Administration 235 

Majlis-e Shura 235 

The Original Members of the Majlis-e Shura 236 

The Executive Council 238 



CHAPTER VIII 

Departments 239 

The Educational Department 239 

Dar al-lfta 241 

Majlis-e Ma'arif al-Quran 242 

Jamia-e Tibbia 242 

Department of Preaching 243 

Department of Calligraphy 243 

Craft & Industry 244 

Publications Division 245 

Physical Exercise Division 245 

The Accounts Department 245 

The Department of Organisation & Progress 246 

The Department of Endowments 246 

The Department of Management 246 

Record Office 246 

Library 247 

The Kitchen Division , 253 

The Department Of Building & Construction 254 

The Hostel Division 254 

The Division For The Centenary Celebration 255 

The Sanitary Division 255 

The Electrical Division (Light & Water) 255 

The External Affairs Division 256 

Gradual Addition to the Departments & Divisions 256 

CHAPTER IX 

The Buildings of the Dar al-Ulum 257 

Names of Respectable Visitors 262 

CHAPTER X 

What Others Say 267 

Observations & Impressions of Dignified Visitors 267 

Masnavi Farogh . 320 



ix 



Appendix I : Abstract of Income & Expenditure & Books.. 

From A.H. 1283/A.D. 1866 to A.H. 1396/A.D. 1976 330 
Appendix II : Educational & Administrative Abstract.. 

From A.H. 1283/A.D. 1866 to A.H. 1396/A.D. 1976 337 



A Glance at the Expenses . 



An Excerpt Moderation of the Ulema of Deoband 347 

Bibliography 350 

Appendix 111 : Brief Report of Centenary Celebration of the 

Dar al-Ulum. 353 

Index 407 



786 

FOREWORD 

by 

Hakim al-lslam Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib 

(may his shadow never grow less!), Vice-Chancellor, 

Dar al-Ulum, Deoband 

In the thirteenth century hijri subcontinent there were two important 
problems, that began from the time of Shah Wall Allah Dehelvi, before 
the Muslims : one was that of the preservation of the Muslims' beliefs 
and practices and the other was of a political nature, purporting to 
deliver India from the English paramountcy. After Shah Wali Allah, Sayyid 
Ahmed Shaheed, Maulana Shah Muhammad Isma'il Shaheed, Maulana 
Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi 
carried this movement of preserving Islamic values forward. They 
remained engrossed in the great struggle of economic and social reform : 
they opposed ruinous customs and conventions, elucidated Islamic 
beliefs and propositions (masa'il) with rational arguments and tried their 
best to revive the system of the widows' re-marriage, the women's right 
of inheritance and for the correction and removal of social inequalities. 
To effectuate the other purpose they established religious schools, 
and the fact is that their efforts greatly affected every corner of the 
subcontinent, touching a large number of Muslims. 

Nevertheless, it is also a fact that the outside world, particularly our 
modern educated class, is still unaware of these characteristics of the Dar 
al-Ulum to a large extent, the reason for which is that from the very 
beginning the Dar al-Ulum has been in the hands of a group which 
believed in the principle of more work and no show. But now expe- 
diency demands that outsiders too should be acquainted with whatever 
the Dar al-Ulum has performed and data should be provided for the 
history of India, particularly that of. the Muslims, which will be written in 
the future; and those misunderstandings about the Dar al-Ulum which are 
regnant among the modern educated class or the common Muslims 
should be removed. Thi-s epoch is an epoch of literature and books. If 
the servants of the Dar al-Ulum, in accordance with their contented and 
humble demeanour, continued to be unconcerned with this demand of 
the period, then possibly, with regard to our own disposition and con- 
duct, it might not at all be harmful but it would certainly not be useful 



for the future generations as well as for those of the present times also, 
because countless individuals who know and recognise personalities and 
movements through journals, books and magazines, will not be able to 
know correctly the valuable religious, academic and cultural achievements 
of the Muslims of the subcontinent; the worth and value of which will be 
felt more tomorrow than today, because this Islamic and religious centre 
is a great national wealth of the Muslims of this subcontinent. 

It was my heart-felt longing for a long time that something valuable in 
a disquisitional and historical style be prepared on Hujjat al-lslam Hazrat 
Maulana Muhammad Qasim; the second was that the tack of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, be introduced to the public in a very apopthegmatic 
and authoritative manner, and the third was that a complete, detailed and 
effective history Of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, be written. 

On the first two topics this humble writer has arranged some matter 
but so far it could not change from black into white and still awaits 
publication in book form- 
However, this my third longing Allah Most High has got fulfilled 
through an elegant stylist and discerning historian like Sayyid Mahboob 
Rizvi who was selected for this service by the responsible authorities 
of the Dar al : Ulum, Deoband. Setting his pen to paper with a fine style, 
compactness and disquisition, he has fully discharged the right of his 
topic to the extent of his effort and labour. He accomplished this task 
with such assiduity, attachment and expedition that while not much time 
has passed over the completion of the first volume this second too is 
being presented to the audience. May Allah Most High bestow upon him 
great reward for this toilsome work! For this he certainly deserves to be 
complimented by all of us. It is hoped that like the first the second 
volume too will prove a precious academic present for the discerning. 

Muhammad Tayyib, 

Vice-chancellor, 
Deoband. U. P. Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

5th Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1398 
C — Tuesday, February 14, 1978). 



3 

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE COMPASSIONATE, THE MERCIFUL 

PREFACE 

The first volume of the History of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was 
published (in Urdu) last year and was generally received well in the 
academic and literary circles. For this general popularity the present 
writer is all humility and gratefulness in the Divine Court that God 
bestowed upon the like of me, a frail slave, the grace to render this great 
service to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. "Such is the grace of Allah which 
He giveth unto whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing" 
(V:54). The Almighty Glorious Lord takes any work He likes from anyone. 
Should He so will He may take the work of a beam from a straw and may 
bestow the strength of a great rock on a particle of dust. 

"Ability is no condition for His largesse". 

The translations of the first volume into Arabic and English languages 
have begun and it is hoped that both will be ready in one year. 

Now the second volume is before you. May Allah Most High bestow 
upon it also the honour of general approbation! 

The history of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is in fact a very important 
document of the greatest religious achievement of the Muslims in this 
period; it is a history of a very delicate period of the Islamic sciences 
and arts and the Muslims' beliefs and practices. In an age of decline and 
degeneration of the Islamic sciences it was the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
alone which kept the lamp of the prophetic knowledge alight inspite of 
the gusts of a contrary wind, and taking the seekers of prophetic 
knowledge into its lap and rescuing them from a state of academic 
confusion and dispersion, enabled them educationally to discharge the 
duty of preaching and propagating Islam. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is not only an educational institution but 
is also a vast religious movement, which has had a special dignity in 
its great objective and method of teaching. The ulema of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, have always acted upon the Holy Prophet's (peace and 
blessings be upon him!) instruction "It is necessary for you to follow 
my Sunnah" and they have always translated "On which I and my 
Companions act" into practice. To walk on the straight path they have 
adopted that method which is exactly apposite to the nature of Islam. 



The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, on account of its consummate stability in 
religious sciences and maturity in conformance to the Sunnah, has had a 
distinctive dignity in the subcontinent; particularly in the teaching of 
Hadith it has had a unique style which distinguishes it from all other 
seminaries in the country. Its teaching of Hadith has been credited with 
international fame and prestige. Accordingly, in the method of teaching, 
administration and management innumerable madrasahs today are being 
established on the pattern of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

The valuable achievement the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has to its credit 
in sustaining the Muslims' glorious past, in strengthening their present and 
in making their future bright and resplendent according to the Islamic 
values, is such a source of pride for it that the history of the Islamic 
community can never allow it to be consigned to oblivion. The Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, has been a dauntless standard-bearer of Islamic life, 
calling people to Imam Abu Hanifa's maslak (tack or cult), the preacher 
of Shah Wall Allah Dehelvi's thought, the commentator of Shah Abd al- 
Aziz's knowledge, and the greatest trustee of Maulana Muhammad Isma il 
Shaheed's sentiments of liberty. The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has been an 
effective and active movement of the religious sciences. This movement, 
sweeping off the garbage that had collected in the Muslims' beliefs and 
practices over the centuries, acquainted them with clean and pure reli- 
gion, delivered them from the grip of polytheistic and heretical (bid'ati) 
customs and conventions and false superstitions; at the same time, 
dispelling the fear and terror of the British government, helped them 
become politically able to take lead in the movement for the freedom of 
the' country and thus elevate the Muslims' communal dignity In short, 
there is no educational, missionary, reformative and political aspect of 
life on which the Dar al-Ulum may not have impressed the mark of its 
valuable services. At the same time it is not a matter of little importance 
that the sphere of this movement did not remain limited to the subconti- 
nent; on the contrary, its gamut widened to far off places so that the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, has become an academic and religious centre not 
only of the subcontinent but also of the entire continent of Asia. 

From the beneficial education of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, were 
produced thousands of ulema, Masha'ikh (spiritual directors), thinkers, 
preachers, leaders, writers and authors who have attained a revolutionary 
position in the Islamic history of the subcontinent. Their academic, religi- 
ous, educational, authorial, missionary and reformative achievements are 
of great consequence. In the fields particularly of spiritual guidance and 
instruction, teaching and educating, sermonising and preaching they 



appear to be in the lead; they were never at default in leading the 
Muslims. Their great services are not confined to any special angle or 
any single aspect of the Muslims' life; rather, the ulema of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, have rendered valuable service to Islam and the 
Muslims on every plane; they always girt themselves up in every period 
for discharsing their duties and have breasted and faced every 
challenge thrown to Islam. Hence the momentous services the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, and the net-work of other religious schools patterned 
after it and spread all over the subcontinent have rendered to the 
Islamic community, have had great popularity and esteem among the 
Muslims. 

To collect and condense the various and variegated achievements of 
the ulema of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, into a limited number of pages 
is indeed very difficult, for the details of these -services will require 
huge volumes. There is need particularly of writing a tazkira (memoir) 
of the sons of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in this connection who 
number nearly twelve thousand. 

I have tried as far as I could that if not all, at least the important 
aspects of the Dar al-Ulum and its ulema may be brought to light. Now 
that a beginning has been made of writing on the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, it should be hoped that in future still more useful writings 
would see the light of the day from time to time. It is in fact an 
important obligation on the pen-wielding ulema of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, that they make their alma mater the topic of their writings and 
try to present the different aspects of the Dar al-Ulum in a much better 
way. I hope that this beginning will prove good for those who wish to 
work on this topic. Moreover, s comprehensive history of all the 
seminaries should be compiled, with a minute survey of their exploits; it 
is a very necessary work to which pen-wielders in religious schools 
should pay heed. 

At the end of this volume has been included a long excerpt from 
Masnavi Farogh, which, it may be pointed out, is the oldest versified 
history of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband; it is, however, strange that inspite 
of having the value of an authentic document because of its being the 
testimony of an eyewitness, it was lying in limbo for a very long time. 
Masnavi Farogh had been written at a time when the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, was passing through its period of infancy and was known as 
"Madrasa-e Islami Arabi", but at that very time, due to its extraordinary 
popularity and fame it was being perceived that this madrasah (school) 



was acquiring the status of a dar al-ulum (university). The author of the 
masnavi has expressed this fact in one half-verse as follows : 

"Deoband now became a dar al-ulum". 

Over and above the conditions of the incipient stage of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, details of teaching and imparting of lessons, educat- 
ing and learning and its fame and. centrality, such a picture of the 
conceptions that were then prevalent among the Muslims about the 
knowledge and learning, abstemiousness and piety of the elders of the 
Dar al-Ulum and the trustworthiness and rectitude of its functionaries, is 
found in the Masnavi Farogh which is not to be seen elsewhere; and 
hence its necessary portions have been included in this history of the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

At the end have been given tables of the annual income and expen- 
diture, construction-work, and the magistral and office staffs. It is hoped 
that these tables will prove useful and informative to those readers who 
may be interested in figures and statistics. 

May Allah Most High accept tnese leaves and make them useful and 
beneficial for the readers! "There is no grace but from Allah". 

I am grateful and feel obliged from the bottom of my heart for the 
labour and assiduity with which Maulana Abd al-Haq, Incharge of the 
Daftar-e Ihtemam, has corrected the proofs of both the first and the 
second volumes. 



Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi, 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 



27th Muharram al-Haram, A. H. 1398 
— Saturday, January 7, 1978. 



CHAPTER IV 



THE CELEBRATED ULEMA 

If a survey is made of the academic, religious, communal and political 
history of the past one hundred years in the subcontinent, it will be 
known how the eminent ulema of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, have dis- 
charged the most important obligation of preserving the Book and the 
Sunnah. The glorious services they have rendered in this regard are 
indubitably sui generis. Their foremost great achievement is that inspite 
of being deprived of the help and co-operation of the state, they started 
the universal movement of maintaining the religious sciences and 
establishing Islamic madrasahs through the co-operation and contribu- 
tions of the common run of Muslims 1 . 

By Allah's grace and favour this movement gained popularity among 
the Muslims. As such, seminaries were started at many places and since 
then their number is still on the increase, details of which have already 
been given in the foregone. Our elders, by keeping religious education 
free from the influence of the government, wanted to maintain intellectual 
freedom, so that through independent education may come into being a 
generation whose heart and mind may not be indebted to the obligation 
of government aid and which may in all respects live a life of knowledge 
and practice with independent thinking. Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Mian 
has. stated - 

"In fact the establishment of these Arabic schools proved a great boon 
for the Muslims. Whatever traces of Islamic culture and social life are visi- 
ble in India today are the blessings of these very madrasahs. It is through 
these very madrasahs that India has attained that light of the knowledge 

1. The system of contribution established by the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was very easy 
and feasible. Some detail of it has already been stated in the foregone. In the report 
published in the first year of its commencement it has been clarified that "there is no 
restriction on the limit of the contribution nor is there any peculiarity of religion and 
community". The implication is that even one paisa can be contributed and it is not 
necessary that the contribution can be in cash only; one can contribute even in kind, like 
food, clothes, books, etc. This facility in contribution proved very useful, profitable' and 
more rewarding than what had been estimated. Under this facility even those people who 
could not afford to give their mite in cash got a chance to participate in this good work. 
This system proved very useful for the founding and advancement of the religious 
schools. This insight and foresight of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum served as a torch of 
the path for other institutions and societies. If pondered correctly, there is no better way 
of spending one's earning than in this most sound cause. It is indeed the healthiest and 
purest form of charity; a source of good luck for the contributor. 



of religion and conformance to the Shari'ah with such distinctive glory 
that other free Muslim countries have not been able to attain, and as long 
as the system of these madrasahs remains extant in India independently, 
no power can inflict any harm to the scintillation of this light". 1 

Sayyid Rasheed Reza writes - 

"In Madrasa-e Deoband which is entitled 'Azhar-e Hind' I saw an 
academic movement from which great benefit is expected". 2 

During the course of 114 3 years, from 1283/1866 to 1396/1976, the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, has sent its sons (i.e., alumni) not only to different parts 
of the subcontinent but also to many Asian and African countries, where, 
rendering conspicuous services to the religion and the community, they 
have made the name of India famous. Accordingly, this fame had attracted 
a pre-eminent religious divine of Syria, Shaikh Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, 
to Deoband in A. H. 1382. After meeting the ulema of Deoband the Shaikh, 
expressing his strong wish, emphasised the great need of translation of the 
works of the outstanding ulema of Deoband into Arabic, for, according to 
him, in their books are found things which are not had even in the books 
of the ancient ulema. The Shaikh has stated :- 

"It is a duty of these eminent ulema that they, clothing the results of 
thought of their singular intellects and their valuable graces and 
researches in the Arabic language, provide a chance for deriving benefit 
for other ulema of the Islamic world also. This duty devolves upon these 
gentlemen for the reason that when a man reads a book of these research 
scholars of India, he finds therein distinctive new ascertainments which 
depend, besides profound knowledge and extensive reading, on piety, 
rectitude and spiritualism. And since these eminent ulema and Shaikhs 
not only fulfil the conditions of possessing qualities like virtue, rectitude, 
spiritualism and engrossment in knowledge but are also the right heirs 
and specimens of the pious predecessors, their books do not lack in new 
and useful things. "Such is the grace of Allah' which He giveth unto 
whom He will" (V : 54). Rather, some of their books are such'that in them 
are found those things which are not available even in the works of the 
great ulema, professional commentators of the Quran, traditionists and 
thinkers of the past. 

1. Al-Jami'at,. weekly, Delhi, Nov, 12, 1971. 

2. Al-Qasim, monthly, Deoband, Zi-q'ada, A.H. 1330, with reference to Al-Manar. 

3. This period is according to the lunar calculation. The financial and educational system 
of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is based on the lunar calender. 



"All these books have been written in the Urdu language. If these 
sciences and valuable disquisitions which are the special contribution and 
achievement of our Indian ulema, are kept confined in the frame of Urdu 
only, then, remaining hidden from us the Arabic-speaking people, they will 
continue to be the cause of our deprivation. It will thus be an injustice not 
only to us but also to the religious knowledge 1 ". 

There is no exaggeration in expressing the fact that the academic, 
religious and other types of great exploits of the ulema of Deoband consti- 
tute a separate topic of the history of the Dar ai-Ulum. From the last phase 
of the thirteenth century hijri the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has been a cradle 
of religious arts and sciences and Islamic edification and culture; it has 
had the position of the greatest educational centre in the country. As such, 
whenever a problem arose in the country and the Muslims felt any dif- 
ficulty, they automatically looked up towards the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 
From its academic lap have risen such great ulema, Shaikhs and men of 
accomplishments from whose academic and spiritual grace, no doubt, the 
whole of Asia is benefitting. The ulema of Deoband have been discharging 
the duty of academic and religious guidance to the Muslims of the sub- 
continent for more than a century. An ideal institution of religious educa- 
tion as it is in the whole of Asia, its limpid spring has been quenching the 
thirst of the seekers of knowledge of several continents. A hundred and 
fourteen years ago it was a tiny sapling but today it is a stalwart and 
bountiful tree whose branches have ramified to different countries of Asia. 

Accordingly, rather than by any place or institution, the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, is more wellknown in the religious circles of the Muslims for the 
makings of its tack. The role the ulema of Deoband have played in the 
religious and communal awakening of the Muslims of the subcontinent 
requires a large volume for its description. Would that some high-spirited 
man perform this momentous task! A memoir of this type for describing 
the real history of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and the great exploits of its 
alumni is very necessary; without such a memoir it is impossible for the 
features of the history of the Dar al-Ulum to come to light. Here only brief 
particulars of some of the most- outstanding ulema are being presented. 
The fame of the great services of most of them has passed over from this 
subcontinent to many foreign lands. Their religious and academic services 
have been amply acclaimed in the Islamic world. 

Besides teaching in religious schools, these gentlemen will be found 

1. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, A. H 1382, p. 13. 



lecturing in colleges and universities also. Besides the fields of spiritual 
instruction and guidance, writing and compilation, calling to Islam and 
preaching, fetwa-issuing and polemics, journalism and political leadership 
and the academic field of medicine, you will find some of them gracing 
the posts of ministers and chief justices. Similarly some of them will be 
seen taking part in legal and constitutional discussions in the legislative 
assemblies. In short, the part of the sincere efforts of the alumni of the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in putting an end to the ennui, stagnation and 
stillness of the Muslims of the subcontinent and in energising them with 
movement, feeling and fervour for action is wellknown. 

In the world of Islam, particularly in the Muslim countries of Asia, the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has at present had the position of a great centre 
of knowledge, gnosis and spiritualism. No other religious institution can 
be' called its rival in respect of religious loftiness, educational culture and 
simple Islamic living. The graduates of Deoband have today fanned out to 
many countries of the world and are rendering useful Islamic services; in 
fact these very graduates constitute the real history and are the wealth of 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 1 By virtue of their knowledge and accomplish- 
ments these gentlemen command the position of great men: The glorious 
service they have rendered for the survival, strengthening and maintaining 
of Islamic and religious life in India has been acknowledged by all. 
Sayyid Muhammad al-Hasani, the author of Sirat-e Maulana Sayyid 
Muhammad Ali Monghyri, writes :- 

"No sensible and just man can deny this reality that valuable help has 
been rendered to the maintenance, survival and stability of Islamic life in 
India by the way the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, fanning out 
to each and every corner of India, have protected the pristine religion 
and kept it safe from innovation, interpolation and misconstruction 
(ta'vil); and whatever true Islamic beliefs, religious sciences, respect for 
the men of religion and true spiritualism that are seen in the country 
today, it (Deoband) has no doubt had a conspicuous and basic contribu- 
tion in it 2 ". 

If it is true — and there is no doubt about it — that a tree is known by 
the fruits it bears, then it is a fact that the fruits of the Dar al-Ulum have 
proved delicious in taste and wholesome in property. The graduates of the 
Dar al-Ulum have transfused pure new blood into the devitalized veins of 

1. The compiling of a memoir of the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is awaiting the 
attention of the authorities of the Dar al-Ulum. 

2. p. 73; pub. :Shahi Press, Lucknow, 1964. 



11 

the community and have revitalized its enervated body; they have lighted 
the candle of resolution and self-reliance in despondent hearts and 
resuscitated their religious and spiritual life. In fact the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, is a lantern the light of which, passing through Asia, is reaching 
the continent of Africa. If any institution of the world of Islam can pride 
itself over the fact that it has been the guard and sentinel of the religious 
sciences during the last one hundred years, it is only the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, including its well-guided sons, a very brief account of whom is 
being presented here. One shall have to wait for an independent book 
for the details of their academic, religious and reformative achievements 
and political services. 

MEMOIR OF THE GRADUATES OF THE DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND 

1 MAULANA MIR BAZ KHAN 

Maulana Mir Baz Khan was born in A. H. 1258 at Bhojpur (Dist. 
Muzaffarnagar). He acquired knowledge from Maulana Muhammad bin 
Ahmed Allah Thanvi, Maulana Muhammad Mazhar Nanautavi, etc. He 
entered the Dar al-Ulum in the beginning of A. H. 1Q93 and completed his 
education earlier than others. He was a resident of Thana Bhavan. During 
his studentship itself he used to render teaching service. He had had good 
mastery over the art of teaching. In his first year he studied Sharh-e 
Waqaya, Nur al-Anwar, Muslim Sharif, Mebazi, Sharh-e 'Aqa'id-e Nasafi, 
Maqamat-e Hariri and Sab'a Mu'allaqa. It is stated in his sanad 
(certificate) that during his student days he was also serving as an assistant 
teacher. It says in the Report (Rudad, A. H. 1284, p. 6) as follows ■.- 

"At present there are some such students in the madrasah nearing the 
completion of their education that they can very well perform the work of 
Arabic teachers; accordingly, in pursuance of the demand of the rector of 
Madrasa-e Arabi, Saharanpur, Maulavi Mir Baz Khan, a student of this 
madrasah, was sent to Madrasa-e Arabi, Saharanpur, as second teacher" 

Mentioning the educational performance in the Report of the previous 
year (Rudad, A. H. 1283, p. 2), it is stated - 

"Other teachers, Maulavi Muhammad Fazil, Maulavi Mir Baz Khan, 
Maulavi Fateh Muhammad and Hafiz Ahmed Hasan performed their work 
very enthusiastically". 

In A. H. 1288, during the illness of Maulana Muhammad Mazhar, head- 
teacher, Madrasa-e Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, he (Mir Baz Khan) twice 



performed the duties of officiating head-teacher 1 . 

He had had the honour of spiritual allegiance (bai'ah) to Shaikh Abd 
al-Raheem Saharanpuri, khalifa (spiritual successor) of Shaikh Abd 
al-Ghafoor Suati alias Akhund Sahib 2 . 

in Tarikh-e Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and in Nu2hat al-Khwatir, 
his name has been stated to be Amir Baz Khan but in the Report of the 
Dar al-Ulum for the year A. H. 1284, it has been stated to be Mir Baz 
Khan. 

Maulana Mir Baz Khan's collection of spiritual revelations (mukashifat), 
recorded by himself and entitled istadrak al-Amir min Asrar al-Latif 
al-Khabir, has been printed at Bilali Press, Sadhora. 

He died in A. H. 1325. In Deoband the arrangement for his meals was 
at the house of the late Hakim Mushtaq Ahmed (d. A. H. 1310). 3 (Rudad, 
A. H. 1283, p. 11). 

2. MAULANA FATEH MUHAMMAD THANVI 

Maulana Fateh Muhammad Thanvi also entered the Dar al-Ulum in the 
first year of its establishment in 1283/1866. In 1285/1868 he, too, was 
among those three students who graduated from the Dar al-Ulum for the 
first time. It has been mentioned in the sanad awarded to him from the 
Dar al-Ulum as under - 

"He took admission in A. H. 1283. He studied here Mukhtasar-e Ma'ani 

1. Tarikh-e Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur,vol i, pp. 22 & 24. 

2. Nuzhat al-Khwatir, vol. viii, p. 74. 

3. Hakim Mushtaq Ahmed was a noble and a competent hakim of Deoband. His magni- 
ficent house and parlour are situated adjoining the Qazi Masjid, near and to the east of 
the Dar al-Ulum. The reconstruction of the Qazi Masjid is his achievement He was 
selected as a member of the Majlis-e Shura in A. H. 1298. He had had the honour of 
vowing allegiance (bai'ah) to Hazrat Nanautavi after whose death he endowed a plot of 
land for the Qasimi graveyard. There was permanent arrangement at his house for the 
dining of one student of the Dar al-Ulum. He died in 1310/1982 and was laid to rest in 
the same endowed plot of land About him Hazrat Nanautavi's saying has been heard 
from the elders that there were only one and a half intelligent men in Deoband ■ one 
fully intelligent man was Hakim Mushtaq Ahmed and the half-intelligent man was Shaikh 
Nifial Ahmed, who was also a poet and writer. Hazrat Nanautavi used to say : "When any 
one of them sits before me during my sermon (wa'z), my mind expands and there is a 
spontaneous flow of topics as intelligent men to understand them are present". 



13 

in Rhetorics; Qutbi Mir Qutbi in Logic,- Mebazi in Philosophy; Sharh-e 
'Aqa'id in Dialectics; Shashi's Nur al-Anwar in Usui (Principles); Hedaya 
in Fiqh (Jurisprudence); Nasa'i, Muslim, Bukhari and Mu'atta in Hadith; 
Baizavi in Tafsir (Quranic Exegesis); Tasrih Sharh-e Tashrih in Astronomy,- 
and Nafhat al-Vemen, Maqamat-e Hariri and Divan-e Mutanabbi in 
Literature. Having scored full marks in the annual examination he won a 
prize. He has had consummate ability, perfect aptitude, gentle disposi- 
tion, sound thinking and savoir faire; and he was working very well 
on the post of assistant teacher. All the teachers and the vice-chancellor 
are pleased with his good morals and excellent conduct, which are 
exemplary for the students and are acclaimed by his class-fellows". 

As it appears from the last sentence of his sanad, Maulana Fateh 
Muhammad also used to perform the service of teaching while studying 
at the Dar al-Ulum, more clarification about which is found in the Report 
for the year A. H. 1283, cited above, regarding the performance of other 
teachers. In Deoband the arrangement for his dining was at the house of 
Chaudhri Imdad Ali 1 . 

Maulana Fateh Muhammad's native-place was Thana Bhavan. After 
graduation from the Dar al-Ulum, his was the earliest appointment as 
teacher in that madrasah which had been started by Hafiz Abd al-Razzaq 
in that mosque of Thana Bhavan which is known as Hauz-wah Masjid (i.e. 
a mosque having a water-fountain). 

He translated Maulana Shaikh Muhmmad Thanvi's (d. 1296/1878) 
Persain commentary on Hizb al-Bahr into Urdu. The language of the trnas- 
lation is easy and commonly intelligble. It is stated about him in the 
translation of Wahdat al-Wajud wal-Shuhud as under :- 

"Maulana Fateh Muhammad was one of the few distinguished 
personalities of Thana Bhavan on account of whom this village acquired 
perpetual fame. He had had a plentiful share both in the exoteric and the 
esoteric sciences. He was a saintly man possessing powers of mystical 
revelation (kashf) and miracle-working. Maulana Muhammad Umar, the 
eldest son of Hazrat Maulana Shaikh Muhammad Thanvi had studied some 
books under his instruction. He had translated the commentary of Hizb al 
Bahr written by his spiritual director, Hazrat Maulana Shaikh Muhammad 
Thanvi, into Urdu" 2 . 

1. Rudad for A. H. 1283, p. 11. 

2. Wahdat al-Wajud wal-Shuhud, p. 88, translated by Sana al-Haq, M A., pub. Educa- 
tional Press, Karachi 



14 

Maulana Fateh Muhammad's fondness and passion for acquisition of 
knowledge can be estimated from this that whenever he came to know 
that at such and such a place a divine expert in such and such a science 
lived, he would go there on foot. Once he came to know that a scholar 
at Jhanjhana taught Masnavi Maulana Rum very well; so he made it his 
wont to go there on foot every Thursday, read the lesson on Friday, and 
reutrn to Thana FJhavan on Saturday. When a little portion of the Masnavi 
remained, he took a few days' leave from the Madrasah and finished it 
also 1 . 

Maulana Fateh Muhammad remained attached to the madrasah of 
Thana Bhavan till the end. It is regrettable that the date of his death 
could not be found. 

Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi was also one of his students. 

3. MAULANA QAZI MUHI AL-DIN KHAN MORADABADI 

He was one of the favourite pupils of Hazrat Nanautavi and one of the 
great religious divines. He graced the post of qaza (judgeship) in the 
erstwhile Bhopal state. It is stated regarding him in the report of the Dar 
al-Ulum as follows :- 

"Maulana Qazi Muhi al-Din Khan Moradabadi, member of the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, was amongst the old pupils of Qasim al-Ulum 
wal-Khayrat Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim (may his secret be 
sanctified I), and was reckoned amongst the favourites of Hazrat 
Nanautavi. He graced the post of judgeship in the Bhopal state for a 
long time and passed his whole life in great dignity and wealth 2 ". 

His august father was one of the favourite entourage of Bahadur Shah 
Zafar (the last Mughal king). He was a disciple (murid 3 ) of Hazrat 
Nanautavi. Hazrat Nanautavi, in the battle of Shamli, had sent his 

1. Arwah-e Salasa, anecdotes 4 & 5. 

2. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, A. H 1348, p.5. 

3. The words 'murid' and 'iradat' come from the same root. Iradat or irada is aspiration 
of the murid to undertake the journey of the soul on the road to God; then, his rule of 
life on the road, his novitiate. Hence to have iradat in any saintly man means that the 
novice (murid) has vowed alliance to the latter and under his instruction and guidance 
the novice wants to traverse the mystical path. To acquire divine knowledge and gnosis 
without passing the probationary period after initiation into the path is, accondng to all 
mystics, impossible, because the path is full of deviations and pitfalls. (Translator). 



proposals through him only to Bahadur Shah Zafar. 

In A. H. 1313 he was elected as a member of the Majlis-e Shura 
which he continued to benefit with his valuable counsels till the end. He 
died in A. H. 1347. 

4. MAULANA ABD AL-HAQ PUR QAZVI 

His native place was village Pur Qazi in Muzaffarnagar district 1 
He was born around A. H. 1258. He entered the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1283 and graduated from it in A. H. 1286. In the first-ever function of 
Dastar-bandi 2 ("Turban-wrapping"), held in the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1290, "the turban of primacy" (dastar-e fazilat) was wrapped around his 
head also along with Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and other ulema. After 
receiving the sanad from the Dar al-Ulum he was appointed accountant 
general in the erstwhife Ratlam state 3 on which post he continued till his 
last breath. He always remained a trusted officer in the eyes of the ruler 
of the state, He was a specimen of the ulema of the old. His youngest 
daughter, As'adi Khatun, was married to Maulana Hafiz Abd al-Latif 4 
administrator of the Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur. At the time of his 

1. Pur Qazi is an old habitation of high-bred people to [he north of Muzaffarnagar. 
2 Baba-e Urdu Dr. Maulavi Abd al-Haq has given the word Dastar-bandi as the meaning 
of 'consecration' but it neither signifies ordination to sacred office nor conferring of any 
holy order; I have called it "the turban of primacy or proficiency" in the sense of 
pre-eminence as a scholar and not in the sense of the primate's office because there is 
no such office in Islam. (Translator) 

3. Ratlam was a Rajput state; i.e., the rulers of this state were Rajput princes. This erst- 
while state is now a part of Madhya Pradesh. (Translator) 

4. His year of birth was 1297/1879 and native-place was Pur Qazi. His father, Jami'at Ali, 
was a class mate of Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi Hafiz Abd al-Latif had memorised 
the Quran in his native-place under the instruction of Hafiz Amanat Ali Baghravi and then, 
entering Mazahir-e Ulum, had completed the study of all the sciences. In the middle of 
his career he studied for about three months in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, also. In geist 
and good management he was distinguished over his contemporaries. Besides being a 
pupil of Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi he had also had the honour of having vowed 
allegiance to him. 

After graduation he was appointed a teacher in Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, where he 
got a chance to teach almost all the books of the Nizami Syllabus. He was equally well- 
versed in the rational and the traditional sciences. In A. H. 1344 he was appointed 
administrator of the Mazahir-e Ulum During his administration the seminary made great 
progress . the library building was completed, the new hostel, mosque and the building 
of the Dar al-Tajvid are the relics of his regime. In short, his was a great share in the 
progress of the Mazahir-e Ulum and in the addition to its buildings. From the time of 
student days till the end, 65 years of his life were passed in reading and teaching in the 
Mazahir-e Ulum and in its construction and progress. He died on 2nd Zil-hijja, 1273/1954. 
His eldest son, Maulana Abd al-Ra'uf Aali is attached to Majlis-e Ma'arlf al-Quran in the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, since long. 5. M. Rizvi. 



16 

daughter's departure as a bride, the precious instructions and advices he 
had given her in writing have been published later on by Hazrat Thanvi 
under the heading Bihtarin Jahez ("The Best Dowry") in his Bihishti 
Zewar. Maulana Abd al-Haq 1 died in 1342/1923 in Ratlam. 

5. MAULANA ABD ALLAH ANSARI ANBETHVI 

His native-place was Anbatha, in District Saharanpur. In A.H. 1285 
he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum and graduated in A. H. 1287. His 
early education he received from a glorious divine of his time, Maulana 
Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi. At Mecca he stayed in attendance on Shaikh 
al-Masha'ikh Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki for a long time. During this 
sojourn he studied Masnavi Maulana Rum under the Shaikh's instruction 2 . 
He had also received khilafat (vicarship 2 ) from the Shaikh al-Masha'ikh. 

In A. H. 1287, when Munshi Mehrban Ali established Madrasa Manba 
al-Ulum at Gulaothi, he was appointed its head-teacher. Thereafter, in 
1311/1893, Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan called him to Aligarh and appointed 
him Dean of the Faculty of Theology in the then M. A. O. College (the 
present Muslim University). After him his son, Maulana Ahmed Mian was 
appointed Dean of the same faculty. His second son, Maulana Muhammad 
Mian Mansoor Ansari was an important member of the Shaikh al-Hind's 
political movement for the freedom of India. Maulana Mansoor Ansan's 
son, Maulana Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi is a famous Urdu journalist of India. 

Maulana Abd Allah Ansari died at Anbatha. The year of his death as 
given in Nuzhat al-Khwatir, vol. viii, is A. H. 1344, which is not correct. 
Although the exact year of his demise could not be known, this much is 
certain that he had died much earlier than A. H. 1344 He lies buried in his 
ancestral cemetry at Anbatha. Hazrat Nanautavi's eldest daughter, Ikram 
al-Nisa, had been married to him. 

6. MAULANA MUHAMMAD MURAD FAROUQI MUZAFFARNAGARI 

He was born in 1262/1845 at Amb, a village near Pak Patan. He was in 
the eighteenth generation of Hazrat Baba Farid al-Din Ganj-Shakar. He was 



1. Though Maulana Abd al-Haq was an accountant general--such officers rarely tend 
towards things esoteric —his educational back-ground probably had created in him a 
zest for Tasawwuf. One Hakim Bashir Ahmed Saharanpuri (d. around 1960), a fourth- 
generation hakim of the royalty as well as commonalty of Ratlam, told this translator that 
Maulana Abd al-Haq was a close friend of his grandfather and both of them often used 
to go to Indore (119 kms. south-east) for meeting certain mystics and Sufis (Translator) 

2. A khalifa is a deputy nominated by the Shaikh to initiate the new aspirants into the 
mystical path; he is the initiating leader of a branch of an order (Translator) 



orphaned when still four years old and so his maternal uncle took him 
along with his mother 'to his own place. When he reached the age of 
discretion, his maternal uncle one day chided him for his inattention to 
education. Grieved at it, in A. H. 1279 he went to Lahore without having 
sought permission There he studied Urdu and Persian. From Lahore he 
went to Delhi and read the primary books of Arabic under the instruction 
of Hafiz Ghulam Rasul Viran. Then he went to Aligarh and joined the 
study circle run by Hazrat Mufti Lutf Allah. In Rampur he studied certain 
books under the instruction of Maulana Irshad Husain. At last the lure of 
the Dar al-Ulum drew him to Deoband. He was amongst the earliest 
students of the Dar al-Ulum. Here he lived five years, completed his study 
of the different sciences and graduated in A. H. 1288. 

In his student career itself he had acquired a distinguished position 
by dint of his God-given acuteness, his unusual diligence and effort in 
the acquisition of knowledge and academic ability. He had vowed 
allegiance to and received khilafat from Hazrat Nanautavi. In A. H. 1294, 
when Hazrat Nanautavi inaugurated a madrasah in the Hauzwali Masjid of 
Muzaffarnagar, he appointed Maulana Muhammad Murad as its first head- 
teacher. As such, later on, this madrasah came to be known as Madrasa-e 
Muradia and is still functioning. 

Maulana Muhammad Murad had devoted his whole life to teaching 
and to the maintenance and progress of the Madrasa-e Muradia. He had 
married in Muzaffarnagar itself in the family of the Baraha Sayyids. His 
masnad of teaching remained spread for forty years in the said madrasah. 
He expired exactly during the prayer-call of Friday on 3rd. Rajab, 
1332/1994, and was buried in the compound of Masjid-e Shah Islam in 
Muzaffarnagar. His youngest son, Maulavi Muhammad Rasheed Faridi, is 
married to Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib's eldest daughter, Fatima. 

7. MAULANA KHALIL AHMED ANBATHVI 

His native-place was Anbatha 1 ; and the year of his birth was 
1269/1852. His genealogical chain remounts to Hazrat Abu Ayyub Ansari. 
He was Ustar al-Asatiza Maulana Mamluk Ali's dauther's son and Maulana 

1. Anbatha is a historical village in Saharanpur district, situated to the south of 
Saharanpur on the road to Gangoh. It is said that Firoz Shah Tughlaq's (A- H. 752-790) 
commander-in-chief, Sa'd Allah Beg, had founded this village in A. H. 774. Anbatha is a 
habitation fertile in producing capable men. The population is composed of 
Shuyukh Siddiqi, Farouqi and Ansari families inhabit here. In the last phase of the 11th 
century hijri a saint from amongst the Chishti Shaikhs, Shah Abul Ma'ali, had settled down 
here. His hospice was a spring of graces and blessings. He died in A. H. 1113. Maulana 
Khahl Ahmed is among the progeny of Shah Abul Ma'ali's daughter. 



18 

Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi's sister's son. When he was five years old 
his august maternal grandfather performed his Bismillah ceremony 1 . He 
read the holy Quran in his native-place and learnt Urdu and Persian at 
Anbatha and Nanauta. After reading the primary books of Arabic under 
the instruction of his paternal uncle, Maulavi Ansar Ali (father of Maulana 
Abd Allah Ansari Anbathvi) and some books under Maulavi Sakhawat Ali, 
a famous religious divine of his village, he was put to a government 
school for reading English. The Dar al-Ulum had been established about 
the same time. Here his maternal uncle, Maulana Muhammad yaqub 
Nanautavi was head teacher. Hence in A. H. 1289 2 he was admitted to 
the Dar al-Ulum. At that time he used to read the Kafia. After having read 
Sharh-e Tehzib and other books in the Dar al-Ulum, he went to Madrasa 
Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur. After acquiring knowledge of Hadith, Tafsir, 
Fiqh, Beliefs, dialectics, etc. there, he returned to the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1289 and graduated from here after studying higher books of logic, 
philosophy, literature and history. During the period of study itself he 
committed the whole Quran to memory in one year and recited the 
mihrab 3 . 

After graduation from the Dar al-Ulum he was appointed as a teacher in 
Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur. At that time Maulavi Jamal al-Din was prime- 
minister (madar al-miham) in Bhopal state. This prime-minister wanted to 
appoint Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi in the state on a high salary 
but the latter did not like to leave the Dar al-Ulum. Thereafter, at the said 

1. A ceremony in the presence of some invitees when a small crjild is made to recite 
Bismillah Sharif as a prelude to the reading of the Quran (Translator) 

2. The date of his admission as stated in the Tazkirat al-Khalil, Tazkira-e Masha'ikh-e 
Deoband, etc. is A. H. 1283. Similarly there is no mention of the date of his graduation 
from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. But in the sanad awarded to him from the Dar al-Ulum it 
is stated as follows 

"Maulavi Khalil Ahmed, resident of Anbatha and grandson (nabisa) of the late 
lamented Maulana Maulavi Mamluk Ali was admitted to this madrasah in A. H. 1B85.At that 
time he used to study the Kafia In about one year's time he studied and acquired the 
knowledge of the following booVs : Kafia, Sharh-e Mulla Jami, Aisaghoji, Qala Aqul, 
Mizan-e Mantiq, Mirqat, Sharh-e Tehzib. Thereafter, by reason of its proximity to his 
native-place, he completed the prescribed books of Hadith, Tafsir, Usui, Beliefs, Rhetorics 
and Logic in the Madrasa-e Saharanpur. In A. H. 1289 he again came to this madrasah (Dar 
al-Ulum) and studied Mir Zahid's Risala, Shams-e Bazigha, Maqamat-e Haririr, Divan-e 
Mutanabbi and Himasa, and some portion of Tarikh-e yamini He has had the right 
aptitude, good memory, acuteness and proper affinity. 

His morals and manners are likable and disposition sober. As an assistant teacher he 
was also teaching some students; now he has left the madrasah for the sake of earning his 
livelihood". (Register Naqool-e Asnad, vol. i, p. 5; 23rd Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1289). 

3. The practice of reciting the whole Quran from memory in portions in the Taraveeh 
prayer during the holy month of Ramazan. (Translator) 



19 

prime-minister's insistence, Maulana Khalil Ahmed was sent there. But he 
felt out of his element in Bhopal and after some months went on pilgrim- 
age to Mecca. After his return from there Maulana Yaqub sent him to 
Bhawalpur. However, he again went for hajj in A. H. 1297. On this occa- 
sion Hazrat Gangohi with whom he had had allegiance wrote to Hazrat 
Haji Sahib Mahajir-e Makki that Maulavi Khalil Ahmed was approaching his 
august presence and he (Hazrat Gangohi) would be glad to know about 
his disciple's spiritual condition. When the Haji Sahib marked his internal 
condition, he was very much pleased and taking out the turban from his 
own head put it upon Maulana Khali I "s head, and then awarded him 
khilafat in writing. Later on Hazrat Gangohi also set his signature on this 
letter of permission. 

After Maulana Khalil returned from Mecca, Hazrat Gangohi appointed 
him as head-teacher in Madrasah Misbah al-Ulum, Bareilly. In A. H. 1308 he 
was appointed teacher in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and in A. H. 1314 he 
went from there to Madrasah Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, as principal 
(head-teacher). In A. H. 1325 he was selected as the administrator of this 
madrasah. During the last phase of his life, in A. H. 1344, he settled down 
in the illuminated Madina with the intention of emigration. 

Though he was a master of all the scholastic sciences, he was very 
much interested in Hadith. It was due to this ardour that he wrote a 
commentary on the Abu Da'ud which has been published under the title 
Bazl al-Majhud in five volumes. The Bazl al-Majhud is his opus magnum in 
the science of Hadith. Besides this there are several books to his credit. 
Bazl al-Majhud was begun in A. H. 1335 in Saharanpur and was comp- 
leted in A. H. 1346 in Madina. And with this the cup of his life too was 
filled up ; on 15th Rabi al-Sani, A. H. 1346, he died, of paralysis, in Madina; 
and lies in eternal sleep in the vicinity of Hazrat Usman Zin-Nurayn. 

8. HAZRAT SHAIKH AL-HIND MAULANA MAHMUD HASAN 

Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind is the first-ever student of the Dar al-Ulum. It is 
regarding him that it has been said that it was first of all Mahmud who 
opened the book before the teacher. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind was born in 
Bareilly, in 1268/1851. His august father, Maulana Zulfiqar Ali, was in the 
service of the government education department there. He received his 
primary education from his renowned scholar-uncle, Maulana Mehtab Ali. 
At the time he was studying Qaduri and Sharh-e Tehzib the Dar al-Ulum 
came into existence and he entered it. After completing the courses at 
the Dar al-Ulum, he acquired the science of Hadith under the tutorship 
of Hazrat Nanautavi' Some higher books of religious subjects he studied 



20 

under the instruction of his father. In 1290/1873 he received the 'turban of 
primacy' at the auspicious hands of Hazrat Nanautavp. During his student 
career itself he was counted among the distinguished pupils of Hazrat 
Nanautavi who used to show special affection to him. Accordingly, in view 
of his high academic and intellectual abilities the eyes of the authorities of 
the Dar al-Ulum fell upon him for a teachership and in 1291/1874 he was 
appointed as the fourth teacher from which post he gradually received 
promotions until, in 1308/1890, he reached the post of head-teacher. 

Like his external knowledge and accomplishments his esoteric 
knowledge also was very rich; he had received khilafat from Haji Imdad 
Allah Mahajir-e Makki. The head-teacher's salary in the Dar al-Ulum in those 
days was Rs. 75/- per month but he never accepted more than Rs. 50/- 
p.m.; the remaining Rs. 25/- he used to return to the funds of the Dar al- 
Ulum. Due to his prodigious academic personality the number of students 
had gone up from 200 to 600. During his time 860 students graduated in 
the Prophetic Hadith. The Shaikh al-Hind's educational benefaction 
prepared a group of famous and illustrious ulema like Maulana Sayyid 
Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi, Maulana 
Mansoor Ansari, Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani, Maulana Mufti Kifayat 
Allah Dehelvi, Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Ahmed, Maulana Muhammad 
Izar Ali Amrohi, Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Ball avi, Maulana Sayyid 
Manazir Ahsan Gilani (Allah's mercy be on all of them 0. 

Many talented, intelligent and sharp-witted students, having studied 
under different teachers, used to come to him,- after receiving adequate 
and final answers to their sceptical thoughts and hearing the meaning and 
sQpernal contents of the Quranic verses and the prophetic hadiths, they 
used to bow their heads in submission and acknowledge that such 
knowldge was not had by anyone and they had never seen such a 
research-scholar in the world. 

During the last part of his life when the Indian Muslims were very 
much agitated over the war between Tripoli and Balkan, the Shaikh al-Hind 
had worked out a scheme to make a short work of the British government's 
supremacy in India. It was the year 1330/1913. His plan was to overthrow 
the British government through armed revolution. He had drawn his prog- 
ramme in a very systematic manner for this. A large group of his pupils and 
confederates who were scattered in and outside India was busy 
enthusiastically, devotedly endeavouring to put his proposed plan into 
action. From amongst his pupils Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi and Maulana 
Mansoor Ansari and many other students had joined, devoting all their 

1. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, A. H. 1290, p. 10. 



21 

lives to the Shaikh al-Hind's political and revolutionary programme. The 
general idea prevailing then was that the Britishers' quitting India was not 
possible without force, for which arms and soldiers were required. For the 
supply of these requirements Afghanistan and Turkey had been selected. 

In order to make his scheme successful the Shaikh al-Hind, in spite of 
his old age, undertook a'journey to Hejaz (Arabia), in 1333/1915. There 
he met Ghalib Pasha, the Turkish governor, and Anwar Pasha, the then 
minister of war, and settled certain matters with them. From there he 
planned to reach Baluchistan via Baghdad to contact the free tribes of 
the North West Frontier Province, when, suddenly, during the first world 
war, the ruler of Mecca, Sherif Husam, arrested him at the instance of the 
English officials and handed him over to them. Along with the Shaikh al- 
Hind, Maulana Husain Ahmed Madam, Maulana Ozair Gul, Hakim Nusrat 
Husam and Maulana Waheed Ahmed were also arrested First he was 
taken to Egypt and then from there to Malta which was considered the 
safest place in the British empire for the prisoners of war. After the war 
was over, he was permitted to come to India and on 20th Ramazan, A. H. 
1338/1920 he stepped on the shore of Bombay. Though, after return from 
Malta, his health had deteriorated and old age had made his faculties 
weak, he vehemently took part in political affairs. The weak disposition, 
however, could not bear this heavy burden He fell ill. When his condi- 
tion became more alarming, he was taken to Delhi to be treated by Dr. 
Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari. Hakim Ajmal Khan also participated in treating 
him but the pre-destined hour had arrived. In the morning of 18th Rabi 
al-Awwal, A. H. 1336/1921, he passed away. The bier was brought to 
Deoband and on the next morning this repertory of knowledge and 
accdmplishments disappeared near the auspicious grave of Hazrat 
Nanautavi from the sight of the world'. 

9. MAULANA FAKHR AL-HASAN GANGOHI 

His native-place was Gangoh. Three of the disciples of Hazrat 
Nanautavi are very famous -Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan 
Deobandi, Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi and Maulana Fakhr al-Hasan 
Gangohi. He entered the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1284 and graduated from it 
n A. H. 1290 along with Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi. He used to remain 
n attendance on his teacher, Hazrat Nanautavi, both during his travels and 
n settled abode He was very much interested in polemics. He acquired 
education in the Unani System of Medicine from Hakim Mahmud 2 Khan in 

1. For detailed particulars about him, please see Ch. V 

2. He was Hakim Ajmal Khan's father and a great hakim of Delhi. Mirza Ghalib, the renowned 
Urdu poet who was his contemporary, wrote a moving elegy on his death (Translator) 



Delhi. His conversation and speech were very sweet and fascinating. 

After graduation, he was appointed head-teacher in A. H. 1294 in the 
madrasah at Khurja. Then he went to Madrasah Abd al-Rabb in Delhi. He 
published some of Hazrat Nanautavi's books. The Mubahasa-e Shah- 
jahanpur is of his compilation; its original manuscript is extant in the Dar 
al-Ulum. In Hadith he has written a scholium in detail on Abu Da'ud 
which is entitled Al-Taliq al-Mahmud. This scholium has been printed in 
Matba-e Majeedi, Kanpur, and is commonly current. Besides this, he has 
written a scholium on Ibn Maja also which had been printed at Nami 
Press, Kanpur. There is one scholium by him on Talkhis al-Miftah also. He 
had also written a detailed biography of his teacher, Hazrat Nanautavi, 
comprising more or less one thousand pages. 

Maulana Fakhr al-Hasan, due to some domestic necessities, had given 
up residence at Gangoh and had gone to Kanpur where he had settled 
down permanently and had started his medical practice. By chance his 
house there caught fire and along with other books the manuscript of the 
said biography also was reduced to ashes. He died in A. H 1315 at 
Kanpur and lies buried there. Detailed particulars about him are not 
available. 

10. MAULANA SIDDIQ AHMED ANBATHVI 

He was a paternal cousin (paternal uncle's son) of Maulana Khahl 
Ahmed. He entered the Dar al-Ulum along with the latter in A. H. 1283 
and graduated in A. H. 1292. For some time he worked as an assistant 
teacher in the Dar al-Ulum. His method of teaching was very easy and 
simple, accordingly, he used to make his pupils commit Nahv-e Mir to 
memory within a week. He had had consummate expertise in both the 
rational and the traditional sciences, having great mastery in grammar 
particularly. 

He served as teacher in Madrasah Manba al-Ulum, Gulaothi, and 
Madrasa-e Aaliya, Fatehpuri, Delhi. Later on the post of Ifta (fetwa-issuing) 
was given to him in the erstwhile Malerkotla state where he continued on 
the said post throughout his later life. He was counted amongst the 
famous fetwa-writers of the time. 

He traversed the stages of the spiritual path (suluk) and gnosis under 
the direction of Hazrat Gangohi, who had written him in one letter: "The 
real objective in traversing the spiritual path is Ihsan (constant awareness 
of Allah) and that by grace of Allah you have already achieved". This 
letter gives a clue to the spiritual stages he had attained. At last he 
received permission from Hazrat Gangohi to receive the vow of 



23 

allegiance (bai'ah) from others. He was amongst masters of allegiance 
and instruction Cirshad) and saintly persons possessing diving powers. 
His abstinence (zuhd) and piety (taqwa) were acknowledged by all. 
Amongst his contemporaries he was considered a master of spiritual 
secrets and mysteries. After the Shaikh al-Hind's demise, Maulana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib acquired esoteric training from him only. For a long 
time he acted as an examiner in the Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

The date of his death is 28th Safar, A. H. 1344. He died in the night 
preceding Friday and was laid to rest in Malerkotla. 

11. MAULANA ABD AL-QADEER DEOBANDI 

He was born at Deoband He was amongst the descendants of the 
famous saint of Deoband, Shah Ramz al-Din (d. A. H. 1122). He was 
admitted to the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1287 and acquired education from 
teachers like Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi, Maulana Sayyid 
Ahmed Dehelvi, Maulana Mahmud Hasan Deobandi, etc., and graduated 
in A. H. 1293. Then he read Hadith at Saharanpur under Maulana Ahmed 
Ali Saharanpuri's instruction. 

He was appointed as a corrector of the press in the Nawal Kishore 
Press, Lucknow. He has translated Allama Kamal at-Din Damiri's Hayat al- 
Haiwan, on zoology, into Urdu in two volumes; and it has been printed 
and published by the same press. 

He died in 1347/1918 in Lucknow and was buried there. 

12. MAULANA SAWID AHMED HASAN AMROHI 

He belonged to the celebrated family of Rizvi Sayyids of Amroha; 
amongst his ancestors, Hazrat Shah Abban was one of the Shaikhs of the 
Mughal emperor Akbar's period. He was born in 1267/1850. The primary 
education of Persian and Arabic he acquired from the high-ranking religi- 
ous divine of Amroha, Maulana Sayyid Rafat Ali, Maulana Karim Bakhsh and 
Maulana Muhammad Husain Ja'fri. The books of the Unani system of 
medicine (tibb) he studied under the instruction of the celebrated physi- 
cian of Amroha, Hakim Amjad Ali Khan. Thereafter, waiting in attendance 
upon Hazrat Nanautavi, he completed the study of Hadith and other arts 
and sciences and graduated in A. H. 1294. He secured permission for 
Hadith from Maulana Ahmed Ali Muhaddith Saharanpuri and Maulana Abd 
al-Qayyum Bhopali also and at last he went to the illuminated Madina and 
attained the honour of acquiring a sanad of Hadith. He had made a vow of 



allegiance to Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki 
and had also received khilafat from him. 

After graduation he first of all taught at the madrasah of Khurja and 
then served as head-teacher in different madrasahs of Sanbhal and Delhi. 
When the Madrasa-e Shahi was established at Moradabad in A. H. 1296 
at the proposal of Hazrat Nanautavi, he was made its head-teacher. In 
A. H. 1303 he resigned from this madrasah and re-organised an old 
madrasah in the Jam'e Masjid of his native place Amroha. This madrasah 
was in an ordinary condition formerly. He set it up in a regular manner 
and started the teaching of all the arts and sciences. Due to Maulana 
Amrohi's personality the madrasah was soon full with students from far 
and near. He built more buildings in the Jam'e Masjid for the madrasah; 
constructed a Dar al-Hadith, auditoriums, and rooms for teachers and the 
students, and thus he brought about the renaissance of the academic 
traditions of the old Amroha One of his peculiarities inter alia was that 
along with the science of religions he also used to teach the science of 
physiology. Many people acquired the education of Tibb from him and 
later on became competent physicians. As such, the reputed physician, 
Hakim Farid Ahmed Abbasi was one of his students. 

Maulana Amrohi's lecture used to be very comprehensive, fluent and 
pithy, which used to satisfy the students fully. In the art of lecturing he 
was a perfect specimen of his teacher and by virtue of his characteristic 
abilities, he was a depository and picture incarnate of the Qasimi 
sciences. All through his life he kept himself engaged in giving currency to 
the Qasimi sciences. His academic benefaction reached far and wide and 
hundreds of students became scholars through his lectures. The author of 
Tazkirat al-Karam, discussing about his method of teaching and the 
benefit of his lectures, writes :- 

"He used to teach all those sciences which are included in the educa- 
tional system of the Nizami Curriculum but he had had more engrossment 
in the teaching of Hadith, Tafsir and Fiqh. It was heard from his pupils that 
his lecture used to be so perspicuous and powerful that even the subtlest 
problems the students used to comprehend easily and the greatness of the 
subject used to instil into their minds'". 

Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, discussing Maulana Amrohi's 
versatility, has written :- 

1. Tazkirat al-Karam, with ref. to Mujalla-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband; Jamadi at Awwal, 
A. H. 1373, p. 44. 



25 

"Every man who may have even a little experience knows that there 
have been very few ulema who may have ability in each one of the 
branches of knowledge. For instance, those gentlemen who have 
proficiency in sermonising are not fully capable in teaching and those 
who are engaged in teaching find it difficult to deliver a sermon or 
lecture in a gathering; those engrossed in theology are often 
unacquainted with the rational sciences and philosophy and the experts 
in the noetics are usually unaware of the religious sciences But Divine 
Power, through its munificence, has combined all these qualities in a high 
degree in our Maulana. Maulana's speech, writing, perspicacity, erudition, 
morals and consummate skill in the rational and the traditional sciences 
were proverbial, the most appreciable and remarkable accomplishment of 
his was that he used to lecture upon Hazrat Qasim al-Ulum wal-Khairat's 
subtle and abstruse sciences in his very tone and style of expression with 
perspicuity and clarity 1 ". 

In the polemic at Nagma in 1322/1904 in which Maulana Sana Allah 
Amritsari had broken lance with the opponent, Maulana Amrohi had also 
delivered a speech which has been published under the caption Da'wat-e 
Islam in Ifadat-e Ahmediya. Divine Unity, Prophethood, Aim of Life and 
the characters of the Holy Prophet and his Companions have been dis- 
cussed in detail in this speech, in which the style of Hazrat Nanautavi's 
speeches is apparent. The effect of this speech was such that some 
neophyte Muslims in the gathering, after hearing this speech, remarked that 
if one should embrace the Islamic faith at any speech, it was this speech 

In A. H. 1329 it was under his chairmanship that the first meeting of 
the Mutamar al-Ansar was held at Moradab^d. He passed his whole life 
in teaching and lecturing, sermonising and advising, in enjoining the right 
conduct and forbidding indecency. To maintain the dignity of knowledge 
and the glory of religion, he used to live with great self-respect. A col- 
lection of his articles has been published under the title, Ifadat-e 
Ahmediya. He died during the night between 28th and 29th Rabi al- 
Awwal, A. H. 1330; of plague. Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed led the 
funeral service, and he was laid to rest in the southern corner of the 
courtyard of the Jam'e Masjid of Amroha. Just a little before breathing his 
last, he delivered a sermon lying down. When the soul took to flight from 
the elemental cage, his tongue was uttering the following words :- 

Subhan Allah-e wa be-Hamdihe Subhan Allahil Azeem". 

1. Mujalla Al-Qasim, Rabi a\ Sani, A. H, 1330 



The madrasah which Maulana Amrohi had re-established in the Jam'e 
Masjid of Amroha is still functioning. 

13. MAULANA ABD AL-ALI MEERUTHI 

He was amongst the most well-guided disciples of Hazrat Nanautavi. His 
native place was Abdullahpur in Meerut district 1 . He graduated in A. H. 
1294 from the Dar al-Ulum along with Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi and 
was appointed as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum where he remained till A. H. 
1297. Then he was appointed first teacher in Madrasa-e Shahi of Moradabad 
where he stayed upto A. H. 1306. Thereafter he went to Madrasah Abd 
al-Rabb in Delhi as head-teacher and taught Hadith in this, madrasah for a 
long time. In abstinence (zuhd), piety (taqwa) and abstemiousness he was 
sui generis Till his last breath he never missed the first row in the congrega- 
tional prayer. In the last phase of his life he had been disabled by paralysis 
and could not move. Hence the disciples used to lift his bedding on which 
he used to sit and put it in the first row. The circle of his disciples was very 
large which included such personalities as Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi and 
Mufti Kifayat Allah Dehelvi. Hazrat Thanvi used to go regularly to attend the 
annual functions of Madrasa-e Abd al-Rabb. When Hazrat Thanvi was disab- 
led from travelling, Maulana Abd al-Ali used to invite Maulana Muhammad 
Tayyib regularly for delivering a lecture on this occasion. Maulana Shabbir 
Ahmed Usmani often used to quote his saying: "Be Qasimi! Don't remain 
hungry and in tattered clothes. Look at this crippled old man. Neither can I 
stand up nor sit and yet providence is so plentiful that my cell is always full 
of all sorts of bounties". 

' He passed his entire life in the service of Hadith. His funeral procession 
was so multitudinous as if the whole of Delhi had disembogued. 

14. MAULANA HAKIM RAHIM ALLAH BIJNORI 

He was a resident of Bijnor. His father, Maulana Aleem Allah, who was an 
excellent religious doctor of his time, had studied at Delhi under Maulana 
Mamluk Ali Nanautavi and was a companion of Hazrat Maulana Muhammad 
Qasim Nanautavi. 

1 . Mis ancestral home was at Shaikhupura, Dist. Meerut. He was a descendant of Baba Farid 
al-Din Ganj-e Shakar Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi who had read Maqamat-e Hariri, Saba 
Muallaqa and a part of Nasai under him had great respect for him, and used to experience a 
particular spiritual feeling when he sat near him. Vide Al-Furqan (Lucknow), Oct -Nov , 1980 
issue, p 33. (Translator) 



27 

Hakim Rahim Allah was amongst the well-guided students of Hazrat 
Nanautavi's last period. He had had a very affectionate relation with his 
teacher in whose praise he has written many Arabic qasidas. He comp- 
leted the course of studies in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H 1295. He 
had studied logic, philosophy, scholastic theology and mathematics earlier 
under Maulana Abd al-Ali Rampuri. The books of Tibb he studied under 
the instruction of Hakim Ibrahim Lakhnavi with whom he stayed for a long 
time in Lucknow. He used to practise medicine at home and had taken to 
this profession as a service to humanity. He was a saintly possessor of 
nisba (spiritual link or kinship) and was keeping regular hours in his 
observance of the spiritual practices. 

He had had special mastery in Beliefs, Dialectics and Polemics. In these 
sciences he has had to his credit about a dozen books in Arabic and Per- 
sian. He was a consistent man, very regular in reciting his awrad (litanies) 
and waza'if (daily offices). During his pilgrimage-journey to Mecca he had 
vowed allegiance to Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki. 

Hakim Sahib died on Friday, August 14, 1919 (A. H. 1347). He had 
been completely bed-ridden due to his disease He said the Zuhr prayer 
sitting and with the saying of the 'peace' the soul left the body. 

Maulana Marghub al-Rahman, a member of the Majlis-e Shura, Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, is a national and communal leader and an influential 
personality of Bijnor. He is one of the sons of the late Hakim Sahib. 

■The titles of the books written by Hakim Sahib are as under : - 
1. Al-lqtesad fi al-Zuad 2. Tehdid al-Munkirin le-Qudrat-e Rabbil- 
Alimin. 3. Izhar al-Haqiqah. 4. Al-Kafi lil-i'teqad al-Safi. 5. Ibtal-e 
Usui al-Shi'a be-Dala'il-il 'Aqliyyah wal-Naqliyyah. 6. Jawabat al- 
i'terazat al-Wahiyyah. 7. Ahsan al-Kalam fi Usul-e 'Aqa'id al-lslam 
8. Zajr al-Mafa le-Kashf Itted'a an Wajh al-Wajub wal-lmten'a. 9 Isbat 
al-Qudrat al-llahiyyah be-lqamat al-Hujjat al-llhamiyyah. 

15. MULANA MANSOOR ALI KHAN MORADABADI 

He hailed from Moradabad. He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1295 and was one of the renowned religious doctors of India. He was a 
disciple of Hazrat Nanautavi with whom he lived for a long time. Then in 
A. H. 1293 he acquired the science of Hadith from Maulana Ahmed Ali 
Saharanpuri and went to the Deccan. He was appointed as a teacher in the 
Jamia Tibbia, Hyderabad. There he put up for a long time and in the end 



went to the holy Mecca and acquired the felicity of making it his second 
homeland. 

Three of his books are available - 

1) Mazhab-e Mansoor (2 vols), 2) Fath al-Mubin and 3) Mai'yar 
al-Adwiyah. 

He died in the holy Mecca in A. H. 1337. 

16. MAULANA MUFTI AZIZ AL-RAHMAN 

The year of his birth is A. H. 1275. His chronogrammatic name was 
Zafar al-Din. His father's name was Maulana Fazl al-Rahman. In the end of 
A. H. 1284, when a class for the memorising of the holy Quran was started 
in the Dar al-Ulum, the young Zafar al-Din was admitted to it and in A. H. 
1287, at the age of 12 years, he had committed the whole Quran to 
memory 1 . The teacher of this class then was Hafiz Namdar Khan. 

In A. H. 1295 he took the examination for Bukhari Sharif, Muslim Sharif 
and Sharh-e Aqa'id, and graduated from the Dar al-Ulum. The teachers of 
the Dar al-Ulum then were Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi, Maulana 
Sayyid Ahmed Dehelvi, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and Maulana Abd al-Ali (may 
Allah be merciful to all of them I). In the convocation of A. H. 1298 the 
sanad and the turban were awarded to him at the auspicious hands of 
Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. 

.After graduation he served as an assistant teacher for some time in the 
Dar al-Ulum and also rendered the service of fetwa-writing under the 
supervision of the Dean, Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi. Then he 
was sent to Meerut where he taught for many years in the Madrasa-e 
Islamiya, Inderkot. In A. H. 1309 the authorities of the Dar al-Ulum selected 
him for the post of pro-vice-chancellor. After one year he was appointed 
mufti and teacher. It is stated in the Report for A. H. 1333 :- 

"Maulavi Aziz al-Rahman, after graduation, taught in the Dar al-Ulum as 
an assistant teacher and also did the work of fetwa-writing under Maulana 
Muhammad Yaqub's supervision. During this period he entertained a 
desire for the Path; so he vowed allegiance in the Naqshbandiyyah order 
at the hands of Maulana Rafi' al-Din, the second vice-chancellor of the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. After some years of self-mortification (riyazat) and 
'striving' along the mystical Path (mujahada), he received permission of 

1, Rudad-c Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, A. H. 1287, p. 13. 



29 

the order (to make murids). For some years he worked as a teacher in the 
Madrasa-e Islamiya, situated at Inderkot in Meerut. During this period he 
again had a desire to go for hajj. The aim in this journey, besides the hajj, 
was also to wait in attendance on the Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Hazrat Haji 
Imdad Allah. As such, he spent one and a half years in this journey, and 
Haji Sahib also was pleased to make him competent (majsz 1 ). He had 
embarked on this journey in Shawwal, A. H. 1305, and returned in Safar, 
A. H. 1307. In A. H. 1309 he was called back to Deoband from Meerut. 
Since then he is continuously busy in serving the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 
He is now the Mufti of the madrasah but some lessons of Hadith, Tafsir 
and Fiqh are also assigned to him 2 . 

Mufti Aziz al-Rahman used to write the answers of greatly important 
and momentous queries (istafta) off-hand and unceremoniously, without 
referring to books For nearly forty years he rendered this great service 
to the Dar al-lfta of the Dar al-Ulum. In this long period he wrote many 
such difficult fetwas that they are not merely fetwas but are of the nature 
of adjudgement in controversial cases, but he used to write these answers 
in a few words only. The post of the Dar al-lfta used to be with him even 
during journeys and he used to write fetwas informally through sheer acu- 
men, expertise and consummate ability. The explicit texts of Fiqh he 
mostly remembered by heart A great peculiarity of his fetwas is that 
besides being brief they are also easily intelligible; the language of the 
fetwas is easy and fluent, a feature which is not to be found in the fetwas 
of this era 

Among the Shara'i sciences, fetwa-wnting is a very difficult task — 
almost an egg-dance. The learned alone can appreciate the delicate points 
that crop up in this task by the change of circumstances. Ordinary fetwas 
have been written in every period but the consummate skill and expertise 
possessed by Mufti Aziz al-Rahman was shared by only three men in the 
Deoband group : Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, Mufti Sahib himself 
ana Maulana Mufti Kifayat Allah Dehelvi. Another great peculiarity of Mufti 
Aziz al-Rahman's fetwa-wnting was also this that he never overlooked the 
zeitgiest and the demands of the time in which he used to have deep 
insight. If there could be two decidabie aspects of a proposition 
(mas'ala), on such occasions he used to adopt the easy aspect and would 
issue the fetwa on it only, never adopting that aspect which would create 
difficulties for the masses. Examples of this feature and acumen are pre- 
sent at many a place in his fetwas. 

Mufti Aziz al-Rahman was not only a religious divine and mufti but he 

1. Permission for making murids. 2 Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, A. H. 1333, p. 19. 



30 

was also a gnostic and one of the great masters of the esoteric science. 
The practice of accepting allegiance and giving spiritual guidance also was 
constantly current; thousands of the slaves of Allah benefitted through his 
esoteric 'initiation' (talqin) and training and reached their goals. 

"Khatm-e Khwajagan" 1 ("The Seal of the Masters") is among the 
famous practices of the Naqshbandi order. This was recited daily regularly 
after the pre-dawn prayer in Mufti Sahib's mosque (which is known as 
Chhoti Masjid in Deoband). Along with this he had had an intense senti- 
ment of serving the people; he used to bring without ado goods from the 
bazar for the helpless and needy women. 

Erudition and the throwing of light on academic minutiae during 
lessons were over and above these practical 'strivings'. Along with fetwa- 
writing the work of teaching was always carried on in which higher lessons 
of Fiqh, Hadith and Tafsir were given. He would never ascribe great and 
important disquisitions, which used to be the product of his own 
penetrating mind, to himself nor express them in an assertive manner. He 
got little chance of writing independent books. He translated the Jalalayn 
Sharif into Urdu and, as desired by his disciple, Maulana Qazi Bashir al- 
Din, proprietor of Mujtabai Press, Meerut, he wrote a scholium on Shah 
Abd al-Aziz Dehelvi's treatise Mizan al-Balagha. 

Mufti Sahib had also resigned from the Dar al-Ulum along with Maulana 
Anwar Shah Kashmiri. In A. H. 1347 when Shah Sahib, due to illness, came 
back from Dabhel to Deoband, he had left fourteen portions of the Bukhari 
Sharif unfinished. At the insistence of the authorities of the Jamia Islamiya, 
Dabhel (Dist. Surat, Gujarat), Mufti Sahib went to Dabhel in the middle of 
Rabi al-Sani, A. H. 1347, started the lessons and completed all the fourfeen 
portions within the shortest possible period of one and a half months. 

In the beginning of Jamadi al-Sani he returned to Deoband. He had 
fallen ill on the way. Treatment was begun on his reaching Deoband but 
there was no relief. The ordained time had come. At last, on the night of 
17th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1347, he expired. Next day at 10-00 a. m. 

1. The prayer-sequence obligatory upon Naqshbandi initiates, recited after the 'asr, isha 
and subh prayers, consisting of the following with the minimum repetitions : (15 istighfar : 
7 times, (2) tasliya -.1 times, (3) sura Fatiha -.7 times, (4) sura Inshirah (xciv):9 times, 
(5) sura Ikhlas (cxii):9 times, (6) tasliya :once, (7) prayer embodying the silsila of the 
tariqa (once). 

This is what Prof. 1. Spencer Tringham, the Near East School of Theology, Beirut, Lebanon, 
has given in his 'The Sufi Orders in Islam', (Oxford University Press, New York, 1969), But 
there are other variations also. (Translator) 



Maulana Sayyid Asshar Husain led the funeral prayer and at 11-00 a.m. he 
was laid to rest in the Qasimi cemetry. 

17. MAULANA HAKIM MUHAMMAD HASAN DEOBANDI 

He was Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan Deobandi's younger 
brother. From the- beginning to the end of his student career he studied 
at the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and graduated from there in A. H. 1295. 
Thereafter he studied the Unani system of medicine at Delhi under the 
instruction of Hakim Abd al-Majeed Khan and also acquired the honour 
of vowing allegiance to Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. 

In A. H. 1302 he was appointed in the Dar al-Ulum as an Arabic 
teacher and physician and was assigned the work of teaching and run- 
ning the clinic. Besides teaching Tibb to the students, he was al- 
soresponsible for treating them medically. Along with this his quantum of 
work included higher books of Tafsir, Hadith and Fiqh also. It is stated 
about him in the report for the year A. H. 1333 - 

"The Dar al-Ulum was in need of a religious divine who, besides the 
curricular subjects, might also teach Tibb and when required give medi- 
cal treatment to the students. Under this necessity he was appointed in 
A. H. 1302 and since then he has been continuously busy in teaching all 
kinds of prescribed books and also teaches Tibb and serves in the clinic. 

"He is one of the favourite companions and attendants of Maulana 
Gangohi, firmly maintaining the predecessors' method academically and 
practically. The teaching of the books of Tibb and treating sick students 
is his permanent work, but along with this the teaching of higher classes 
in the science of Hadith, Tafsir and Fiqh also concerns him". 

18. MAULANA NAZIR HASAN DEOBANDI 

He hailed from the Usmani family of Deoband. He prosecuted his 
studies in the Dar al-Ulum from A. H. 1287 to A. H. 1296. He studied 
Hadith under the instruction of Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi and 
acquired the knowledge of the books of Hadith from Maulana Ahmed All 
Muhaddith Saharanpuri also. The 'turban' was conferred on him along 
with Maulana Thanvi in A. H. 1301. He was an excellent divine. Firstly he 
taught for some time in the madrasah at Chhatari and then became head- 
teacher in Madrasa-e A'liya, Dacca. He breathed his last in Dacca on 1st 
Zil-hijja, 1341/1923; his grave is also there. He was attached to the 



Naqshbandi order. 

On qirat al-imam (the reciting of the Quran behind the imam) he 
wrote a book entitled Al-Furqan fi Qir'at-e Umm al-Quran. The title of 
another book of his is Kashf al-Ghita 'an Mas'alat al-Riba. In appearance 
he was handsome and in behaviour a jurisprudent- Mention of him has 
been made in Nuzhat al-Khwatir, vol. viii. 

19. MAULANA ABD AL-RAHMAN AMROHI 

Approximately, the year of his birth is A. H. 1277. He was born in- 
Bombay, memorised the holy Quran in Mecca and also received his prim- 
ary education there. He acquired the sciences from Mauiana Ahmed Ha- 
san Amrohi. At the end of his educational career he studied some les- 
sons of Tafsir and Hadith under the instruction of Hazrat Nanautavi. Due 
to having acquired the academic graces of both these august men, in the 
lessons of Tafsir and Hadith the dialectical style was dominant in him. 
During his teaching career he was a matchless person of the time in 
imparting the knowledge of every religious art and science, particularly 
scholastic theology and beliefs. He frequently used to quote references 
from Hazrat Nanautavi's sciences and acquirements. 

He was amongst the last batch of Hazrat Nanautavi's students. He had 
specialised distinctively in Tafsir. He spent sixty years in the service of 
the religious sciences at Madrasa-e Shahi, Moradabad, Bombay, Jamia-e 
Islamia, Dabhel, and Madrasa-e Islamia, Amroha. He was one of the dis- 
tinguished ulema of Hadith and Fiqh. There was one scholium of his on 
Tafsir-e Baizavi,- he wrote scholia on Mutawwal and Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani 
also. He had had permission from Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Haji Imdad Allah 
for receiving the vow of allegiance. He went to glory at the age of 90 
years on 22nd Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1367, and lies in enternal sleep near 
his teacher Mauiana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi. 

20. HAZRAT MAULANA ASHRAF ALI THANVI 

The year of his birth is A. H. 1280. His chronogrammatic name was 
Karam-e Azeem. He hailed from the Farouqi Shaikhs of Thana Bhavan. He 
committed the holy Quran to memory under the instruction of Hafiz 
Husain Ali. The primary books of Persian and Arabic he studied under the 
tutorship of Mauiana Fateh Muhammad Thanvi, who was amongst the 
earliest graduates of the Dar al-Ulum. At the end of A. H. 1295 he took 
admission in the Dar al-Ulum for completing the courses of the religious 



sciences and graduated in A. H. 1299. He practised cantillation and 
orthoepy (tajvid and qir'at) at Mecca under the guidance of Qan 
Muhammad Abd Allah 1 . 

The signs of geist were apparent from his childhood. He first became 
a head-teacher in Madrasa-e Faiz A'm at Kanpur in A. H. 1301 and then 
graced the masnad of principalship in Madrasa-e Jam'e al-Ulum. Hearing 
about the fame of his teaching of Hadith at Kanpur, students used to 
flock to him from far off places. Resigning from service in A. H. 1305, he 
took abode in Khanqah-e Imdadiya 2 at Thana Bhavan, where, trusting in 
Allah, for 47 years, till his last breath, he rendered such valuable services 
in the preaching of religion, self-purgation and the writing of books that 
an example thereof is not found in any personality of this period. His 
knowledge was very vast and very profound the proof of which can be 
furnished by every page of his books. There is no branch of religion in 
which his books may not be extant. In respect of the prolificacy of books 
and their utility he has had no rival and parallel amongst the Indian 
authors. The number of his big and small books comes to nearly 350; 
over and above these, more than 300 of his sermons have also been 
published. There must be very few such houses of educated Muslims in 
the subcontinent in which Hazrat Thanvi's one or the other book may not 
be available. Amongst these the state of popularity of his Bihishti Zewar 
is such that every year it is printed in thousands from different places 
and is sold off like hot cakes. There will be absolutely no exaggeration if 
it is asserted that no other book in the Urdu language is published in 
such large numbers. It has been translated into many languages, including 
Ehglish. A very wonderful and distinctive characteristic of Hazrat Thanvi 
is also this that he never earned a single paisa from his books. The rights 

1 The earliest expert in cantillation in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, Qari Abd al-Waheed, 
was a pupil of the same Qari Abd Allah's pupil, Qari Abd al-Rahman. Qari Abd Allah was 
a teacher in Madrasa-e Saulatiya at Mecca. 

2. Khanqah-e imdadiya is not the name of any regular, independent building, in the 
north-west of Thana Bhavan there is a mosque which was incipiently known as Pi r 
Muhammad Wall Masjid. To the south of this mosque there was a 3-doored construction 
having a cloister. Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Haji Imdad Allah had made this mosque his abode 
from where he used to dispense grace ta the aspirants. This is the very same Khanqah 
(hospice) where preparations for jihad against the English had been made — as has been 
detailed in the foregone. Later on, due to Haji Sahib's connection with it, it came to be 
know as Khanqah-e Imdadiya. The famous religious divine of Thana Bhavan, Maulana 
Shaikh Muhammad, also used to reside in the same mosque. 

Hazrat Hakim al-Ummat also caused to flow the rivers of shati'at and tariqat from this 
very Khanqah and for nearly half a century his graces remained current from here. 



of printing of all of his books were public; anyone who so desired could 
print and publish them. His translation of the holy Quran is very simple, 
easy and scholarly. In Tafsir his Bayan al-Quran 1 is a srand achievement; 
similarly, in Hadith the enormous stock of adducible hadiths of the Ha- 
nafite Fiqh he has arranged in A'la al-Sunan is his opus magnum and is 
sui generis. 

Hazrat Thanvi was Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Haji Imdad Allah's authorized 
person (majaz) and spiritual successor (khalifa). The circle of his 
allegiance and esoteric guidance is very wide; thousands of persons in 
and outside the subcontinent received edification and training from him. 
Accordingly, he had become immensely famous by the cognomen Hakim 
al-Ummat. Millions of individuals derived educational and practical 
benefits from his books and predicatory lectures. The example of such a 
large number of rank and file as well as men of light and leading who 
benefitted from him through allegiance and esoteric instruction will be 
hard to come by. His sublimity and loftiness can be estimated from the 
fact that a coterie of the greatest of the great men of learning and accom- 
plishments and possessors of merits was included in the gamut of 
allegiance to him. Endowed with superior qualities his being was such a 
headspring of knowledge and wisdom, gnosis and mystical system that 
the Muslims of the subcontinent continued to assuage themselves from it 
for half a century. There is no branch of religion in which his great 
services in the form of predicatory speeches and writings may not be 
conspicuous. In the words of Maulana Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi - 

"In his effort for reforming the ummah he kept an eye upon every 
corner of educational and practical life; from the young to the old, from 
the womenfolk to the menfolk, from the ignorant to the learned, from the 
hoi polloi to the sufis, dervishes and ascetics, from the poor to the rich, 
he kept all in view for reforming and training. His eyes fell on the particu- 
lars of births, marriages, sorrow and other occasions and gatherings, and, 
testing them on the criterion of the shari'ah, he separated the genuine 

1. Today (24th November, 1979) a friend from Surat, Abd al-Hafeez Maniar, who had 
come along with my brother-in-law, Maulana Muhammad Imran Khan Nadvi Azhari 
Bhopali, to pay a visit to me told me that an Englishman had asked Hazrat Thanvi 
wonderingly why he had not taken copyright on this book. The worldly-wise would 
surely be agape with wonder why Hazrat Thanvi or the contemporary Shaikh al-Hadith 
Maulana Zakariya did not reserve the rights of publication of their books; had they done 
so, they and their heirs would have certainly become not millionaires but multi- 
millionaires, but true success, according to them, is not fullness of coffers with lucre but 
it is achievement of divine pleasure. A very lofty ideal, indeed I (Translator), 



35 

from the spurious. Removing every block and stone of customs, innovations 
and crying evils, he showed the straight path. From the vantage-point of the 
criterion of the shari ah wherever he percieved any shortcoming in preach- 
ing, education, politics, social life, morals, devotions and beliefs he 
corrected it. To his own satisfaction he made full provisions regarding the 
modern jurisprudential propositions and the modern needs of the Muslims, 
and particularly renovated Ahsan and Suluk the famous name of which is 
Tasawwuf The correct image of religion was before him ; according to it 
wherever there were drawbacks and flaws in the picture of the present-day 
life of the Muslims, he remained engrossed throughtout his life in correcting 
them. He spent all his life in this that he make the Muslims' life in accord- 
ance with that likeness which is seen in the album of true religion". 

Allah Most High had endowed him with the virtue of magnanimity also 
along with contentment. This writer has heard from his own father, who was 
one of Hazrat Thanvi's chums, the incident of the latter's stay in Kanpur. 
Since the people are generally not aware of this incident, it seems necessary 
to mention it here. The incident was this that Hazrat Thanvi used to get Rs. 
25/- as salary from the Jam'e al-Ulum and out of this meagre amount he 
used to give Rs. 5/- to my father to spend it on students as per his liking, 
with the insistence that no one should know as to who the donor was. It 
was a secret matter which no one knew except my father during Hazrat 
Thanvi's lifetime. My father, mentioning Hazrat Thanvi's virtues, related it to 
me after his demise. 

Hazrat Hakim al-Ummat's life was very orderly. Hours were fixed for all 
works and every work used to be done as per schedule. Many letters of 
adherents (mutawassilirO used to come and he would answer each in his 
own hand as per the time-table. 

He bid adieu to this mortal world at Thana Bhavan on the night of 16th 
Rajab, A. H. 1362. He was buried in Thana Bhavan, near the grave of Hafiz 
Zamin Shaheed, in his own garden which he had endowed in the name of 
the Khanqah-e Imdadiya. 

21. MAULANA ABD AL-MOMIN DEOBANDI 

He was a member of the distinguished educated family of the Usmani 
Shaikhs of Deoband and was a brother-in-law of Shaikh al-Hind Mauiana 
Mahmud Hasan. He entered the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1292 and 
completed the Daura-e Hadith under Mauiana Muhammad yaqub in 
A. H. 1299. In the fourth convocation held in A. H. 1301 he received the 



'turban of phimacy', along with Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, from the auspici- 
ous hands of Hazrat Gangohi. 

At the desire of the people of Meerut he went there and spent his whole 
life in teaching and in writing fetwas. First he became head-teacher in 
Madrasa-e Qaumia and then in Madrasa-e Imdad al-Ulum at Sadar in Meerut. 

He was a very intelligent, sharp-witted and versatile scholar. During the 
last phase of his life the higher books of Hadith, Fiqh and Tafsir were at the 
tip of his tongue. He used to lecture in a brief, concise and cogent 
manner — just in the style of his teacher, Maulana Muhammad yaqub. He 
was also a man of nisba (spiritual connection). His lifestyle was imbued 
with resignation to the Divine Will. Great academic benefit issued from him 
in Meerut. Maulana Ashiq llahi Meeruthi, the translator of the holy Quran, 
studied under him from the first to the last. Maulana Izaz Ali Amrohi and 
Maulana Siraj Ahmed Meeruthi were also his disciples. Maulana Qazi Zayn 
al-Abidin Sajjad Meeruthi too had had the honour of being his disciple. He 
used to be the examiner of the Hadith classes of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

In A- H. 1347 he died at Delhi where he was staying in connection with 
medical treatment and was buried in the Dargah (shrine) of Hazrat Khwaja 
Baqi Billah. 

22. MAULANA HAKIM JAMEEL AL-DIN 

His native place was Nagina (District Bijnor). He prosecuted his studies 
at the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, from A. H. 1298 to A. H. 1299. He was one 
of the famous physicians of Delhi and examiner in the Tibbia College, 
Delhi. He was also a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, for a long time. Along with the busy schedule of medical 
practice he was very regular in saying his daily offices (awrad and 
waza'if), and was a saintly man devoted to the remembrance of Allah and 
spiritual occupation (shaghl). His knowledge was very deep-rooted and 
mature. Initially he resided at Ghazipur and then settled down at Delhi. 

He was a teacher of Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi. For some time 
he served as teacher in the madrasah at Jaunpur. Along with his proficiency 
in the religious sciences he had had great skill in the Unani system of 
medicine also, which he had studied under the instruction of Hakim Abd 
al-Majeed Khan Dehelvi. The renowned Hakim Ajmal Khan was one of his 
disciples. Throughout his life he taught the religious sciences and the said 
system of medicine. 



He left this perishable world on 18th Safar, A. H. 1355; after having 
said the Tahajjud prayer (the midnight devotions). 

The Siddiqi Dawakhana in Delhi is his relic which is being run at present 
under the supervision of his eldest son, Maulana Hakim Abd al-Jalil. 

23. MAULANA HAFIZ MUHAMMAD AHMED DEOBANDI 

Hafiz aahib was Hazrat Nanautavi's well-guided son. He was born at 
Nanauta in 1279/1862. After he had memorised the Quran, his father sent 
him to Gulaothi (District Buland Shahr), for his primary eucation in 
Madrasah Manbal al-Ulum, which Hazrat Nanautavi himself had established 
there. His brother-in-law (sister's husband), Maulana Abd Allah Anbathvi 
was a teacher in that madrasah. Thereafter, for further studies, he was sent 
to Moradabad to read in the Madrasa-e Shahi, where Hazrat Nanautavi's 
well-guided disciple, Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi used to teach. After 
having read books of different religious arts and sciences under his 
instruction, he came to Deoband and became a pupil of Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hind. He read some lessons of the Tirmizi Sharif under Hazrat Muhammad 
yaqub in A H. 1300. For the Daura-e Hadith he went to Gangoh and com- 
pleted it in the circle of teaching of Hazrat Gangohi, and studied Jalalayn 
and Baizavi there. In 1303/1885 he was appointed as a teacher in the Dar 
al-Ulum and thus got the chance of teaching different arts and sciences. 
When Haji Muhammad Abid retired from vice-chancellorship in 1310/1892, 
the vacant post changed hands twice but neither of the two could manage 
the affairs for more than one year each. As this yearly change in vice- 
chancellorship proved disturbing to the administration, in 1313/1895, 
Hazrat Gangohi selected Hafiz Sahib for this post. With an impressive and 
dignified personality, Hafiz Sahib was ■ a capable and efficient 
administrator. He brought the management of the Dar al-Ulum under con- 
trol within a short time and proved able to the fullest degree of fulfilling 
the expectations held of him at the time of his appointment. Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind was dean (or principal) as well as Hafiz Sahib's own teacher and 
yet used to give more importance to his disciple for being his own 
teacher's son and used to sit respectfully before him in the administrative 
office. 

The Dar al-Ulum, during his tenure of office, progressed immensely 
both internally and externally, such as it had not done earlier. Although the 
Dar al-Ulum had essentially developed into a university, in respect of the 
external form and shape of its buildings, it changed from a madrasah into a 
university during his vice-chancellorship only. Different departments and 



38 

offices were organised and there was an unusual augmentation in its 
domain of influence also. Briefly speaking, the Dar al-Ulum kept advancing 
in every respect; accordingly, his 35-year tenure of office is considered a 
very bright and golden chapter of advancements and progress in the 
history of the Dar al-Ulum. 

The magnificent building of the Dar al-Hadith, the first of its kind in 
India, was built during his regime. Similarly, the building of the new 
hostel known as Dar al-Jadid and the construction of the mosque and the 
library-building too are a memorial of his time. The memory of that grand 
convocation held in 1328/1910 in which more than one thousand 
graduates had been awarded turbans and which had been organised 
under his management is still fresh in the minds of the people. 

He had been awarded the title of "Shams al-Ulama" by the then 
Government of India but on account of the liberty- loving cult of the Dar 
al-Ulum he did not like to be a titled person of the British government 
and returned the title after some time. 

The quantum of teaching-work he had undertaken from the beginning 
did not cease even during his vice-chancellorship; he used to teach 
books like Mishkat al-Masabih, Jalalayn Sharif, Sahih-e Muslim, Ibn 
Maja, Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani, Mir Zahid's Risala, etc. very eagerly and regu- 
larly. His lecture used to be very clear, coherent and precise. He had had 
great command over his august father's sciences and subjects. 

In 1347/1928 the Nizam of the Deccan, Mir Osman Ah Khan, was 
expected to come to Delhi. In order to remind the Nizam of his promise 
to pay a visit to Deoband, he went to Hyderabad. After reaching there he 
fell ill. So, with the intention of returning, he started back from 
Hyderabad but while the train was still in the precincts of Hyderabad he 
breathed his last near the Nizamabad railway station and answered the 
saying ■, "He who died in journey is a martyr". 

This incident occurred on 3rd Jamadi al-Ula, 1347/1928. At the 
Nizam's telegraphic order the bier was taken to Hyderabad, and, next 
day, on 4th Jamadi al-Ula, at Nizam's own personal expense, he was 
buried in a special graveyard known as "Khitta-e Saulihin", where distin- 
guished personalities of Hyderabad, Sufi Shaikhs and nobles are buried. 

He served the Dar al-Ulum for 45 years: the initial ten years in teach- 
ing and 35 years in functioning as vice-chancellor. 



24. MAULANA HABIB AL-RAHMAN DEOBANDI 

He was the eldest son of Maulana Fazl al-Rahman. He studied from the 
first to the last in the Dar al-Ulum and graduated in A. H. 1300. He was a 
polymath and a great litterateur in the Arabic language. His management 
and administration is considered proverbial in the history of the Dar al- 
Ulum; his services and God-given qualities have had a great part in the 
progress of the institution. 

In 1325/1097, due to Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed's preoccupa- 
tions and jeurneys, and also with a view to develop the Dar al-Ulum, the 
Majlis-e Shura was feeling the need of an able and competent 
administrator who might lend a hand to Hafiz Sahib in the administrative 
affairs and the schemes of development. For this there was none more 
suitable in the eyes of the Majlis than him. Accordingly, despite his declin- 
ing, he was obliged and entrusted with the post of pro-vice-chancellor. It 
is said that it was a stroke of luck for the Dar al-Ulum that it obtained the 
services of a vigilant administrator and sincere man like Maulana Habib al- 
Rahman Usmani. He was so enthusiastic in the administrative work that 
much of the time of day and night used to be occupied with these works 
only, so much so that he used to live in the administrative office itself and 
died also there. He had so organised and streamlined the administrative 
and managerial departments of the Dar al-Ulum that when Nawab Sadr yar 
Jung Bahadur came to Deoband on behalf of the Asafyah state to audit the 
accounts of the Dar al-Ulum, he was surprised to see that vouchers and 
receipts of even as paltry a sum as one and two annas were present in the 
file in a regular order. Nawab Sadr Yar Jung's statement was that there was 
no paper which was asked for and was not immediately presented. The 
progress in respect of planning and administration during Hafiz Sahib's 
vice-chancellorship is considered to be in fact the result of Maulana Habib 
al-Rahman's loyalty, for he always remained his right-hand man, confidant 
and deputy. 

In 1344/1925, when Hafiz Sahib retired, due to old age, from the post 
of Chief Mufti of the Hyderabad State, Maulana Habib Al-Rahman Usmani 
was appointed in his place. His personality was considered matchless in 
every respect. It is generally believed that had he had so much interest in 
the politics of the country as he had in the Dar al-Ulum, he would have 
proved to be one of the greatest political leaders of India. Voracious read- 
ing had made him a man of vast knowledge, a polyfiistor. Hazrat Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri used to remark ■- 

"If there is anyone whose knowledge impresses me, it is Maulana 
Habib al-Rahman". 



40 

He was especially interested in Arabic literature and history and his 
extensive knowledge in these subjects was famous at the time. He has 
eft many memorable books, amongst which his Isha'at-e Islam alias 
Dunya men Islam Kiyunker Phela is considered to be a monumental 
book. In response to the question as how Islam spread in the world, 
those historical events which, by reason of their psychological lure, 
proved to be conduvice to the propoagation and progress of Islam, have 
been presented in nearly five hundred pages. 

Maulana Habib al-Rahman was very puny, a man of spare frame; and his 
diet too was astonishingly spare. But inspite of his feebleness and frailty, he 
possessed tremendous courage. Exactly fourteen months after Hafiz Sahib's 
demise, he also departed from this infirm, perishable world, on the night of 
4th Rajab, 1348/1929, leaving the Dar al-Ulum as his eulogiser for ever. 

Another of his books is entitled Ta'limat-e Islam in which the Islamic 
system of government has been described and it has been elucidated as 
to how necessary consultation is for the chief of the party. In this connec- 
tion he has shown that if there is complete confidence in the being of the 
chief (amir), there is no need of counting the votes of the majority and the 
minority; but if the chief does not command such confidence then, to run 
the state, there is no other way but to rely upon the majority. 

25. HAKIM ABD AL-WAHHAB ALIAS HAKIM NABINA 

The sleepy village yusufpur in District Ghazipur in eastern Uttar Pradesh 
was his native place. He was the elder brother of the famous political 
leader of India, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed AnsarP. He had lost his sight in child- 
hood itself. At the age of ten he committed the entire Quran to memory. 
Elementary grammar he studied at his own native-place. He graduated 
from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1300. He studied Arabic literature under 
Maulana Faiz al-Hasan Saharanpuri and Maulana Zulfiqar Ali Deobandi; and 
Tibb under Hakim Mahmud Khan at Delhi. He was a distinguished scholar 
in the rational and the traditional sciences. After completing his education 
he came to attend upon Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, vowed 
allegiance to him and, living in the company of his spiritual director, 
attained internal perfection. He has stated :- 

Once I told Hazrat Gangohi: "I have studied Tibb with a view to 

1. The Postal Dept. of the Govt, of India has issued a postal stamp to commemorate him as 
an educationist. The stamp was released at Jamia Millia in a function at the hands of the 
vice-president of India, Mr. Hidayatullah, on 25-1.S-19B0. (Translator) 



earning my living, but physicians, besides examining the pulse, diagnose 
the disease by observing the patient's face, urine and other symptoms, 
while I am deprived of this facility due to loss of sight. Kindly pray for me 
that Allah Almighty may ease this handicap of mine I At this Hazrat 
Gangohi said : 'Allah Most High will bestow upon you expertise in feeling 
the pulse whereby you will come to know about the patients' ailments 
which. other physicians diagnose through observation'. "I", the Hakin Sahib 
has stated, "mark the Shaikh's karamat (miracle) every day : no sooner I 
put my hand on the patient's pulse than all the conditions of the disease 
are divulged to me". 

Strange and wonderful events of his pulse-feeling have been heard. In 
both diagnosis and prescription he had had consummate expertise. He has 
left a monumental book entitled Asrar-e Shiryania ("The Arterial Secrets") 
on the science of pulse in which he has philosophically discussed the 
topic of pulse-feeling. His clinic was famous throughout India; people 
used to flock to it from far off places and used to be cured. He practised 
in Bombay and Sholapur and was a physician to the Nizam of the Deccan 
for a long time. In the last phase of his life he at last settled down at Delhi. 
His clinic there was situated near the Jam'e Masjid. Later on he shifted to 
Connought Place. The present writer too had chanced to see his clinic. In 
feeling the pulse and diagnosing the disease he had had no parallel; in this 
regard strange stories are told about him. A large medicine-chest having 
several compartments used to lie before him ; he would take out a 
medicine from it without any hesitation, his hand reaching the very 
compartment from which he wanted the required medicine. He used to 
dial the telephone numbers also in the same manner. 

Inspite of having a huge crowed of patients at the clinic every day, 
his interest in the religious sciences did not abate,- he was very devout 
and abstemious. He would not charge any fees for even the costliest of 
medicaments from any patient of Deoband, Gangoh and Yusufpur, 
whether the patient was Hindu or Muslim,- yusufpur was his native-place,' 
Deoband was the place where he had prosecuted his studies and in 
Gangoh he had acquired esoteric knowledge. Similarly, he would not 
charge fees from the ulema and the Sufis. He died in Rabi al-Awwal, 
A. H. 1360, at Delhi. In pursuance of his last will his bier was taken to 
Gangoh from Delhi and he was buried near Hazrat Gangohi's grave. 

26. MAULANA GHULAM RASUL HAZARVI 

He was a native of Hazara district (Pakistan). After receiving primary 



42 

education in his native place he graduated in A. H. 1303 from the Dar ai- 
Ulum and in A. H. 1308 he was appointed a teacher there. He was a 
hafiz of rational and traditional sciences and a polyhistor. He was highly 
respected among the ulema and students used to attend his lectures very 
eagerly. On account of his unusual popularity and fame he was invited on 
high salaries from different places but he was so much attached to the 
Dar al-Ulum that he was not prepared to leave it at any cost. His life was 
very simple. He rendered teaching service in the Dar al-Ulum for thirty 
years. Many renowned ulema were his pupils. 

He died in harness at the Dar al-Ulum on 18th Muharram, A. H. 1337. 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind in a threnody he wrote on his death has portrayed 
the substance of his acamedic and spiritual life in a single verse. The 
couplet:" God bless him I He passed his whole life like this: in the 
madrasah during day, in the mosque throughout the night". 

27. MAULANA MURTAZA HASAN CHANDPURI 

He was a resident of Chandpur, District Bijnor. He was also amongst the 
well-guided pupils of Maulana Muhammad Vaqub Nanautavi. He graduated 
from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1304. He had an acute intelligence and was 
very ingenious, with a lively twist for wit and humour. He was famous for 
his sermonical lectures and speeches and held a very high rank in the art 
of polemics; and he was greatly fond of refuting heretical innovations and 
Qadianism. Many of his polemical books that have been published are 
replete with remarkable discussions on their themes. At one time every 
nook and corner of the country had been reverberating with his powerful 
oratory, sermons and declamations. Besides being a voracious reader, he 
was also a bibliophil, very fond of collecting especially rare manuscripts. 
Accordingly, he has left as a memorial a large library comprising nearly 
eight thousand precious manuscripts and published works, which his son, 
Muhammad Anwar, has passed on to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

Maulana Chandpuri served as principal for a long time in the madrasahs 
of Darbhanga, Moradabad, etc. but the real place of his services was the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. As such, the authorities selected this rare jewel for 
the Dar al-Ulum and firstly entrusted him with the administration of the 
educational branch, but in view of the frequency of his preaching journeys 
he was charged with the administration of the Department of Preaching. He 
had had the honour of vowing allegiance to Maulana Rafi' al-Din but later 
on he resorted to Hazrat Thanvi and was authorized to receive allegiance. 

He retired from the Dar al-Ulum on 1st Ramazan, A. H. 1350, anJ 



settled down in his native place Chandpur where he died in Rabi al- 
Akhir, 1371/December, 1951. 

28. MAULANA MUHAMMAD YASIN SIRHINDI BAREILLVI 

He was an inhabitant of Bassi, adjoining Sirhmd. Firstly he studied 
under Ahmed Hasan Kanpuri and then graduated from the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. He was amongst the pupils of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind. First he 
taught in Madrasah Faiz-e Aam, Kanpur, and then, in A. H. 1312, he went 
to Bareilly. There he established Madrasah Isha'at-e Ulum. He was a very 
virtuous and accommodating person but a very candid divine. Throughout 
his life he remained busy in teaching. His academic grace continued for a 
long time in Rohilkhand and even today the madrasah started by him is 
assuaging the thirst of the seekers of knowledge. 

It is a statement of his eldest son, the late Maulana Abd al-Rasheed, 
that Maulana Ahmed Reza Khan Bareillvi was his pupil for the primary 
books and used to write him letters in a very respectful tone; these 
letters were in the possession of Maulana Abd al-Rasheed. Maulana Khair 
Muhammad Jullundhari was also in the circle of his pupils. 

He died on 7th Safar, A.H. 1363, and was buried in his own madrasah 
in Bareilly which he had made his hometown. 

29. MAULANA UBAYD ALLAH SINDHI 

Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi was born in the Sialkot district of West 
Punjab. His father was originally a Hindu but had converted later to 
Sikhism. Maulana Sindhi received his early education in the middle school 
at Jampur. Impressed by the truthfulness of Islam through reading, he had 
embraced Islam in the course of his student career itself. After becoming 
a Muslim he went to Sindh from Jampur. There he stayed for sometime 
with Hafiz Muhammad Siddiq. Hafiz Sahib was a great nisba-possessing 
saint and an accomplished dervish. Maulana Sindhi has written in his 
diary that "the effect of Hafiz Sahib's company was this that the Islamic 
way of life became my second nature". 

Maulana Sindhi entered the Dar al-Ulum in A.H. 1306 and joined the 
Daura-e Hadith in A.H. 1307 but could not complete it. After some time he 
went back to Sindh. In A.H. 1315 he again came to Deoband and acquired 
permission from his teacher, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind, for the Hadith books. 
Along with the educational matters he joined the Shaikh al-Hind in 



political preoccupations also. The establishment of the Jami'at al-Ansar in 
the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1327 was the result of his efforts only. He had 
been made its administrator. The two great gatherings of the said organi- 
sation at Moradabad and Meerut were due to his efforts. He wanted to 
make the Dar al-Ulum a centre of national organisation politically of which 
the first step was the establishment of the Jami'at al-Ansar. Meanwhile a 
serious chasm in certain academic matters appeared between him and 
some teachers of the Dar al-Ulum and so he had to leave Deoband. The 
Shaikh al-Hind sent him to Delhi where he established an institution 
under the name of Nazarat al-Ma'arif al-Qurania 1 , which was patronised, 
besides the Shaikh al-Hind, by powerful personalities like Hakim Ajmal 
Khan and Nawab Waqar al-Mulk. 

In A. H. 1333 the Shaikh al-Hind sent Maulana Sindhi to Afghanistan 
because the belief generally prevalent then was that it was not possible 
to drive away the English from India without men and might. For this 
men and weapons were necessary. The Shaikh al-Hind had made the 
free zone of Yaghistan the centre of this movement. Maulana Sindhi, 
reaching Kabul, accomplished several important political tasks there. He 
founded a Congress Committee in Kabul and affiliated it to the Indian 
National Congress. This was the first Congress Committee outside the 
British dominions. Along with this he mobilised an army which he had 
named "Hizb Allah" ("Allah's Army"). He was an important member of the 
free provisional government that had been formed in Afghanistan under 
the leadership of Raja Mahendra Pratap. After the Shaikh al-Hind's arrest in 
Hejaz, he. went to Russia and living there he observed the functioning of 
socialism. In 1342/1923 he undertook a journey to Turkey and from there, 
in A. H. 1344, he went to Hejaz where he stayed for fourteen long years. In 
1356/1937 when Congress government was formed in the provinces, the 
Uttar Pradesh government withdrew the ban the British government had 
imposed on him and so he returned to India in 1358/1939. 

He passed the last days of his life in Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 
and in Dinpur village of the Bhawalpur state. Maulana Sindhi, in the present 
period, was the greatest preacher and standard-bearer of Hazrat Shah Wali 

1. This institution under the name Nazarat al-Ma'arif al-Qurania had been established by 
Maulana Sindhi in A. H- 1333 in a room of Masjid Fatehpun, Delhi, and in which 9raduat.es 
of the Arabic madrasahs and modern colleges were given education and training. Besides 
acquainting thejm with the verities and knowledge of the Quran, they were also shown the 
methods of performing missionary and political work as per the circumstances. After 
Maulana Sindhi's departure to Afghanistan, his disciple, Maulana Ahmed AN Lahori, 
managed this institution for two years. With his arrest this institution ceased to function' 
One of the objectives of this institution was also this that relations be established 
between the modern educated men and the ulema, particularly the graduates of Deoband 
and the intervening gulf between the old and the new be filled up. To achieve this 
purpose he later on founded Bait al-Hikma in Jamia Millia. 



45 

Allah's philosophy. Maulana Sindhi was also a great exponent of the 
reform brought about in connection with the sciences of the Quran, 
Hadith, Fiqh and Tasawwuf by Shah Sahib. Some learned men, of course, 
dissented from some of Maulana Sindhi's thoughts but despite academic 
dissidence, all were convinced of his academic primacy and political 
shrewdness. 

For the exposition of the Book and the Sunnah and finding out 
solutions of the latter-day problems in the light of the Wali Allahian 
philosophy, he established an institution under the name Bait al-Hikma in 
the Jamia Millia Islamia, and wrote some monumental articles also 
amongst which his article in Al-Furqan's Shah Wali Allah No. is very 
profound and thought-provoking. 

He expired on 21st August, 1944/A. H. 1363, in Dinpur where he had 
settled down at the fag-end of his life. Unfortunately he could not see 
the country free for whose independence he had to live in exile for 25 
years and suffer all sorts of afflictions and troubles. 

30. MAULANA SANA ALLAH AMRITSARI 

He was born in A. H. 1282. Though he had been brought up in 
Amritsar (East Punjab), he was originally a Kashmiri; his ancestors had 
embraced Islam in the olden times. 

For some days he acquired education from Maulana Ahmed Allah 
Amritsari and read books of Hadith under Shaikh Abd al-Mannan 
Wazirabadi; and, then, in A. H. 1308, he came to Deoband and studied 
logic, philosophy, Fiqh and Principles of Fiqh. Some books he read under 
the guidance of Maulana Ahmed Hasan Kanpuri in Kanpur, but his attach- 
ment to the elders of the Dar al-Ulum did not undergo any change. After 
completing education he busied himself in the work of writing and com- 
pilation of books. As regards tack (maslak) he was an Ahl-e Hadith. He 
established a press named Ahl-e Hadith Press and in A. H. 1321 started a 
weekly entitled Ahl-e Hadith, which continued for 44 years. 

He has left many remarkable books in refutation of Mirza Ghulam 
Ahmed Qadiani. His important works are as follows :- 

1. Tafsir al-Quran be-Kalam al-Rahman, in which he has commented on 
the Quran through the Quranic text itself. 

2. Tafsir-e Sana'i (Urdu) 

3. Taqabul-e Salasa : This is also in Urdu; in it he has made a comparative 
study of Islam, Veda and the Bible. 



46 

He had a strong memory and was very quick at rejoinder. He used to be 
always successful in polemics; he had a special knack and mastery in 
defeating the opponent. He was known by the appellation "Sher-e Punjab" 
("the Lion of the Punjab"). He had great attachment to the writing of books, 
and used to be very careful about hygiene and cleanliness of clothes. He 
was very punctual, high-minded and encyclopaedic in knowledge. 

He remained a permanent participant in the struggle for the independ- 
ence of India. In the list of the Junud-e Rabbaniya ("the Divine Armies"), 
his rank was that of a major-general. He had had a hand in the founding of 
the Jami'at al-Ulama also and actively took part in its movement for the 
freedom of the country. Inspite of the difference of his cult (maslak), he 
always remained enamoured of the elders of Deoband. 

A. H. 1326 he had thrown a challenge to Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani 
to the effect that "he who is a liar amongst us will die first". Mirza Sahib 
had accepted this challenge, but he got an attack of cholera and died of it 
in 1908, whereas Maulana Sana Allah survived him for forty years 1 . 

After the partition of the country he migrated to Gujranwala (Pakistan). 
He died on 4th Jamadi al-Awwal, A. H. 1367, at Sargodha, at the ripe old 
age of 80 years. 

31. MAULANA SAIF AL-RAHMAN KABULI 

His ancestors, having migrated from Qandhar, had settled down in the 
suburbs of Peshawar. He acquired early education there. He completed 
the study of mathematical sciences under the instruction of Maulana Lutf 
Allah Aligarhi and of Hadith in the company of Maulana Rasheed Ahmed 
Gangohi. For a long time he served as a teacher in Tonk and then became 
head-teacher in Madrasa-e A'liya Fatehpuri, Delhi. He was attached to 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and was an active member of his movement. He was 
very high-spirited, intelligent, acute and a warrior-like religious divine. At 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's instruction he migrated and went to the free terri- 
tory of Vaghistan. There he kept inciting the people through sermons and 
propaganda for the independence of India. He was a good orator,- his 

1. Similarly, one Sufi Sulaiman Naqshbandi of Lajpur CDist. Surat) author of flagh-e Arif, had 
also challenged Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani to prove his claim that he was the Promised 
Messiah by levitating with him to the fourth heaven where Prophet Jesus Christ is tradition- 
ally known to reside after his crucification This unexpected challenge staggered Mirza 
Sahib completely; nonplussed and crestfallen, the self-styled Messiah could not give a 
convincing reply to Sufi Sulaiman Sahib, (vide Bagh-e Arif, A. h. 1354). (Translator). 



47 

and speeches created great fervour among the people of Yaghistan. His 
rank in the Divine Armies was that of a major-gene/al. In the beginning of 
World War I, when, in 1914, Haji Turangzai 1 raised the banner of jihad 
against the English, Maulana Saif al-Rahman joined it and accomplished 
remarkable works. After being unsuccessful in achieving his end through 
fighting with the English, he went to Afghanistan. The intense hatred he 
nursed for the British government can be assessed from the fact that when 
Hitler mounted an invasion upon France and internecine war broke out 
among the European powers, no sooner did Maulana Saif al-Rahman hear 
this news than he-fell into prostration fervently and exclaimed : "O Allah I 
Thanks to You that mutual war has begun among the packs of wolves 
whereby the victimised nations can entertain hope of escape from the 
tyranny, and now I shall have no sorrow for my own death" I 

He served on high posts during Amir Aman Allah's regime in 
Afghanistan. After the formation of Pakistan he came back to Peshawar and 
died at his native-place on 7th Jamadi al-Ula, A. H. 1369. 

32. MAULANA HAKIM MUHAMMAD ISHAQ KATHORI 

He hailed from a Sayyid family of Kathore, District Meerut. He was born 
in 1281/1864. He acquired primary education in Meerut from his uncle, 
Maulana Kifayat Ali. Then he studied at Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri, and 
thereafter became a pupil of Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi at Amroha. At 

1. In the history of the struggle for the independence of India, Haji Turangzai's was a great 
and famous personality in the North West Frontier Province. He was an inhabitant of a 
village, Turangzai, in Peshawar district. His real name was Fazl-e Vahid but he became fam- 
ous by the name of his village. Very pious and abstemious and a man of knowledge and 
action, he was also a Shaikh of the Path (i.e., a spiritual director). He was the khalifa and 
successor of Maulana Shah Najm al-Din alias Hazrat Su'at Sahib. Intoxicated with the senti- 
ments of liberty, he was greatly enamoured of independence. He had had thousands of 
'aspirants' (murids) In the region of Peshawar and yaghistan. Along with extraordinary fame, 
he was extremely popular among the masses. Migrating in 1914 from his native-place 
Peshawar at Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's suggestion, he had gone to Vaghsitan. He had chanced 
to fight many a time with the British armies, which, incurring severe losses in the encounters 
with him, had to retreat. It is a very well-known fact that in these encounters with the 
English the shots fired from the crusaders' side never missed their mark. 

It was during his stay in Hejaz that Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind was preparing to go to the 
same Haji Turangzai in Yaghistan via Iran when Sherif Husain who had become a vassal of 
the English against the Turks had taken him captive and had entrusted him to the English 

Haji Turangzai, as long as he was alive, continued fighting against the English until "the 
promised hour". May Allah favour him with His mercies I A wonderfully intrepid true 
believer he was that he kept fighting the English till his last breath I 



the last he, taking admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, graduated from 
there in A. H. 1308. He was amonsst the earliest batch of students during 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's deanship. The education of Tibb.he acquired 
under the instruction of Hakim Abd al-Majeed Khan Dehelvi and Hakim 
Abd al-Aziz Khan Lakhnavi. 

Incipiently he practised medicine at Kathore and then he shifted to 
Meerut city. Besides his private practice, he also used to teach Tibb and 
many people learnt Tibb from him. On the topic of pulse he wrote a 
voluminous book but unfortunately it could not be published. 

He built an Idgah and Jam'e Masjid in his native Kathore. He built a 
beautiful stone mosque in Meerut city also. Hakim Sahib's efforts con- 
tributed largely in reviving the practice of widow-marriage in the vicinity 
of Meerut: He always used to participate in all national and political works. 

In A. H. 1327 when a scheme of collecting grains from the villages for 
the Dar al-Ulum was finalised, Hakim Sahib was the first man to volunteer 
himself for it and paid attention to the collecting of grains from Kathore 
and the surrounding villages, and a good lot of grains was collected 
through his efforts. It is stated in the report of the Dar al-Ulum :- 

"The first to give ears to this call and act upon it are the gentlemen of 
Kathore and the surrounding areas who, through the special attention of 
Hakim Maulavi Muhammad Ishaq, put it into practice. For years together 
wheat continued to be collected from Meerut district through Hakim 
Sahib's attention" 1 . 

And about Hakim Sahib it says : - 

He was a man of laudable qualities. Along with sincerity he had had 
a special position by virtue of his solicitude, prudence and well- 
wishing in the affairs of the Dar al-Ulum" 2 . 

He was a possessor of filiation (nisba) and a saintly man, very regular in 
his spiritual schedules. He had received khilafat from Hazrat Gangohi. He 
and Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani were cater-cousins. Whenever they 
happened to meet, Maulana Madani would pull out Hakim Sahib's purse; 
they would then go on jostling for it for some time. At last Maulana Madani 

1. Rudad-e Tchsil-e Ghalla, A. H. 1332, p. 2 
2- Rudad, A. H. 1374, p. 1. 



49 

would succeed and then whatever amount of money came out from the 
purse, with it he would send for sweets. Hakim Sahib was a very affable, 
cheerful and hospitable man. He had had a deep connection with the 
Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind also. 

He served as a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum from 
A. H. 1344 to A. H. 1373. He went to slory in 1374/1954 and was buried 
in his native-place. 

33. MAULANA SAYYID MUHAMMAD ANWAR SHAH KASHMIRI 

He was an inhabitant of Kashmir. He was born in a respectable learned 
family of Sayyids. This family was considered very distinguished in the 
whole of Kashmir in respect of its learning and knowledge. At the tender 
age of four and a half years he began to read the Holy Quran under the 
instruction of his august father, Maulana Sayyid Muazzam Shah. Endowed 
with an uncommon geist and a matchless memory from his very tender 
years, this prodigious child finished the Book of Allah and some primary 
books of Persian within the short period of one and a half years and then 
became engrossed in the study of the current sciences; and while not 
even fourteen years old, his unbounded passion for the acquirement of 
knowledge compelled him to leave the native-place. For nearly three years 
he lived in the madrasahs of Hazara and acquired ability in different arts 
and sciences, but the fame of Deoband made him restless to acquire more 
proficiency. So, in 1310/1892, he came to Deoband. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind 
was gracing the dean's masnad then; the teacher recognised the pupil and 
the pupil the teacher in the very first meeting. He began reading the books 
of Tafsir and Fiqh and within a few years attained, besides fame and 
popularity, a distinct position. Graduating from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1314, he went to attend upon Hazrat Gangohi from whom he acquird, be- 
sides the Sanad for Hadith, spiritual graces as well as khilafat. 

After having completed his studies at the Dar al-Ulum, he served as a 
teacher for some time in the Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi. In 1320/1903 he 
went to Kashmir and there, in his region, he established a madrasah under 
the name of Faiz-e Am. In 1323/1905 he went for pilgrimage to the House 
of Allah (at Mecca). For some time he put up in Hejaz and availed himself 
of the opportunity of studying in the libraries there. In 1327/1909 he came 
back to Deoband. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind retained him here. For a number 
of years he went on teaching the books of Hadith without any salary, and 
as long as he did not accept any salary from the Dar al-Ulum, he lived as 
Hazrat Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed's guest. In the end of 1333/1915 when 



50 

the Shaikh al-Hind resolved to embark on a journey to Hejaz, he bestowed 
the honour of his successorship on Shah Sahib. He graced the masnad of 
the dean in the Dar al-Ulum for nearly twelve years. In the beginning of 
1346/1927, due to holding some dissident views with the management of 
the Dar al-Ulum, he resigned from deanship and went to the Madrasah at 
Dabhel (Dist. Surat, Gujarat) in western India where he continued to teach 
Hadith till 1351/1932. 

With such a rare and incomparable memory he had been endowed 
with by nature that, let alone the contents and meanings of a book read 
only once, he could remember whole passages along with their lines and 
pages and used to quote them with great ease during his lecture. At the 
same he had such a passion for reading that all the treasures of knowledge 
could not fill the expanses of his inquisitive mind nor quench his thirst for 
knowledge. Due to vast and excessive reading and the power of a photo- 
graphic memory he was as though a moving and walking library. Besides 
the 'Six Authentic Ones' (Sihah Sitta — the six authentic books of Hadith) 
most of the books of Hadith were almost at the tip of his tongue. In ascer- 
tainable propositions (masa'il) requiring inquiry, in the search and inquisi- 
tion of which whole lifetimes are spent, he would answer the inquirer's 
query within a few minutes so concisely that the latter would be left with 
no doubt any more nor any need to refer to any book. And the more 
pleasant thing about it was that along with the titles of the books he 
would quote chapter and verse, lines and page numbers. He used to 
speak extempore on every art and science as if all these sciences were 
present in his memory and he had read them but recently. 

On his death, Maulana Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi wrote in the Ma'arif 

"His example was like that of an ocean the surface of which is calm 
and still but its bottom abounds with treasures of precious pearls. He was 
peerless in the period for his versatility, power of memory and the bulk of 
memorised matter. He was a hafiz and discerner of the sciences of Hadith, 
high-ranking in the literary sciences, expert in the rational sciences, well- 
versed in poetry, and consummate in abstinence and piety,- till his last 
breath this martyr of knowledge and gnosis kept raising the slogan of "Said 
Allah and Said the Apostle". 

When the most famous Egyptian divine of the time, Sayyid Rasheed 
Reza came to Deoband and met Shah Sahib, he would exclaim spontane- 
ously again and again : "I have never seen any religious divine like this 
glorious professor" I After returning to Egypt also, Allamah Rasheed Reza 



acknowledged Shah Sahib's academic glory and greatness of dignity in his 
paper, Al-Manar. 

Anyhow, it was fortunate for the Dar al-Ulum that after the Shaikh al- 
Hind the work of principal was entrusted to him. 

The interest the late Dr. Sir Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal Lahori had evinced 
in his latter years in the Islamic teachings owed much to Shah Sahib's 
academic benevolence,- the learned Dr. Iqbal had learnt much of Islamics 
from Shah Sahib and hence he used to revere him very much, and used to 
bow his head in submission, with sentiments of belief (aquidat) and love, 
before Shah Sahib's opinions. 

When Shah Sahib resigned from Deoband Allamah Iqbal tried that he 
settle down permanently in Lahore so that, in collaboration with him, he 
might codify the Islamic Fiqh on modern lines but Shah Sahib meanwhile 
accepted the request of the academicians of Dabhel (Gujarat). However, 
Allamah Iqbal benefitted much from Shah Sahib in the preparation of his 
English lectures in this connection and has also acknowledged it. Shah 
Sahib had rendered full help in the valuable articles Allamah Iqbal wrote 
in refutation of Qadianism. 

The academic zest was so much predominant in him that for a long 
time he would feel perturbed at the very thought of marriage and married 
life. But, at last, at the intense insistence of the elders he adopted married 
life, after which he began to take salary. He stayed at Dabhel for some 
years but when constrained by severe ailments, he left it for Deoband 
which he had made his home-town, and on 3rd Safar al-Muzaffar, A. H. 
1352/A. D. 1933, passed away at the age of nearly 60 years. His auspicious 
grave is near the Idgah. 

34 MAULANA SHAH WARIS HASAN 

Koda Jahanabad was his native place. He entered the Dar al-Ulum in 
A. H. 1310 and, graduating from it in A. H. 1312, he lived in attendance 
upon Hazrat Gangohi and acquired khilafat from him. Then he went to Hejaz 
where he lived in the service of Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Haji Imdad Allah. 

For some time he served as head-teacher in Benares (Varanasi) and 
Muzaffarpur. Then he gave up service, settled down in Lucknow and 
engaged himself in spiritual instruction and guidance. The English-knowing 
class of Muslims benefitted much from him,- such beneficiaries included 



judges, advocates, high-ranking officers and nobles. 

He died on 16th Jamadi al-Awwal, A. H. 1355 and lies buried near the 
Jam'e Masjid, Teela Shah Pir Muhammad, Lucknow. 

35. HAZRAT MAULANA AMIN AL-DIN DEHELVI 

He was born around A. H. 1283 in Aurangabad, Deccan. He had settled 
down at Yevla in Nasik district (Maharashtra), but in the end, after having 
established Madrasa-e Aminiya at Delhi, he had become a permanent resi- 
dent of Delhi. He took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 
1304 for prosecuting studies and, then, in A. H. 1307, he went to Shah- 
jahanpur, where he read some books of the rational sciences under 
Maulana Nadir al-Din who was a favourite pupil of Maulana Abd al-Haq 
Khairabadi in logic and philosophy. In A. H. 1309 he returned to Deoband 
and completing the Nizami syllabus and graduated in A. H. 1312. 

In A. H. 1315 he started Madrasa-e Aminiya 1 in Sunheri Masjid situated 
in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. He was very famous in Delhi and the surrounding 
places for his abstinence and piety. He had also had proficiency in theurgy 
C-amalyat), and due to this the circle of those who had faith in him was 
very wide. The sentiment of benefaction was always surging in his heart. In 
religious matters and in connection with the management of the madrasah 
he would not show any partiality to anyone. He always remained aloof 
from political frays. He used to love students like his own progeny, show- 
ing them great affection and cordiality. 

He died on 19th Ramazan, A. H. 1338 (June 6, 1920), and lies buried at 
Menhdiyun near Hazrat Shah Wali Allah's grave. 

36. MAULANA MUHAMMAD SADIQ KARACHVI 

He was a resident of Karachi. He completed the study of Hadith in the 
Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1312. He was an active member of the Shaikh al-Hmd's 

1. It is a famous madrasah of Delhi. Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri was its first principal- 
After him Maulana Kifayat Allah graced the masnad of principalship Firstly this madrasah 
had been established in the Sunheri Masjid but when it progressed it was shifted to 
Masjid-e Panipatian at Kashmiri. Gate in A. H 1323. It progressed much during the latter's 
regime, students flocking to it not only from distant places in India but also from foreign 
countries. A magnificent 3-storeyed building was constructed for the Madrasah around the 
mosque. This madrasah has always enjoyed a distinguished position over all other 
madrasahs of Delhi by virtue of its academic glory 1 and centrality. 



53 

political movement and had cherished very deep and sincere relations 
with Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi. During World War I when the English 
launched an attack on Iraq, which was then included in the Turkish empire, 
Maulana Sadiq incited the Baluch tribes in Las Bela in Sind to rise- up in 
revolt against the English, wherefore the English could not send reinforce- 
ments to Iraq in time and consequently the English armies, having been 
besieged, had to lay down arms. Maulana Sadiq was arrested for having 
caused an uprising and was kept under detention in Maharashtra; he was 
released after the war was over. His designation in the Junud-e Rabbaniya 
was that of a colonel. 

He also rendered important political services during the Khilafat Move- 
ment. He worked on different posts of the Khilafat Committee and the 
Jamia't al-Ulama-e Sindh; he was also a member of the working committee 
of the Jamia't al-Ulama-e Hind till the end. He also served as a member of 
the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum from A. H. 1350 to A. H. 1367. 

Maulana Sadiq established a madrasah in the Khadda mohalla (locality) 
of Karachi and passed his remaining life in managing its affairs and in 
teaching Hadith and Quran. This madrasah is still functioning. It has been 
Maulana Sadiq's and his successors' wont that whenever Maulana Qari 
Tayyib pays a visit to Pakistan, they especially invite him to the Madrasah. 

37. MAULANA MUFTI KIFAYAT ALLAH DEHELVI 

He was born in A. H. 1292 in Shahjahanpur. He received instruction in 
the holy Quran and primary education at his native-place from different 
teachers. Then, having read some books at Madrasa-e Izazia, Shahjahanpur, 
he entered Madrasa-e Shahi at Moradabad. There he studied under the 
instruction of Maulana Abd al-Ali, disciple of Hazrat Nanautavi, and other 
teachers. In the end he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum and graduated 
from it in A. H. 1313. 

Despite his poverty, Mufti Sahib passed his student career at 
Moradabad and in the Dar al-Ulum with great self-respect. He used to 
make crochet skull-caps and used to meet his expenses with the income 
earned from their sale. 

After graduating from the Dar al-Ulum he was appointed a teacher in 
Madrasah 'Ayn al-'llm, Shahjahanpur. During this period he began fetwa- 
writing and also started a monthly, Al-Burhan, in A. H. 1321, to refute 
Qadianism. 



54 

In the late A. H. 1321, he, at the insistence of Maulana Amin al-Din 
Dehelvi, went to grace the principal's masnad in Madrasa-e Aminiya, Delhi, 
to which he remained attached till his last breath. Mufti Sahib was a 
traditionist, jurisprudent, mufti, crusader and one of the judicious ulema. 
Cherishing a great faith in his teacher, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind, he had begun 
to take interest in politics from the very beginning of his career. Accord- 
ingly, in 1919, with the collaboration of other divines, he established the 
Jamai'at al-Ulama-e Hind and acted as its president for a long time. He 
always used to be in the forefront of all the movements of the Jami'at and 
the Congress. In connection with his political activities he had also to face 
imprisonment often but there too his academic occupations used to con- 
tinue. As such Maulana Ahmed Sa'eed Dehelvi read Divan-e Himasa and 
other books in the Multan Jail under his guidance, and a renowned leader 
of India, Lala Desh Bandhu, studied Persian under his instruction. At the 
gatherings once in Hejaz and another time in Egypt, he discharged the 
duties of the Indian Muslims' delegate, Mufti Sahib's greatest achievement 
is Madrasa-e Aminiya, Delhi, which made unusual progress through his 
efforts and began to be counted among the famous seminaries of India. 

A very salient characteristic of Mufti Sahib's fetwas is their brevity and 
their clear and explicit language. The bulk of his fetwas is very large; his 
son, Maulana Hafeez al-Rahman Wasif, is compiling and publishing his 
fetwas under the title Kifayat al-Mufti, and so far six volumes have been 
published. Among the books written by him his Talim al-lslam is very 
famous which he has written in four parts and in very easy Urdu language 
in the form of questions and answers (catechism), for the children of 
Islamic schools. This book has been so popular that it has been translated 
into English and Hindi, has run into several editions, and is current in and 
outside India. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Tayyib has stated that when he 
reached Zanzibar, he saw that the Talim al-lslam was included in the 
syllabus of the madrasahs there. 

Mufti Sahib served as a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al- 
Ulum from A. H. 1372. In the end the ruinous conditions in the country 
saddened him very much. After a long illness of several months he left for 
the immortal world on the night of 13th Rabi al-Sani, A. H. 1372. 

The members of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, expre- 
ssed their impressions on his death in the following manner - 

"In respect of his knowledge and learning, peity and purification, morals 
and accomplishments, Hazrat Mufti Sahib was a peerless personality among 



the class of the ulema. He was a distinguished graduate of the Dar al- 
Ulum and a very intelligent and sagacious member of its Majlis-e Shura. 
His death has caused such a vacuum in the Islamic community as well as 
in the Dar al-Ulum that apparently it is not to be filled up soon. He was 
one of those rare and select ulema of the time who was simultaneously a 
religious divine and scholar, jurisconsult and traditionist, htteratteur and 
poet, versifier and prose-writer, pious and pure, high-minded (ghayyurO 
and a defender of the faith, and, moreover, incomparable in perspicacity 
and wisdom. His personality was reliable and trustworthy not only 
amongst the contemporaries but also amongst the teachers and the 
elders; all were convinced of his knowledge and learning, moderateness 
and regard for limits". 

38. MAULANA MAJID ALI JAUNPURI 

He was a resident of Jaunpur. He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. 
H. 1314. In his early career he served as a teacher in Mendhu (Aligarh) and 
Gulaothi (Dist. Bulandshahar); for some time he taught in the madrasahs of 
Delhi and then received appointment as a teacher in Madrasa-e A'ah, 
Calcutta. He was amongst the famous men of knowledge and learning of 
eastern India and was considered a great rationalist divine (Ma'quli) of his 
time. He had acquired the knowledge of rational sciences from Maulana 
Abd al-Haq Khairabadi and Maulana Ahmed Hasan Kanpuri. He attended 
Hazrat Gangohi's lectures on Hadith for two years. During his stay in ■ 
Gangoh he used to write down Hazrat Gangohi's lectures till late in the 
night, sometimes so much engrossed in this work that he would go on 
doing it till the pre-dawn prayer-call. 

Hazrat Abd al-Ghani Phulpuri, who was amongst the greatest khalifas of 
Hazrat Thanvi, and Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Ahmed, professor of Hadith 
in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, were amongst his pupils. 

39. MAULANA SAWID HUSAIN AHMED MADANI 

Maulana Mandani's native place was village Allahdadpur Tanda in 
Faizabad district. He was born on 19th Shawwal, 1296/1879, in village 
Bangarmau, District Unnao, where his august father, Sayyid Habib Allah, 
was a head master. His family had come to India nineteen generations ago ; 
by reason of its knowledge and piety this family of the Sayyids has always 
possessed a particular giory and had been a large fief-holder during the 
Islamic royal period. 

After having acquired early education in the primary school, at the age 



56 

of twelve years, in 1309/1891, he came to Deoband and took admission in 
the first standard. At Deoband Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind taught and trained 
him with special affection and favour, and he completed his studies in 
A. H. 1315. When, after having passed seven years in this academic 
atmosphere, he went to his native-place, his august father, yearning for 
migration to the Prophet's City (Madina), had already packed up his kit. So 
he also started with his parents. Before his departure he had already 
vowed allegiance to Hazrat Gangohi. In the holy Mecca, as per his spiritual 
preceptor's instruction, he derived spiritual graces 'for, some time from 
Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki, and thereafter settled down in 
the illuminated Madina with his father. Though he had not intended migra- 
tion (hijrat) from India, he did not like to come back, leaving parental 
affection, as long as his father was alive. 

During nearly ten years' stay in Madina, he, trusting in Allah despite 
pecuniary difficulties and straitened circumstances, rendered the service 
of teaching Hadith in the Prophet's Mosque. Generally he used to be 
occupied in teaching for 12 hours on an end every day. Different batches 
would come one after another and benefit from his academic beneficence. 
His lecturing on Hadith in the Prophet's Mosque had been much more 
popular and appreciated than that of other professors of Hadith in Madina, 
and its fame had gathered around him a very large number of students 
from different Islamic countries. The reason for such powerful attraction 
toward and generaJ popularity of an Indian religious divine in the holy land 
of Hejaz and especially in the Prophet's Mosque should be attributed to 
that peculiarity of the method of teaching that he had imbibed and 
inherited from the teachers of the Dar al-Ulum. 

He was also amongst those companions of the Shaikh al-Hind who had 
been arrested in Hejaz and as such he too had to live as a war-prisoner at 
Malta for three and a quarter years. He also came back to India along with 
the Shaikh al-Hind in 1338/1920, when they were all released from deten- 
tion in Malta. It was the time of the beginning of the Khilafat Movement. 
Back here, he, under the Shaikh al-Hind's leadership, joined politics. 
During this period his crusaderlike and temerarious sacrifices had filled the 
Muslims' hearts with his greatness and love. On the Shaikh al-Hind's 
demise he was unanimously acknowledged to be his successor. Participa- 
tion and engrossment in political affairs landed him into jail several times 
for long periods where he had to bear reason-shattering tribulations and 
agonies for the freedom of the country. He was president of the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind for a long time. 

In A. H. 1346 when. Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri resigned from 
the Dar al-Ulum, there was none among the group of the Dar al-Ulum 



57 

except Maulana Madani who could fill that momentous vacancy beseem- 
ingly. Hence the elders' eyes fell upon him; and during his deanship the 
strength of the students increased more than twofold, exceeding even 
threefold in the course of Hadith. 

His teaching of Hadith, in respect of multeity and comprehensiveness, 
was considered typically singular in the world of Islam; its glory, fame and 
lure continued to be conducive in increasing the number of students from 
year to year. 

The circle of his students in the science of Hadith is very vast. The 
students who graduated and obtained a sanad in the Hadith course during 
the period of his deanship number 4,483, and this circle of disciples, 
crossing the continent of Asia, extends upto Europe. Even as the Dar al- 
Ulum has had the diploma of distinction in the teaching of the prophetic 
sciences, his academic benevolence too is unparalleled. 

Maulana Madani died on 12th Jamadi al-Ula, A. H. 1377, at about 3-00 
p.m. The bier was brought to the Dar al-Hadith. The professor of Hadith of 
Mazahir-e Ulum, Maulana Muhammad Zakariya, led the funeral service and 
during the night between 12th and 13th Jamadi al-Ula, A. H. 1377 (5th and 
6th December, 1957), this treasure of knowledge and gnosis was laid to 
rest in the Qasimi cemetry. 

40 MAULANA SAYYID AHMED MADANI 

Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Madani, Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed 
Madani's elder brother, was born in A. H. 1293 at Bangarmau, District 
Unnao (Oudh), where his father was living in connection with his service. 
His home-town was village Allahdadpur Tanda, District Faizabad. He 
received education in the holy Quran and Persian from his father and then 
passed the middle school examination in Urdu from the Allahabad Board. 
Thereafter he entered the Dar al-Ulum, completed the Nizami syllabus and 
graduated in A. H. 1315. He had had very great faith in Hazrat Gangohi. So 
he used to stay at Gangoh for long periods. In A. H. 1316 he went away to 
Madina along with his august father. There he passed his whole life in 
teaching the religious sciences. In A. H. 1340 he established Madrasat al- 
Shari'ah adjacent to the Prophet's Mosque 1 . At that time there was no 

1 . In 1 392/1 972, this writer chanced to see this madrasah during the journey to Hejaz. Once 
it was counted among the great religious madrasah of Hejaz but regrettably that position has 
now declined. In A. H. 1392 its strengthen different classes was totally 600. Its magnificent 
4-storeyed building is situated in' the east near the Prophet's Mosque. Nowadays Maulana 



madrasah in Madina for religious education. For a long time the expenses 
of this madrasah were being met with the donations of the charitable 
Muslims of this subcontinent. This madrasah has rendered academic 
services as an independent seminary. 

Maulana Sayyid Ahmed had received khilafat from Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind. He died on 11th Shawwal, A. H. 1358, and lies buried in the 
Jannat al-Baq'ee. 

41. MAULANA KARIM BAKHSH SANBHALI 

Having read the intermediate-level books at his native-place he went 
to Amroha where he read some lessons under the instruction of Maulana 
Ahmed Hasan. Thereafter, entering the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he comp- 
leted the course of Hadith in A. H. 1317 under the guidance of Hazrat 
Shaikh al-Hind. 

He was a religious doctor of excellent ability; he served as a teacher 
in various madrasahs. During his service at Hapur, Maulana Sayyid Fakhr 
al-Din Ahmed also studied under him. He was appointed head-teacher in 
Madrasa Jam'e al-Ulum, Kanpur, and then was appointed in the same 
capacity in Madrasa-e Dar al-Ulum at Mau, Azamgarh. During this period 
Maulana Habib al-Rahman Azami, Maulana Mufti Abd al-Latif Azami and 
Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Naumani read some books of Hadith under 
his instruction. He died in A. H. 1362. 

42. MAULANA ABD AL-MAJEED SANBHALI 

He received primary education at his native place Sanbhal from 
Maulana Mufti Abd al-Salam Isra'ili. Then he took admission in the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, for learning Hadith the course of which he completed 
in A. H. 1317. 

He served as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow, in its 
incipient stage. During this period Maulana Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi also read 
some books of Hadith under his instruction. Then he became head-teacher 

(foot-note from the previous page continued} 

Sayyid Ahmed's nephew, Sayyid Habib is its superintendent. 

In short, the academic benevolence of the elders of Deoband and the eminent predecessors 
is quenching the thirst of the seekers of prophetic sciences through Madrasa-e Saulatia in Mecca 
and Madrasat al-Shari'ah in Madina. It is such a great good luck that it has fallen to the lot of 
Deoband only in the whole Islamic world in the current period. 



59 

in the Madrasat al-Shar'a at Sanbhal and remained attached to it till the 
end. Students used to come to him even from distant places like Bukhara 
to study astronomy and books of rational sciences. Maulana Manzoor 
Naumani had completed the study of rational sciences under him only. The 
date of his death could not be known. 

43. MAULANA ABD AL-SAM'EE DEOBANDI 

He was born at Deoband in A. H. 1295. His chronogrammatic name was 
Chiragh Muhammad. From the first to the last he prosecuted his studies in 
the Dar al-Ulum and graduated in A. H. 1318. 

For many years he served as teacher at Fatehgarh, District Farrukhabad. 
Then he was appointed as teacher in Madrasa-e Islamia, Roorkee, District 
Saharanpur, and then in Madrasa-e A'aliya Masjid Fatehpuri, Delhi. About 
the end of A. H. 1328 he was appointed to teach in the lower classes in 
the Dar al-Ulum. Along with the lower classes he taught the books 
prescribed for the Hadith course also and thus rendered teaching services 
in the Dar al-Ulum for 38 years with proficiency. His lessons on Mishkat 
al-Masabih and Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani were far-famed; the students liked 
his teaching and style of expression very much. A scholar par excellence, 
he was a source of pride for the Dar al-Ulum in his capacity as a teacher; 
he was also very cordial to the students. 

His sermon too used to be very agreeable and effective. He had 
knowledge of the art of polemics also. As in speaking, he commanded 
equal mastery in writing as well. As such, he translated Bustan 
al-Muhaddithin into very facile and chaste Urdu under the title Rauz 
al-Riyahin, which was printed in A. H. 1334 in Matba-e Qasimi, Deoband. 

He died on 11th Safar, A. H. 1366 at Deoband. His son, Maulana Abd 
al-Ahad, is one of the teachers of the higher classes in the Dar al-Ulum. 

44 MAULANA ABD AL-AZIZ GUJRANWALVI 

He was a famous religious divine and traditionist of the Punjab. In A. H. 
1318 he completed the Hadith course in the Dar al-Ulum. Nabras al-Sari 
'ala Atraf al-Bukhari is his famous book on the science of Hadith 
Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri was all praise for his knowledge and 
learning and used to appreciate his book Nabras al-Sari very much. He 
was Khateeb in Jame Masjid of Gujranwala. By reason of his knowledge 
and learning he held a high position in the academic and religious circles 



of the Punjab. The date of his demise could not be known. 

45. MAULANA MUHAMMAD SEHSARAMI 

He graduated in A. H. 1318 from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. Initially he 
served for some time as teacher in Sehsaram and Mazahir-e Ulum, 
Saharanpur, and, then, in A. H. 1327, he was appointed as teacher of 
Arabic in Madrasa-e A'liya, Calcutta. He was a famous religious doctor and 
a talented scholar. 

His academic grace spread very much in Bengal due to his stay in 
Madrasa-e A'liya, Calcutta. 

46. MAULANA ABD AL-RAZZAQ PESHAWARI 

He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1318 and was one of the 
favourite pupils of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind. He was appointed as Qazi al- 
qazat (Chief Justice) in Afghanisatan, where he was highly respected. He 
was also president of the Privy Council there. His decisions in religio-legal 
matters used to be final and his academic influences had spread all over 
Afghanistan. 

It says in the report of the Rowlatt Committee about him as follows :- 

"He is the head of the Kabul University in which he lectures on 
astronomy. He has been tutor to Sardar Ina'yat Allah Khan for some time. 
He is the backbone of the Indian revolutionary party in Kabul. The string of 
all the activities that take place beyond the border against the British 
government is in his hand" 1 . 

47. MAULANA MUHAMMAD SAHOOL BHAGALPURI 

His native place was Pureni, District Bhagalpur (Bihar). Having taken 
primary education at home, he joined Maulana Ashraf Alam's teaching cir- 
cle in Bhagalpur. From there he went to Kanpur and studied under Maulana 
Hazrat Thanvi and Maulana Muhammad Ishaq Burdwani at Madrasa-e Jam'e 
al-Ulum, and then at Madrasa-e Faiz-e A'm under Maulana Muhammad 
Farouq Chiryakoti. The zest for the acquisition of knowledge took him from 
Kanpur to Hyderabad; this journey he covered in two months — on foot I 
During his stay in Hyderabad he acquired the knowledge of logic, 

1. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind by Maulana Muhammad Mian, p. 309 



philosophy, astronomy, literature and Principles of Fiqh from Mufti Lutf 
Allah Aligarhi and Maulana Abd al-Wahhab Bihari. Reaching Delhi from 
Hyderabad, he attended lectures of Maulana Nazeer Husain; in the end 
he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum and completed Jhe study of Hadith 
under the instruction of the Shaikh al-Hind. After the completion of 
studies he served as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum for seven, eight years, 
and then as head teacher and Shaikh al-Hadith at Madrasa-e Azizia, Bihar 
Sharif; Madrasa-e A'liya, Calcutta; and Madrasa-e A'liya, Sylhet (Assam). In 
1920 he was appointed as principal in Madrasa-e A'liya Shams al-Huda, 
Patna. In short, he taught for as many as forty-six years in the great 
madrasahs of U. P., Bihar, Bengal and Assam. From A. H. 1350 to 1362 he 
was a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum. He died on 12th 
Rajab, 1367/1948; his grave is in Pureni. 

He was tall and handsome. Whenever he came to Deoband and went 
to see his teacher, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind, the latter would always stand up 
to shake hands with him, and being himself short-statured, would remark 
humorously /'Brother ! Maulavi Sahool has come; a ladder will have to be 
put up to shake hands with him" ! 

Maulavi Sahool was very soft-hearted. At the very mention of the 
eminent predecessors and the great holy Companions, tears would start 
trickling down from his eyes and it would become difficult for him to speak. 

48. MAULANA MIAN ASGHAR HUSAIN DEOBANDI 

He was born at Deoband in A. H. 1294. His family has been disting- 
uished and acknowledged in Deoband for holiness and saintliness. Having 
read the Holy Quran and Persian upto Gulistan under the instruction of his 
august father, Shah Muhammad Hasan (d. A. H. 1312), he entered the Dar 
al-Ulum and in A. H. 1310, after having completed the course in Persian, he 
started learning Arabic and his student career in the Dar al-Ulum continued 
upto A. H. 1320. 

After the completion of his education, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind, in the 
end of A. H. 1321, selected him as head-teacher for the madrasah of the 
Atala Masjid of Jaunpur, where he continued to benefit the students of 
religious sciences as well as the Muslims of Jaunpur with his exoteric and 
esoteric knowledge. In A. H. 1328 when the authorities of the Dar ai-Ulum, 
Deoband, decided to start a monthly journal, Al-Qasim, they called him 
from Jaunpur and charged him with the task of publishing it and also 
assigned him lessons of certain books for teaching. Generally he used to 



teach books of Tafsir and Hadith. It says in the report for A. H. 1333 
about him as follows 

"Maulavi Sahib has had great ability and proficiency in religious 
sciences like Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, Obligatory Duties etc. He is also an 
author. An independent book on the Obligatory Duties (Fara'iz) has 
already been published by him and has gained much popularity in the 
country. A class of Daura-e Hadith and books of Tafsir and Fiqh like 
Jalalayn, Durr-e Mukhtar, etc. are usually assigned to him by the 
authorities of the Dar al-Ulum. He is a man of abstinence and piety, a 
divine who translates his religious knowledge into practice, and he is a 
specimen of the predecessors and a true successor". 

Along with this combination of knowledge and practice, Mian Sahib 
had attained utmost expertise in the art of writing periapt. Besides 
Muslims, followers of other religions also used to benefit from his 
amulets; in this connection the gamut of his public service was very vast. 
Knowledge and learning, abstinence and piety, virtue and abstemiousness 
had made his person a cynosure. 

He had had permission for initiating or accepting neophytes — 
(murids) and spiritual succession (khilafat) from his august maternal- 
uncle, Hazrat Mianji Munne Shah Sahib and Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Hazrat 
Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki. In fine, he was a very benevolent saintly 
person of his time. 

Mian Sahib built a travellers' rest-house under the name of Dar al- 
Musafirin ("House of the Travellers") at Deoband and re-started his 
ancestral maktab (primary school) which had closed down after his 
august father's demise. He has left thirty big and small books in the Urdu 
language on the topics of Fiqh, Fara'iz, history, etc. 

In the later phase of A. H. 1363, he went to Gujarat at the invitation of 
his adherents there. He was putting up at Rander (now a locality of Surat), 
where he died of cardiac arrest on Monday, 22nd Muharram al-Haram, A. 
H. 1364, and was laid to rest in eternal sleep at Rander itself. 

49. MAULANA MUHAMMAD MIAN MANSOOR ANSARI 

He was Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi's daughter's son and 
Maulana Abd Allah Ansari's eldest son. His native-place was Anbetha but 
he received primary education at Madrasa-e Manba al-Ulum, Gulaothi, 
where his father was a head-teacher. Graduating from the Dar al-Ulum in 
A. H. 1321, he served as teacher at different places and as head-teacher 



63 

for some time at Madrasa-e Mo'eenia, Ajmer. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind had 
called him to Deoband for assistance in his work of translation of the 
Quran. In A. H. 1327 when Jami'at al-Ansar was established at Deoband, 
he was appointed its deputy director along with Maulana Ubayd Allah 
Sindhi. He was a man of a very sound judgement and a talented religi- 
ous divine. He remained in the company of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind in the 
latter's last pilgrimage-journey which took place in 1333/1915. The 
Shaikh al-Hind had got a persuasive letter written by Ghalib Pasha, the 
governor of Madina, addressed to the people of India and the north- 
west independent tribes for taking part in the movement for the inde- 
pendence of India; the important task of carrying this letter which is 
known as Ghalib Nama in^he political history of India was entrusted to 
Maulana Ansari only, which errand he accomplished very adroitly and 
dodging the Indian secret police reached the independent territory of 
Yaghistan. Since Maulana Mansoor Ansari had already left for yaghistan 
he escaped arrest at the time of the Shaikh al-Hind's arrest in Hejaz. His 
real name was Muhammad Mian but in order to save himself from the 
British police when he came to India with the Ghalib Nama he kept the 
alias Mansoor Ansari, and later on became famous by this alias itself. 
Among the bunch of letters known as "Silken Letters" in the political 
annals of India, one was from the pen of Maulana Mansoor Ansari also; 
it was written on a yellow silk cloth. His rank in the Divine Hosts was 
that of a Lt. General. 

After the Shaikh al-Hind's arrest in Hejaz, he went to Afghanistan and 
settled down there permanently. He had had great influence on the 
Afghan Government due to his knowledge and learning, political acumen 
and foresight. Accordingly, in the ambassadorial mission the Afghan 
Government had sent to Turkey, it had assigned Maulana Mansoor Ansari 
the rank of minister plenipotentiary. Similarly, he had been sent in the 
capacity of a political adviser in the political mission to Moscow. 
Bachcha Saqqa, after coming to power, had exiled him from 
Afghanistan. During the brief reign of this usurper the Maulana had gone 
to Russia for some months. When Nadir Shah defeated Bachcha Saqqa 
and became ruler of Afghanistan, he called the Maulana back. 

During his stay in Afghanistan he wrote several political books. 
Hukumat-e llahi, Asas-e Inquilab, Dastoor-e Imamat, and Anw'a al- 

Dawal reflect his high intellectual and thinking powers. He served on 
different posts in Afghanistan. In the last phase of his life he had taken 
abode in Jalalabad, which is a famous town in Afghanistan. He died 
there on 6th Safar, A. H. 1365/January 11, 1946. 



64 

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, as soon as India won freedom, very much 
wished to recall him to India but, unfortunately, a year before India 
became free, Maulana Mansoor Ansari had embarked on his last journey 
and therefore could not see that country, for whose freedom he had 
spent 31 years of his life in exile, free. 

Maulana Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi, the former editor of the newspaper, 
Madina (Bijnor), who has had a distinct position in the Urdu Journalism 
of India, is Maulana Mansoor Ansari's eldest son,- and the Maulana's sec- 
ond son, Hameed Ansari, lives in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 

50. MAULANA IZAZ ALI *AMROHI 

He was one of the most distinguished graduates of the Dar al-Ulum. 
After his graduation from it in A. H. 1321, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind selected 
him for Madrasa-e Na'uman, Pureni, District Bhagalpur (Bihar). Thus he 
kept teaching in that region for nearly seven years. Then he came to 
Shahjahanpur and established a madrasah under the name Afzal al- 
Madaris in a mosque where he used to teach for the sake of Allah (i. e., 
without charging any fees or remuneration). He taught in this madrasah 
for nearly three years very successfully. In A. H. 1330 he was appointed 
as teacher in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and in the first year he was 
assigned elementary books of Arabic like 'llm al-Sigha and Nur al-Ezah 
for teaching. It has been stated about this Professor of Literature in the 
report for that period as under - 

"Maulavi Izaz Ali is one of the middle graduates of the middle and 
the last classes. He has been a teacher at some places; lastly, he was 
teaching at Madrasa-e Pureni, Dist. Bhagalpur. From there he was called to 
Deoband. He is a young, capable, righteous and pious divine. In 
presence and character he is a relic of his ancestors. He has complete 
proficiency in different sciences,- and great expertise particularly in the 
science of literature. He has recently written a scholium on Himasa and is 
currently busy in margining the Kanz al-Daqa'iq; earlier he had already 
written marginal notes on Divan-e Mutanabbi. He teaches in the middle 
classes of the Dar al-Ulum. Most of the lessons of the science of literature 
are handled by him. He also exercises the students in writing Arabic arti- 
cles. He is an eloquent lecturer; the students are very familiar with him" 

In A. H. 1340 when Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed, vice- 
chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was selected for the post of the 
Chief Mufti of the erstwhile Hyderabad State, he, on account of his old 



65 

age, took Maulana Izaz Ali with him. There he stayed one year and came 
back with Hafiz Sahib. "After Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman's resignation 
from the post of Chief Mufti of the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1346, Maulana 
Izaz Ali was appointed on this post and since then till his end he stayed 
in the Dar al-Ulum. 

Jurisprudence (Fiqh) and literature were his special fields. In the 
beginning, as stated earlier, he had been assigned elementary books of 
Arabic for teaching in the Dar al-Ulum but before long his teaching 
attained such popularity that he became famous by the title of "Shaikh 
al-Adab wal-Fiqh" (Professor of Literature & Jurisprudence). In the last 
phase of his life he also taught for several years the second volume of 
the Tirmizi, as also higher books of Tafsir. In Maulana Madani's absence 
he got chances many times to teach the Bukhari Sharif also. In short, he 
had had mastery over the books of all the disciplines —like the sciences 
of Fiqh, Hadith, Literature, Exegesis, etc. Along with teaching he had had 
a special penchant for cultivating and looking after the students; a quality 
from which the students benefitted very much and his pupils still 
remember him for this. His punctuality was proverbial and he was sui 
generis in the punctual engagement of his classes, so much so that some 
of the teachers of the Dar al-Ulum Jearnt the lesson of punctuality in 
attending their respective classes for giving lessons from this exemplary 
Prof, of Literature. 

He was a paragon of selflessness and humility. He would never feel 
ashamed of teaching the most elementary books along with the highest 
books; teaching Tirmizi and Bukhari (to higher classes), he would gladly 
teach Mizan al-Sarf, 'Mm al-Sigha, Nur al-Ezah, etc. to small children 
also. A pupil who would keep himself engaged in studies with singleness 
of purpose used to be the dearest in his eyes and the one who would 
while away his time in non-educational pastimes and betray carelessness 
in studies used to be the most detestable. 

Even as he had had great mastery in writing Arabic prose and 
poetry, he was equally highly proficient in composing Urdu prose and 
poetry also. He had a particular, style in Urdu prose. He compiled a 
book entitled Nafahat al-Arab in Urdu, matching the standard of 
Nafahat al-Yemen in the Arabic literature, comprising historical 
anecdotes, fables and moral themes. This book became very popular in 
the Arabic institutions and was introduced as such in the syllabi of the 
Dar al-Ulum and many other madrasahs. Besides this, he has written many 
useful marginalia on Nur al-Ezah, Sharh-e Niqaya and Kanz al-Daqaiq 



66 

in Fiqh, and Divan-e Himasa and Divan-e Mutanabbi in Arabic literature, 
which are highly appreciated by teachers as well as students. He has also 
written a lucid commentary on Maulana Habib al-Rahman's Arabic qasida 
entitled Lami'at al-Mu'ajizat. 

His flair for administrative matters too was acknowledged on all hands 
and his administrative know-how was often utilised in the management 
office also. In fine, he was an incomparable teacher, s polymath religious 
divine and a versatile personality. The period of his academic services in 
the Dar al-Ulum extended over 44 years. He passed away from this 
perishable world in A. H. 1374. 

51. MAULANA AHMED BUZURG SURTI 

He was born at Simlak, a sleepy village, adjacent to Dabhel, in Surat 
district, Gujarat. The year of his birth was A. H. 1298 or 1299. His real 
name was Ahmed but from his childhood itself he was being called 
Buzurg. After completing the Quran at his native-place, he first learnt 
Urdu and then acquired education in Persian and Arabic for four years in 
the madrasah at Lajpur, another village two to three miles from Simlak. 
After having studied Mishkat al-Masabih and Hedaya Awwalin etc., 
he entered the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1318 and graduated in 
A. H. 1321, 

After graduation he acquired the honour of vowing allegiance (bai'ah) 
to Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, and, living in attendance on 
him for nearly one year, he kept himself engaged in zikr and shaghl (re- 
membrance formulae and daily offices, prescribed by the Shaikh for the 
murid's exercise, cleansing of the heart and progress in the spiritual 
stages), striving with the unregenerate soul (mujahada) and self- 
discipline (riyazat). After his spiritual preceptor's (murshid's) death in 
1323/1905, he returned to his native-place and after some time went 
away to South Africa. In A. H. 1335 he was appointed mufti in the Jame 
Masjid Surti at Rangoon, where for three years, along with the work of 
fetwa-writing, he benefitted the people with his sermons and the teach- 
ing of the holy Quran. After his return from Rangoon he was appointed 
rector in A. H. 1339 in Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel. In A. H. 1346 it was he 
who accomplished the exploit of taking away Allamah Muhammad Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri and other eminent ulema to Dabhel. 

Though Maulana Ahmed Buzurg was a simple-minded august man, he 
was highly endowed with administrative abilities. The changing of an 



67 

ordinary madrasah named Madrasa-e Talim al-Din 1 into Jamia-e Islamia 
was his great achievement. During his management, students flocked to 
the Jamia-e Islamia of Dabhel not only from the different parts of the 
subcontinent but also from distant countries like Afghanistan, Bukhara, 
Yemen and Hejaz. 

At an advanced aae he had also memorised the holy Quran. In A. H. 
1368 and 1369 he performed two pilgrimages to Mecca one after another. 

He died a septugenarian, on 5th Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1371, at the 
ripe old age of 72. 

Maulana Muhammad Sa'eed Buzurg 2 is his son and locum tenens; he is 
vice-chancellor of the Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, and also a member of the 
Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

52. MAULANA RASUL KHAN HAZARVI 

He was born in 1288/1871 in Achcharian, Dist. Hazara (Pakistan) in a 
Suati Pathan family. He received primary education in the schools of his 
own district (Hazara). In A. H. 1320 he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. In logic and philosophy particularly he acquired great benefit 
from Maulana Ghulam Rasul Khan Hazarvi. He graduated from the Dar 
al-Ulum in A. H. 1323. 

Thereafter he was appointed head-teacher in Madrasa-e Imdad al- 
Islam, Meerut; and in A. H. 1333 he was called to Deoband to serve as a 
teacher in the Dar al-Ulum where, besides Logic and Philosophy, he used 
to teach other subjects and Hadith also. In A. H. 1353 he went to 

1. One Maulana Ahmed Hasan Simlaki had started this madrasah at Dabhel in A. H. 1326, 
with, besides himself, only one teacher for teaching the holy Quran. Gradually the 
madrasah which had been started in a mosque went on progressing and a magnificent 
building was built for it soon after. Besides a spacious mosque and auditoriums, other 
buildings like those of a library, students' hostel, teachers' quarters, etc. also came into 
existence. In A. H. 1346 when Allamah Muhammad Anwar Shah and other famous teachers 
went away from Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and joined it, it grew into Jamia-e Islamia (a full- 
fledged university). At present it is the largest seminary in the whole of Gujarat (Sayyid 

Mahboob Rizvi). 

2. This translator had the pleasure of meeting him last Tuesday (October 30, 1979) at 
Navsari. Though indisposed he had taken the trouble of coming to Navsari to join other 
ulema of Rander like Maulana Ahmed Ashraf, Mufti Sayyid Abd al-Raheem Lajpuri, Maulana 
Reza Ajmeri, Maulana Ahmed Allah Randeri and Mufti Kachchochvi, for laying the 
foundation-stone of a mosque to be reconstructed at Mothwad mohalla, Navsari. 

(Translator) 



Lahore and was appointed a lecturer in the Arabic Department of the 
Oriental College, Lahore, where he kept teaching till 1373/1954. After retir- 
ing from there he was appointed head-teacher in Madrasa-e Ashrafiya, 
Lahore, to which he remained attached till his last breath. 

Besides the rational sciences, Maulana Rasul Khan had complete 
mastery in the traditional sciences also. He used to teach both the 
rational and the traditional sciences in accordance with the students' 
capacity in such a way that the problem would be fully engraved on the 
pupil's mind. As regards intelligibility, his method of teaching was con- 
sidered distinct; his lecture used to be comprehensive and pithy. Himself 
a man of noble presence and dignified personality, dignity effused from 
his face while lecturing. The style of expression used to be clear and 
effective. Books of all subjects were as if at the tip of his tongue. The 
students used to attend his lectures with eagerness and enthusiasm. He 
was reckoned amongst the dintinguished teachers of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. Nearly seventy years of his life were spent in teaching. 

In the last phase of his life he was overcome/ with Sufism,- he had 
vowed allegiance to Hazrat Thanvi. 

He died a centenarian; to be exact, with five score and three years; 
on 3rd Ramazan, A. H. 1391; at his native-place, Achcharian; and was laid 
to rest there. 

53 ALLAMAH SHABBIR AHMED USMANI 

He was the eldest son of Maulana Fazl al-Rahman. He was born in 
1305/1887 at Bijnor. At the age of seven he entered the class for Quran- 
reading. He completed his education under the instruction of the 
teachers of the Dar al-Ulum in 1325/1907. He was one of the most well- 
guided disciples of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and also owed spiritual 
allegiance to him. After graduation he was appointed head-teacher in 
Madrasa-e Fatehpuri of Delhi and in 1328/1910 he was called from there 
to the Dar al-Ulum where he taught different books to the higher classes 
for a long time. Maulana Usmani's lectures on Sahih-e Muslim had 
acquired great fame. He had had a deep insight in Hazrat Nanautavi's 
sciences. Having rendered teaching services in the Dar al-Ulum for a long 
time, he, due to certain dissents with the management, went away to 
Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel (Dist. Surat, Gujarat), along with Maulana Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri and Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman and others. 

After Shah Sahib's death in 1352/1933, he was appointed Shaikh 



69 

al-Haclith (Professor of Hadith) in Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel. In 1354/1935, 
at Hazrat Thanvi's and other elders' instruction he came to the Dar al- 
Ulum and Kept serving it as chancellor till 1362/1944, though meanwhile 
his connection with the university of Dabhel also continued. 

As regards knowledge and learning, intelligence and discernment, and 
statesmanship and soundness of judgement, Allamah Usmani was being 
reckoned amongst the few outstanding ulema of India. He had had equal 
mastery both in speech and writing (lit., tengue and pen). A high-ranking 
litterateur in Urdu and a master of spell-binding oratory, both his writings 
and speeches used to be unparalleled as regards eloquence and 
s-uccinctness, perspicuous arguments, effective similes, style of expression 
and subtle points of wit and wisdom. He used to have a deep insight 
into the current affairs and hence his writings and speeches were being 
highly appreciated both by the high and the low. Men of taste still 
cherish the memory of his eloquent, pithy and scholarly speeches that 
he delivered in grand functions and meetings. It was Maulana Usmani 
who had received the honour of writing and reading in the function that 
last address Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind had delivered on the occasion of 
the founding of the Jamia-e Millia Islamia (New Delhi), during his last 
days. 

Ilm al-Kalam, AI-'Aql wal-Naql, Ijaz al-Quran, Hijab-e Shara'i, Al- 
Shahab le-rajm al-Khatif al-Murtab are his monumental works. Maulana 
Usmani's exegetical marginalia on the translation of the Holy Quran by 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind are very famous. Confining himself to the gamut of 
the predecessors' view-point, the secrets and subtle points of knowledge 
of the holy Quran he has annotated in such a way that all the thorns rank- 
ling in thought and intellect are removed one after the other and the 
heart gets a strange feeling of solace and complacence. The Afghan Gov- 
ernment has got this translation and marginalia translated into Persian and 
has sent a copy thereof as a gift to the Dar al-Ulum. In the science of 
Hadith, his highly valuable work in Arabic entitled Fath al-Mulhim is the 
first-ever commentary, from the Hanafite point of view, of the Sahih-e 
Muslim. This is such an opus magnum of his that it has introduced his 
knowledge and learning to the entire Islamic world; and for which 
Allamah Zahid al-Kausari as well as other ulema of Egypt and Syria have 
complimented him. 

Allamah Usmani had been an important member of the Khilafat Com- 
mittee; in 1333/1914, during the Balkan war, he had very enthusiastically 
participated in collecting funds for the Turks. He served as a member of 



70 

the executive council of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind for a number of years, 
and was' reckoned amongst the first class leaders of the said organisation 
of the ulema, but later on, on the question of oneness of nationality and 
the Jami'at's co-operation with the Congress, he dissented from the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind, and joined the Muslim League. In 1365/1946 he was 
elected president of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Islam. Before the partition of 
India he went away to Pakistan in Ramazan, 1366/1947, and settled down 
there. He was appointed a member of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly 
and president of the Constituent Committee. In Pakistan he rendered many 
religious and national services; his acamedic and political services had a 
special influence on the paramount power in Pakistan, where he was held 
in the highest esteem particularly as a religious divine and thinker, and 
along with his religious guidance his political leadership too was 
acknowledged on all hands. 

The influence and stability he had gained in the Pakistani politics can 
be estimated from the fact that the assurance made in the Objectives 
Resolution presented by the late Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Kha'n in the 
Pakistan Constituent Assembly to the effect -that the Constitution of 
Pakistan would be based on the Book and the Sunnah, was in fact due to 
Allamah Usmani's opportune attention and his struggle. 

In Pakistan Jamia-e Abbasiya, Bhawalpur, is an old seminary. As its 
administrative and educational organisation had much deteriorated, the 
Ministry of Education of the Bhawalpur State requested Maulana Usmani 
to visit Bhawalpur and favour the state with his opinion for the improve- 
ment and progress of the Jamia-e Abbasiya. Accordingly, he went to 
Bhawalpur, and while a dialogue had only started with the Ministry of 
Education, he suddenly passed away after a few hours' illness, on 21st 
Safar, A. H. 1369 (December 13, 1949); the bier was taken from 
Bhawalpur to Karachi and he was buried at his residence near Muhammad 
Ali Road. 

It is stated in the report for A. H. 1333 about Maulana Usmani as 
follows - 

"Maulavi Shabbir Ahmed Sahib, as Allah willed, is one of those 
educated young men who can be called the repository of the sciences of 
the elders. He has had complete proficiency in all the rational and the 
traditional sciences, and is unrivalled in writing and speaking; in the sci- 
ence of Hadith particularly he has such consummate mastery which is 
generally had by aged and experienced professors of Hadith. We hope it 



71 

from Allah Most High that this young man, besides being among the 
glorious distinctions of the Dar al-Ulum by reason of his knowledge, 
capacity and every kind of ability, will prove a true successor of his pre- 
decessors. Maulavi Sahib even in those days when he was himself busy in 
acquiring knowledge used to spend much of his time in teaching the stu- 
dents. Even students of the highest classes used to read books of all 
subjects under his instruction unhesitatingly. In A. H. 1326 he was 
appointed as first teacher at Madrasa-e Fatehpuri, Delhi, and went there. 
The members of this madrasah did not like to keep such an able man 
away from the Dar al-Ulum. So in A. H. 1328 he was called back to 
Deoband. He discharges the service of teaching and all sorts of services 
to the Dar al-Ulum very efficiently. Maulavi Sahib's lectures and speeches 
are generally effective all over the country". 

The expectations which the elders of that era had held of Allamah 
Usmani are fully supported by the afore-said particulars. 

54. MAULANA MAZHAR AL-DIN SHERKOT1 

Sherkot, District Bijnor, was his native-place. He graduated from the 
Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1326. He served as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum for 
some time and then became editor of the famous newspaper, Madina, 
Bijnor. Thereafter he first started a tri-weekly entitled Al-Aman and then a 
daily entitled Wahdat from Delhi. He was a famous elocutionist and 
journalist of the country. He wrote many historical novels which were 
very popular in those days. 

During the .period of the Khilafat Movement he took part in it 
enthusiastically; he was among the great partisans of the Muslim League. 
Al-Aman used to be considered a popular newspaper in its time. In 
1358/1938 he was attacked murderously in the office of Al-Aman and 
was done to death. 

It is stated about him in the report of the Rowlatt Committee that "he, 
at Calcutta, under auspices of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, accepted the 
job of a teacher in the Dar al-lrshad and service as the editor of Al- 
Balagh. He is a murid of Maulana Mahmud Hasan and used to participate 
in the secret meetings at Deoband 1 " 

55. MAULANA FAZL-E RABBI PESHAWARI 

He was a native of Peshawar district'. Graduating from the Dar al-Ulum 
1. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind, pp. 344. 



79 

A. H. 1327, he engaged himself in teaching at his native-place. In the 
beginning of World War I he migrated at the instance. of Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hind and went to Yaghistan, where he went on instigating the people for 
the war of independece against the British Government. When Haji 
Turangzai raised the banner of jihad against the English, he joined him in 
the battle, but when the movement came to an end, he went away to 
Afghanistan where he, by reason of his academic qualification, got a 
service in the Education Department of the Afghan Government and 
graced several high government posts. The laudable Maulana was a dis- 
tinguished member of the Jami'at-e Ulama-e Afghanistan; the major part 
of his life was spent in educational and political services. 

It is stated in the Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind that Maulana Mahnrmd 
Hasan had sent him to the free territory along with Maulavi Saif al-Rahman 
for preaching jihad; that he was responsible for most of the encounters 
of 1915; and was a colonel in the list of the Divine Hosts 1 . 

56. ALLAMAH MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM BALLIAVI 

His chronogrammatic name is Ghulam Kibria. He was born in A. H. 
1304 in a learned family of Ballia town in eastern U. P. His family had 
come from Jhang district of the Punjab to Jaunpur and had settled down 
in Ballia after some time. In Jaunpur he acquired the primary knowledge 
of Persian and Arabic from the famous physician, Maulana Hakim Jameel 
al-Din Naginvi and studied books of the rational sciences under instruc- 
tion of Maulana Farouq Ahmed Chiryakoti and Maulana Hedayat Allah 
Khan (disciple of Maulana Fazl Haq Khairabadi). For learning Theology he 
became a disciple of Maulana Abd al-Ghaffar who was one of the most 
well-guided pupils of Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. In the late A. H. 
1325 he, entering the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, first studied books like 
Hedaya, Jalalayn^etc. and then graduated from it in A. H. 1327. 

In the very year of his graduation he was appointed as second teacher 
in Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri (Delhi). Then he remained engaged in 
teaching for some time in the madrasah of Umri, Dist. Moradabad. In A. 
H. 1331 he was called to serve in the Dar al-Ulum. From A. H. 1340 to A. 
H. 1344 he served as Dean in Madrasa-e Dar al-Ulum, Mau, Dist. 
Azamgarh, and Madrasa-e Imdadiya, Darbhanga (Bihar). In A. H. 1344 he 
was again called back to the Dar al-Ulum. In the report for A. H. 1333 he 
has been mentioned in the following words :- 

1. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind, pp. 36-37 



73 

"Maulavi Muhammad Ibrahim Sahib is fully qualified in all the sci- 
ences. He teaches all the books of the rational subjects and philosophy 
excellently; besides the terminal lessons of philosophy, logic and 
scholastic theology from Sadra, Shams-e Bazigha, Qazi Mubarak, Hamd 
Allah, Umoor-e A'mmah, he teaches lessons from Sharh-e Matal'e, 
Sharh-e Isharat, etc. also. The students remain very much inclined 
towards him. He is a very good lecturer. In short, he is a teacher worthy 
to be appreciated and valued, one who is destined to earn name and 
fame". 

In A. H. 1362 he again sought separation from the Dar al-Ulum. Firstly 
he graced the dean's masnad at Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel; thereafter he 
served Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri, for sometime in the same capacity 
and then became dean in the madrasah at Haat Hazari, Dist. Chitagong, 
Bengal. At last, in A. H. 1366, at Maulana Muhammad Tayyib's recom- 
mendation and by approval of the Majlis-e Shura, he came back to the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and in A. H. 1377, after Hazrat Mandani's death, 
he. was appointed as principal in the Dar al-Ulum on which post he re- 
mained till his last breath. The number of his disciples exceeds 
thousands who, besides -the subcontinent, have fanned out to many 
countries of Asia and Africa. 

Allamah Balliavi was a matchless don of the time in every art and 
science, particularly in scholastic theology and the science of beliefs. 
The outstanding services he rendered to Quranic Exegesis (Tafsir) and 
Hadith, Beliefs and Scholastic Theology, and other sciences, are sui 
generis. The period of his teaching work extends from A. H. 1327 to 
A. H. 1387 — that is, over six decades. Students used to attend his 
lectures with great eagerness and absorption, and they used to long to 
be benefitted from his lofty instructions. Along with brevity there was a 
quality of conciseness in his lecturing. The style of lecturing used to be 
very dignified, but at the same time he had had a special knack and 
mastery in enlivening his lectures with wit and humour and in tackling 
delicate points and solving important questions with mature skill. He 
used to make stories and anecdotes so coincide with the propositions 
(masa'il) that all the aspects of a proposition would become clear and 
determined. This was also a peculiarity of his lectures that the pupils 
used to develop a deep affinity with the subject and the paths of 
knowledge and wisdom used to open up for them. In his time he had 
had no rival in his knowledge of Beliefs, Scholastic Theology, Logic and 
Philosophy. In Hadith he used to employ reasoning more than tradition. 
He had a deep insight into Hazrat Nanautavi's sciences. Besides being 



the pupil of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind he had also had the honour of vowing 
allegiance to him. 

Amongst Allamah Balliavi's works Risala-e Musafaha and Risala-e 
Taraveeh are in Urdu; and one treatise entitled Anwar al-Hikmat in 
Persian comprises articles on logic and philosophy. His scholium in 
Arabic on Sallam al-Ulum is entitled Zia al-Nujum. He had written 
scholia on Mebazi and Khiyali also but unfortunately they were lost. In 
the end he was writing marginal notes on Jam'e Tirmizi but could not 
complete them. His health had deteriorated for a long time and on 24th 
Ramazan, A. H. 1387, he responded to the call of death in the after- 
noon at the ripe old age of 84 years and lies buried in the Qasimi 
cemetry. 

57. MAULANA SAWID FAKHR AL-DIN AHMED 

His beloved native-place was Hapur. His ancestors, Sayyid Qutb and 
Sayyid A'lam, along with their two other brothers, came to Delhi from 
Herat during Shahjahan's regime. These gentlemen were amongst the dis- 
tinguished divines of their time. Shahjahan, for their teaching-work, built 
a madrasah for them at Hapur. Sayyid A'lam's geneaological chain 
remounts to Hazrat Imam Husam through 26 mediums. 

Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Ahmed was born at Ajmer in 1307/1889. His 
grandfather, Sayyid Abd al-Karim, was a station house officer (thanedar) 
in the Police Department there. His education began at the age of four. 
He /ead the holy Quran under the instruction of his august mother and 
acquired the knowledge of Persian from the elders of his family. In his 
twelfth year he began studying Arabic grammar and syntax under 
Maulana Khalid, a divine of his own family. During this period his august 
father thought of reviving his ancestral madrasah which had been 
destroyed in the upheaval of 1857. After receiving education in this 
madrasah for some years, he was sent to Madrasa Manba ai-Ulum at 
Gulaothi, where he read some books under the instruction of Maulana 
Majid Ali, and thereafter went to Delhi with the same teacher. He 
studied books of the rational sciences in the madrasahs of Delhi. In 
1326/1908 when he came to the Dar al-Ulum, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind 
tested him for admission and he came off with flying colours in this 
test. According to Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's instruction he completed the 
Hadith Course (Daura-e Hadith) in two years instead of one. During his 
student career at the Dar al-Ulum itself he had begun to teach books of 
the rational sciences to the students. 



75 

After graduation in 1328/1910 he became a teacher in the Dar al- 
Ulum. Then after some time the elders of the Dar al-Ulum, in Shawwal, 
1329/1911, sent him to Madrasa-e Shahi, Moradabad, where he lived for 
nearly 48 years. During this long period of nearly half a century many 
students of Hadith derived benefit from him. 

Since the lauded Maulana was one of the favourite disciples of 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and "Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri, his 
teaching of Hadith reflected a fusion of the styles of both these glorious 
teachers. As such his lectures on Bukhari used to be very expansive 
and detailed, discussing all the aspects of a hadith at length. After stating 
the different practical methods (mazahib) of the jurisprudents (fuqaha), 
he used to adduce such forceful arguments in elucidation of the support 
to and preference for the jurisprudential tack of the Hanafites that the 
mind of the audience used to be fully satisfied, leaving not the slightest 
anxiety. During his lecture, along with the different commentaries of the 
Sahih-e Bukhari, he also used to quote appropriately the sciences and 
acquirements of his teachers. In the teaching of Hadith his lecture used 
to be not only expansive and detailed but also easy and cogent, where- 
fore less gifted students too got a chance to derive the fullest advantage. 
The style of expression used to be very clear and chaste, adequately 
reflecting all the features of his external handsomeness, and hence his 
lectures on Bukhari had gamed great fame and general popularity. 
Accordingly, in 1390/1970 as many as 275 students were attending his 
ectures on Hadith and every year, more or less, the same number of 
students used to be present in the Daura-e Hadith . 

In 1377/1957, after Maulana Madani's death, the members of the 
Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, selected him for the post 
of the Shaikh al-Hadith. Earlier than this he had twice, during Hazrat 
Maulana Madani's imprisonment and leave, taught Sahih-e Bukhari in the 
Dar al-Ulum. 

Besides the educational preoccupations, he was also connected with 
national and communal politics, and as a result of this had also to suffer 
the hardships of jail and imprisonment. During Maulana Madani's presi- 
dentship of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind he acted twice as vice- 
president; thereafter he graced the chair of the president and dis- 
charged presidential duties of this organisation till his last breath. 

At the fag-end of his life when health would not respond to treat- 
ment, he. was taken to Moradabad, where his dependents were living, for 



76 

change of climate, but the promised hour had come. After a brief ill- 
ness he died after midnight on 20th Safar, A. H. 1392 (April 5, 1971); 
and this sun of knowledge and learning set in the land of Moradabad 
for ever. 

58. MAULANA SHA'IQ AHMED USMANI 

His date of birth is 25th Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1311. Pureni, District 
Bhasalpur in Bihar was his native-place. He took primary education in 
Pureni and Monghyr. When Madrasa-e Naumania was established in 
Pureni, Maulana Usmani also took admission in it. At that time Maulana 
Izaz Ali Amrohi was a teacher in the said madrasah. Acquiring 
knowledge of the science of literature from him far four years, he 
entered the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1327, and joining the Daura-e Hadith in 
A. H. 1328, he passed its examination with distinction marks. After 
graduation he acquired the honour of allegiance to Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind. In A. H. 1331 he served as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum for one 
year. 

In A. H. 1331 when Maulana Sindhi established Majlis-e Nazarat" 
al-Ma'arif at Delhi, Maulana Usmani put up there and along with the 
acquisition of the Quranic sciences and knowledge, he also received 
political training from Maulana Sindhi. How young men were given poli- 
tical training in the Nazarat al-Ma'arif can be known from the following 
statement of Maulana Usmani. :- 

Sometimes Maulana Sindhi used to give a topic for essay-writing of 
this kind :'lf you are appointed the governor-general of India, how will 
you manage the country' 1 "? 

Maulana Usmani remained attached to the hospice of Monghyr also 
for some time. At that time the mischief of Qadianism was raising its 
head in some of the districts of Bihar. Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Ali 
Monghyri did a great job in crushing this mischief; he wrote several 
books in refutation of Qadianism and also got some written by others. 
For this purpose a printing press was installed at Khanqah-e Rahmani 
and a monthly was also started under the editorship of Maulana 
Usmani 2 . During the period of the Khilafat Movement Maulana Usmani 
went to Calcutta and there he was made incharge of the Propoganda & 

1. Mujalla Al-'llm, Karachi, January — March, 1960, p.71. 

2. Ibid. p. 73. 



Publication Dept. of the Bengal Khilafat Committee; he participated very 
actively during this period in this movement. 

In the late 1921 he started a daily entitled Asr-e Jadid from Calcutta. 
Hardly a month had passed over the starting of this paper when 
Maulana Usmani was sentenced to one year's rigorous imprisonment 
under section 505 of the Indian Penal Code. It is the same section 
under which the famous historical case of Karachi had been conducted 
in which Maulana Madani, Ali Brothers, etc. had been implicated. Asar-e 
Jadid rendered valuable services to the Khilafat Movement and the 
Muslim community, and the publication of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's 
academic benefits was also an important exploit of this newspaper. 

Maulana Usmani always remained interested in the holy Quran; 
besides the last two portions of the Quran, he wrote the exegesis of 
several other suras which became very popular. 

In February, 1948, Maulana Usmani went to Karachi from Calcutta and 
started the Asr-e Jadid from there but there it remained in circulation 
for three years and then ceased to exist 1 . 

59 MAULANA KHWAJA ABD AL-HAYY FAROUQI 

He was an inhabitant of Gurdaspur district, Punjab. He was an able 
graduate of the Muslim University, Aligarh. In A. H. 1329 he graduated in 
Hadith from the Dar al-Ulum. Khwaja Sahib was deeply connected with 
HaZrat Shaikh al-Hind's movement for the independence of India. After 
graduation from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he put up at Lahore for some 
time, giving lectures an the holy Quran These lectures were usually 
attended by college students, office clerks and other modern educated 
individuals. The purport and style of his lectures on the Quran were to 
teach the Quran to the young men in such a way that they might be 
acquainted with the true Islamic spirit and be so commiitted to the 
Islamic customs that they might themselves decide as to what kind of life 
they should live and at the same time they should make it binding upon 
themselves to struggle for the freedom of the country. What kind of 
lectures Khwaja Sahib used to deliver on the Quran can be estimated 
from the contents of his exegetical books like Al-Khilafat al-Kubra, 

1. At the time of writing these memoirs there 
ween India and Pakistan due to the 1972 war, i 
graduates of the Dar al-Ulum living in Pakistan 
(This war, as far as I remember, started in Dec, 1971.) 



78 

Sirat-e Mustaqeem, 'Ibrat, fiurhan, Sabeel al-Rishad, Basa'ir and Zikra. 
In the Khilafat al-Kurba he has shown that the cause of the present 
decline of the Muslims is this that they have given up the crusader-like 
life, although their existence in the world is for publicising the Word of 
Allah and for crusader-like power. Discussing the philosophy of jihad in 
the interpretation of the Sura-e Anfal, he has shown the necessity of jihad 
and presented the principles of success and victory. In Sabeel al-Rishad 
he has given a very cogent philosophical explanation of the Islamic propo- 
sitions; in Zikra which is the exegesis of the Para-e Amm he has shown 
that if the Muslims act upon the instructions of the holy Quran even now 
they can reach the apogee of progress. Khwaja Sahib, laying stress on 
these matters, invites the Muslims to ponder over the verities and points of 
knowledge of the holy Quran. He had a special interest in the exegesis of 
the holy Quran. He has commented upon the different suras of the Quran in 
separate parts; this commentary, as regards language and expression, is 
very easy and the style of writing is simple and chaste. 

In 1336/1917, due to his being connected with Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hind's movement, he was put in detention in Lahore from which he was 
released in 1338/1919. In the Divine Hosts his name was included in the 
list of colonels. 

For a long time Khwaja Sahib served as Professor of Tafsir and Dean of 
the Faculty of Theology in Jamia-e Millia, Delhi. In the end he went to 
Pakistan. There, having formed a board of ulema, he has written the 
exegesis of the whole Quran in several parts under the title Dars-e 
Quran. This commentary is also very easy and simple and in which it has 
been tried to compress more and more meanings in fewer and fewer 
words. A book of his on the prophetic biography entitled Hamare Rasul 
is well-known, written in easy and simple language for children. 

The date of Khwaja Sahib's death could not be known. 

60. MAULANA ABD AL-SHAKOOR DEOBANDI 

He hailed from the Shaikhs' family of Deoband. His great grand-father, 
Maulana Shams al-Din 1 , had entered the circle of allegiance to Hazrat 

1. Maulana Shams al-Din was the father of Maulana Abd al-Khaliq who rendered great 
services in the construction of the Jame Masjid of Deoband. The functions of leading the 
prayers and delivering the Friday sermon are being still discharged, by right of inheritance, 
by the descendants of this family, though, these functions, for a long are being discharged 



Sayyid Ahmed Shaheed. Maulana Abd al-Shakoor received education at 
the Dar al-Ulum and graduated from it in A. H. 1329.. 

He served as teacher over long periods in Madrasa-e Siddiqia, Delhi, 
and Madrasa-e Husain Bakhsh, Delhi. In A. H. 1363 he was selected for 
the teaching staff of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. In Shawwal, A. H. 1367, 
he went to Hejaz and there he became a teacher in Madrasa-e Shari'ah, 
Madina. In Hejaz Allah Most High bestowed great popularity on his 
teaching and many Arab students benefitted from it. 

The lauded Maulana's personality was a magnetic amalgam of 
knowledge and learning, abstemiousness and piety, self-sacrifice and 
self-effacement, sincerity and simplicity. All his life was spent in teaching 
the holy Quran and its exegesis as well as the prophetic Hadith. He was 
an excellent hafiz of the holy Quran; he used to read it in such a heart- 
melting and effective tone that the listeners used to be enraptured and 
ecstasized. He had had the honour of vowing allegiance to Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind. 

He died in Jamadi al-Awwal, 1383/1963; at Madina; and lies buried in 
the Jannat al-Baq'ee. 

61. MAULANA HAKIM ABD AL-ALI LAKHNAVI 

His native place was Takia Shah Alamullah in Rae Barely, but due to his 
residence in Lucknow he was famous as a Lakhnavi. He was born in A. H. 
1311. He was the eldest son of Maulana Hakim Abd al-Hayy, the ad- 
ministrator of Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow, and author of Nuzhat al Khwatir. 

(foot-note Continued from the previous page) :- 

by Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib. In jurisprudential propositions Maulana Shams al-Din 
has left a work entitled Shari'at fca Lath. Initially Maulana Shams al-Din was somewhat 
inclined towards schismatic practices (bid'aO. Hearing about the arrival of Hazrat Sayyid 
Ahmed Shaheed at Deoband, he, in his fervour of opposition, wrote a satire which even 
the smalL children of Deoband began to recite promptly. One day, while the reputed 
Sayyid Sahib was still at Deoband, he went to see it for himself why did people so much 
tend towards him. The Qazi Masjid of Deoband where the saintly Sayyid Sahib was stay- 
ing was full of faithful adherents. Maulana sat down in the crowd on one side. Sayyid 
Sahib immediately turned attention to him and asked : "Is it you who have written verses 
satirizing me"? These words Sayyid Sahib expressed in such a manner that Maulana Shams 
al-Din became uneasy and involuntarily apologising he said : "I am ashamed of this 
audacity. Excuse me for God's sake and enter me in the circle of allegiance to you" 
Sayyid Sahib accepted his allegiance and made him a murid, after which the Maulana was 
thoroughly imbued with the Sayyid Sahibs spiritual colour. He lies buried near Shah 
Vilayat, the famous saint of Deoband. 



He received education at Dar al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, and studied Tibb 
under his august father's instruction. In A. H. 1329 he acquired the 
knowledge of the Sihah Sitta ("The Six Authentic Ones") from Hazrat 
Shaikh al-Hind, Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri and other 
teachers. Thereafter he turned his attention to English education and in 
A. H. 1337 took the B. Sc. Examination from Canning College, Lucknow, and 
stood first in it. Then he went to Delhi to derive benefit from Hakim 
Muhammad Ajmal Khan. In the end he took admission in the Medical 
College, Lucknow, and passing the M. B., B. S. Examination in A. H. 1344, 
started private practice in Lucknow 1 . 

Inspite of having received English education and being a doctor 
(medico), his life style was simple and a specimen of his ancestors' life. 
Though he had seen western culture closely and had lived within its 
system of education for years, he was its trenchant critic. There was in him 
a very charming and attractive mingling of the old and the new cultures 
and the eastern and western sciences. Even during the time he was pursu- 
ing English and medical education, there occurred no change in his 
demeanour and living. He had vowed allegiance to Maulana Madani. 

In A. H. 1350 he was appointed rector of Dar al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, 
Lucknow, and along with his private medical practice he went on dis- 
charging the duties of rectorship till his last breath. From A. H. 1377 to A. 
H. 1380 he was a member of the Majlis-e Shura of Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

He died on 3rd Zi-qada, 1380/1961 and was buried in his ancestral 
graveyard at Takia Shah Alamullah in Rae Barely. The distinguished religious 
divine, Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Nadvi, is his younger brother and 
disciple. 

62. MAULANA MUBARAK HUSAIN SANBHALI 

He was born in 1296/1878 at Sanbhal, Dist. Moradabad. He received 
primary education in his native-place. Then his father arranged for-his edu- 
cation by keeping a religious divine from Peshawar at home. Since this 
tutor had more proficiency in the rational sciences, the same colour 
permeated the student also. So he read all the great and small books of 
Logic and Philosophy. In 1328/1910 he entered the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
and completed the Daura-e Hadith and graduated in 1329/1911 from it. 

1. For a fine article on him, see February, 1977 issue of Al-Furqan (Lucknow) monthly, from 
the pen of Maulana Nur al-Hasan Rashid Kandhlavi. (Translator) 



After graduation he accompanied Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind in his journeys 
for some time. The zest for polemics and crusader-like activities was 
there in him from the student life itself; with educational progress it also 
progressed. In A. H. 1330 he joined Maulana Sana Allah Amritsari in the 
polemic at Bareilly and won great success, for which he was given the 
title of "Sher-e Islam". 

In 1334/1915 he established a madrasah under the name Qasim al- 
Ulum at Meerut. In 1338/1919 when Maulana Qazi Bashir al-Din and Haji 
Tahawwur AM established a madrasah named Dar al-Ulum for propogating 
the Deobandi tack, in consultation with Hazrat Maulana Khalil Ahmed 
Anbathvi, Maulana Mubarak Husain was selected as its head-teacher. This 
was the era of the Khilafat Movement. Maulana Mubarak Husain, besides 
teaching, also continued to discharge the duties of organising the Khilafat 
Committee of the Meerut district. He always remained an ardent member 
of the Jami'at al-Ulama for its struggle for the independence of the 
country. When the strength of students began to increase in the Dar al- 
Ulum due to him, in 1925 he built a hostel for the students of the 
madrasah in the centre of the town; the foundation-stone of this building 
was laid by the auspicious hands of Hazrat Shah Sahib Kashmiri, and the 
building is known as "yadgar-e Shaikh al-Hind". This madrasah is located 
in the Shahi Jam'e Masjid of Meerut. 

He died in Jamadi al-Awwal, A. H. 1361 (June, 1942), and was buried 
in the courtyard of the same hostel he had built for the Madrasa-e Dar 
al-Ulum, Meerut. The year of his death is deduced from the 
chronogram : "Zeenat-e Aastan-e Dar al-Ulum." 

63. MAULANA SHABBIR ALI THANVI 

He was born in A. H. 1312. He was a real nephew of Hazrat Thanvi 
and a resident of Thana Bhavan. He received primary education in his 
native-place at Madrasa-e Imdad al-Ulum under the instruction of Maulana 
Abd Allah Gangohi, author of Taisir al-Muhtadi. Then, living with his 
father for some time, he learnt English from him. Thereafter he prosecuted 
his studies at Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and acquired academic and 
spiritual graces from Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi; and, at last, comp- 
leted the study of the sciences in A. H. 1330 at the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. He studied Masnavi Maulana Rum lesson by lesson under the 
instruction of his august uncle, Hazrat Maulana Ashraf AM Thanvi. 

After graduation, he established a printing press under the name of 



Ashraf al-Matab'e at Thana Bhavan for publishing the books of Hazrat 
Hakim al-Ummat. He also started monthlies entitled Al-Tabligh and Al- 
Noor. From A. H. 1337 to A. H. 1369, he managed the affairs of the 
Khanqah-e Imdadiya. After the partition of the country he migrated to 
Pakistan and there he started the business of publishing books. He 
published the last eight unpublished volumes of A'la al-Sunan in Arabic 
type; and got Bayan al-Quran and Bihishti Zewar also printed on a 
high scale. He had gone to Pakistan with the fervour of preaching and 
strove for it steadily till the end. 

He died on 28th Rajab, A. H. 1388 (November 21, 1968) in Karachi 
and was buried beside Hazrat Maulana Abd al-Ghani Phulpuri, in the 
graveyard at Nazimabad. 

64. MAULANA IHSAN ALLAH KHAN TAJWAR 

He was born in 1311/1893, at Najibabad, in a Rohila Afghan family. 
He took primary education at his native-place, Najibabad, and then, far 
higher studies, he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and 
graduated from it in A. H. 1331. The love he had cultivated for Arabic 
literature in his student days later on changed into love for Urdu litera- 
ture. He had started composing verses during his student career itself. 
In poetry though he was a disciple of Rasa Rampuri, during his student 
days at the Dar al-Ulum he had been taking corrections from Habib 
Hasan Wahshi DeobandP. 

After graduation from the Dar al-Ulum, he went to Lahore where he 
joined the editorial staff of the famous journal of that era entitled 
Makhzan . When another famous monthly,, Humayun, was started from 
Lahore, he came over to it; and about the same time he was appointed 
lecturer in Urdu and Persian in the Dayal Singh College of Lahore. 

Very soon the young poets of Lahore gathered around him and most 
of them achieved great fame and reputation later on. Maulana Tajwar 
established Anjuman-e Arabab-e Adab in Lahore and poetical 
symposiums began to be held under its auspices everywhere. Maulana 
Tajwar has also accomplished certain new things in the Urdu poetry. 
Following establishment of the Anjuman-e Arabab-e Adab, he also 

1. Habib Hasan Wahshi Deobandi was a talented poet, having special mastery in writing 
chronograms. His poetical work was unfortunately lost due to the ravages of time. He 
died in 1344/1925 and lies buried in Shah Vilayafs Graveyard. 



83 

started "Urdu Markaz", an institution for compilation and writing of 
books in which, under Maulana Tajwar's supervision, talented poets like 
Asghar Gondvi, Goya Jahanabadi, Majnu Gorakhpuri, Jigar Moradabadi, 
Akhtar Shirani and Talib Meeruthi compiled selections from the works of 
famous Urdu prose-writers and poets in several volumes. 

In the late 1931 he started a standard journal entitled Adabi Duniya 
from Lahore and after some time another journal entitled Shahkaar. 
Maulana Tajwar had had equal mastery both over Urdu prose and 
poetry; the fame of his literary accomplishments, crossing the Punjab, 
had spread all over the country. In the end the title of "Shams al- 
Ulama" was awarded to him by the British Government, and the title of 
"Adeeb al-Mulk" by the literary circles of India. 

Maulana Tajwar died in A. H. 1371 at Lahore at the age of sixty. 

65. MAULANA OZAIR GUL PESHAWARI 

He is a resident of village Ziyarat Kaka Sahib in Peshawar district. 
Graduating in A. H. 1331 from the Dar al-Ulum, he became a member of 
the Shaikh al-Hind's independence movement. Many" important • and 
momentous works of this movement he performed very ably. He Was a 
very ardent and fervent member of the Shaikh al-Hind's party. 

To carry letters and convey messages to Haji Turangzai and other 
members of the movement was his responsiblity; besides being Hazrat 
Shaikh al-Hind's confident, he was also the treasurer. In A. H. 1333 he 
accompanied Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind to Hejaz and when the latter was 
arrested and put under detention at Malta, he was also detained with 
hirti. He returned to India along with the Shaikh al-Hind of whom he 
was a devoted servant. His designation in the list of the Divine Hosts 
has been shown to be that of a colonel. 

During the period of the Khilafat Movement he was made president 
of the Khilafat Committee of Deoband. Before World War II he was 
appointed head-teacher in the Madrasa-e Rahmania at Roorkee. During 
his stay at Roorkee he had married a neophyte English woman, who 
belonged to the royal family of England and was residing near Roorkee 
for a long time. She had been studying Islam and in order to remove 
her intellectual doubts she used to visit Maulana Ozair Gul. After 
embracing Islam her inclination towards Sufism had increased. She felt 
that without marriage she faced difficulties in the path of Sufism. Talking 



of her worry before Maulana she expressed her wish of contracting 
marriage with him and which, at the lady's insistence, he accepted. 

During the partition of the country Maulana. Ozair Gul, taking his 
neo-Muslim wife 1 and children, went away to his native Peshawar, 
where he is still living. 

66. MAULANA MANAZIR AHSAN GILANI 

Maulana Gilani was a royal pearl from the land of Bihar which is 
famous for producing men of talent. He was born on 9th Rabi al-Awwal, 
A. H. 1310, at Asthanwa, his mothers native-place. Primary education he 
received at his ancestral native-place Gilani, from his paternal uncle, 
Hakim Sayyid Abu al-Nasr. The rationalistic colour was dominant in the 
elders of his family. In A. H. 1324 he was sent to Tonk to read under 
the instruction of Maulana Barakat Ahmed for further education. Maulana' 
Barakat Ahmed was an illustrious scholar in the rational sciences. Under 
him he read big and small books of rational sciences for seven years. 

From the details Maulana Gilani has written, about his education it 
appears that after having received education in the rational sciences at 
Tonk he felt that the world of knowledge and reality was not only that 
much which he saw around him, but it was something more than that 
and it was necessary for him to have access to that also. So he insisted 
upon the elders of his family' that he wanted to go to Deoband but 
since they were under the domination of rationalism, he was permitted, 
after great difficulty and insistence, at last to go to Deoband. When he 
stepped into the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he had had a deep impress on 
his thought and intellect of the rationalism of his teacher Maulana 
Barakat Ahmed Tonki. 

In A. H. 1331 he took admission for the Daura-e Hadith and while still 
in it he obtained the sanad of the Books of Hadith from the Dar al-Ulum. 
In the Dar al-Ulum, due to the academic and spiritual grace and training 
of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind, Hazrat Shah Sahib, Hazrat Allamah Usmani 
(Allah's mercy be on them I) and other teachers, the direction of his life 
changed from the rational sciences to Tafsir and Hadith, mystical wayfar- 
ing and knowledge, and all those foundations of thought and view 

1. For details of her noble descent, voluntary conversion, her high opinion of Maulana 
Husam Ahmed Madani and her marriage with Maulana Ozair Gul, see the 
issues of Al-Furqan (Lucknow) of December, 1978 and January and March, 1979. Her 
autobiography entitled "The Balanced Way" is also worth reading. (Translator) 



which his family, education and environment had laid toppled down. 

After graduation, Maulana Gilani, for some time, served as assistant 
editor of journals entitled Al-Qasim and Al-Rasheed. During this time he 
had carved a prominent niche in the academic circles by his academic 
and disquisitional articles and emotional style of writing. Sawanh-e Abu 
Zer Ghifari and Ka'inat-e Insani, both these books were written by him 
during the same period. 

At Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed's recommendation Maulana Gi- 
lani was appointed in the Osmania University, Hyderabad, where he at 
last became Dean of the Faculty of Theology. He rendered academic 
services in Hyderabad for nearly 25 years. His inspiring teaching and 
training had created religiosity in many students of the university. Some 
of his students became renowned writers. 

Al-Nabi al-Khatim, Al-Din al-Qayyam, Tadveen-e Hadith, Hazar sal 
Pehle, and Nizam-e Ta'lim wa Tarbiat 1 are his famous books. Besides 
these hundreds of dissertations and articles were produced by his pen 
and were published in the top-most journals and magazines in the 
country. The same impassioned style which is found in his writings 
characterised his speech also. In respect of knowledge and learning, 
extensive information, vast reading, sagacity, discernment and minute- 
ness, he was an unrivalled scholar of the time. His book entitled 

1. His last work is Sawanh-e Qasimi which he compiled at the request of Maulana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib, vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum. The later sent all the relevant data 
to him and during the course of compiling the book Maulana Gilani kept corresponding 
constantly with Qari Sahib. He compiled Sawah-c Qasimi in three volumes and thereafter 
he used to remark : "My writing career began with Al-Qasim and it seems the end too 
will come with Al-Qasim (Sawanh-e Qasimi)". And it happened like that only. After the 
three volumes had been compiled, Maulana Muhammad Tayyib wrote him with compli- 
ments and congratulations: "you compiled three volumes of the Sawanh-e Qasimi which 
was indeed your work only, but you have not so far touched the real events of his life. 
The real biography of his is not this as to where and when he was born and what great 
works he accomplished; the real events consist in this that he presented the Qasimid 
philosophy before the world which is the dialectics of the present era. To explain and 
elucidate it and present its abstruse questions and postulated principles before the 
world, in other words, to comment upon it and show as to how he has brought out in 
full relief the philosophies and mysteries of the Book and the Sunnah in a demonstrative 
style, will be the spirit of this biography. So now kindly turn your attention to it". At this 
Maulana Gilani's Letter reached Qari Sahib to the effect that "you have truly enlightened 
me as regards the real point of biography and now I'm beginning it". But the Maulana had 
hardly written a few pages of its fourth volume when the 'promised hour' arrived and his 
premonition about beginning with Al-Qasim and ending with Ai-Qasim proved true. 



Hindustan Men Musalmano Ka Nizam-e Ta'lim wa Tarbiat is a valuable 
treasure of information on this topic. What has been the system of edu- 
cation and training of the Muslims in India from Sultan Qutb al-Din 
Aibak's regime to the present period has been shown in details and 
with disquisition. Which arts and sciences did the curriculum consist of? 
What was the method of teaching? What used to be the arrangements 
for the students' boarding and lodging? Of what standard used to be 
the arrangement of moral training and self-purgation along with educa- 
tion? In short, there is no aspect of this topic on which there may not 
be detailed discussion. The book is impressive and interesting. 

In the end, having retired on pension from the Osmania University, 
he settled down in his native-place, Gilani, where, after a long illness, 
he died on 25th Shawwal, A. H. 1375 (June 5, 1956). 

67. MAULANA ABD AL-RAHMAN CAMPBELLPURI 

He was a resident of Campbellpur in the Punjab. He received prim- 
ary education there, and then after having studied at Mazahir-e Ulum, 
Saharanpur, in A. H. 1333 he graduated in the books of Hadith from the 
Dar al-Ulum. He was one of the last batch of students of Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind. He had had complete proficiency in the traditional and the 
rational sciences, and a deep insight in the science of Hadith. He was 
unrivalled in abstinence and piety and habituated to an ascetic life. 
Isbal al-lzar is his comprehensive work on its topic. It has not been 
.published yet but a portion of it has been published in instalments in 
the monthly Nizam, Kanpur. 

After graduation he was appointed a teacher in Shawwal, A. H. 
1333, in Mazahir-e Ulum, where he discharged the duties of teaching 
with great success and good reputation. In A. H. 1334 when Maulana 
Khalil Ahmed resolved to migrate to the illuminated Madina, he selected 
Maulana Abd al-Rahman only to fill his vacancy as the dean. The number 
of his pupils in and outside India runs into thousands. In 1947, after the 
partition of the country, he went back to his native-place. There, in 
great seminaries of Tando Allah Yar, Multan, Jamia-e Islamia, Akoda 
Khatak, etc.' he served as professor of Hadith. Nearly fifty years he spent 
in .teaching the religious sciences and Hadith. 

He had acquired the honour of vowing allegiance to and receiving 
Khilafat from Hazrat Thanvi. Besides teaching, he commanded a special 
position in spiritual instruction and mystic path also; many people 



traversed the mystic path under his guidance. 

On 16th Jamadi al-Aakhir, 1386/1966, in his native-place, he left for 
the immortal realm. 

68. MAULANA KHAIR MUHAMMAD JULLUNDHARI 

He was a resident of Jullundur, Punjab. The year of his birth is A. D. 
1895 (A. H. 1-313). He received education at his native-place and 
Madrasa Manba al-Ulum, Gulaothi. He completed the course of'Hadlth at 
Bareilly under the instruction of Maulana Muhammad Yasin, but he always 
remained attached to the Dar al-Ulum. Through his own efforts he started 
Khair al-Madaris at Jullundur in 1349/1932. He was an authorised khalifa 
(Khalifa-e Majaz) of Hazrat Thanvi. Knowledge and learning, abstinence 
and piety and lofty capabilities of religion and integrity had combined in 
his person in the highest degree. Thousands of people benefitted from 
his teaching and spiritual instruction and guidance. He was a member of 
the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum for a long time. 

In 1947, during the partition of the country, he migrated from 
Jullundur to Multan; there he re-started the Khair al-Madaris, which is 
now a great seminary of Pakistan. 

His great exploit is this that he, under the name of Wifaq al-Madaris, 
made a federation of the seminaries of Pakistan and linked them all in 
one line. He was himself acknowledged its president whose functions 
he discharged with utmost integrity, uprightness, sincerity and honesty; 
while this manifested his knowledge and learning to the country, his 
consummate perspicacity was also brought into full relief. Today the 
Madrasa Khair al-Madaris is reckoned amongst the central seminaries of 
Pakistan and commands a distinctive position in publishing the Book and 
the Sunnah and the religious jurisprudence. 

He died on 20th Sha'ban, A. H. 1390, at Multan. 

69. MAULANA SHAMS AL-HAQ AFGHANI 

He was born in a learned family of village Turangzai of Peshawar 
district in A. H. 1318. The elementary education he received from his 
august father. Then, living in the company of different ulema of the 
North-West Frontier Province (India) and Afghanistan, he completed the 
study of the rational and the traditional sciences and acquired perfect 



ability; and thereafter he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
and graduated in Daura-e Hadith in A. H. 1339. 

Maulana Afghani, during his student career itself, was distinguished 
over his contemporaries by reason of his academic interest and geist. 
After graduation from the Dar al-Ulum, he did teaching jobs for years in 
different seminaries of the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province and 
Sind, like Madrasa Dar al-Rishad, Larkana, Sind; Madrasa Mazhar al-Ulum, 
Khadda, Karachi; Madrasa Dar al-Fuyuz, Sind; Madrasa Qasim al-Ulum, 
Lahore, etc. Besides Tafsir and Hadith, he has had proficiency in the 
rational sciences also. He is Majaz-e bai'at (authorised to receive 
allegiance) in the Naqshbandiya order. 

in A. H. 1354 he was called to the Dar al-Ulum and was assigned the 
work of teaching the translation of the Quran and some lessons of Tafsir 
and Hadith. In A. H. 1358 he was appointed Minister of Education in the 
Qalat State. After some time he resigned from this post and went to 
Jamia Islamia, Dabhel, where he was made a head-teacher. In 1366/1947, 
after the partition of the country he went to his native-place in Pakistan. 
There he was appointed dean of the Faculty of Tafsir in Jamia Islamia, 
Bhawalpur. Having retired from there now he is living in his native-place. 

Maulana Afghani's Urdu speech and writing are chaste and clear. 
Besides being an excellent religious divine, he is also a good author. 
Amongst his works Mo'een al-Qazat wal-Mufti is in the Arabic language. 
Shara'i Zabita-e Diwani, Ulum al-Quran, Taraqqi Awr Islam, Socialism 
Awr Islam, Islam Din-e Fitrat Hai, Islam Alamgir Mazhab Hai, Ahkam al- 
Quran, Mufarridat al-Quran, etc. are his important works. In the Shara'i 
Zabita-e Diwani he has arranged all the civil laws of Fiqh in the form of 
legal sections. These books are highly esteemed and appreciated among 
men of knowledge and wisdom. 

70. MAULANA HABIB AL-RAHMAN A'ZAMI 

Hazrat Maulana Habib al-Rahman A'zami is at present acknowledged 
to be a high-ranking scholar of the science- of Hadith in the Islamic 
world. He was born around A. H. 1314. His elementary Arabic education 
he took in the famous madrasa, Dar al-Ulum, of his native-place Mau (Dist. 
Azamgarh). Then, living at Gorakhpur and Benaras (Varanasi), he acquired 
education upto the intermediate books under the guidance and instruc- 
tion of Maulana Abd al-Ghaffar, the famous disciple of Hazrat Rasheed 
Ahmed Gangohi. Along with this he took different Arabic examinations in 



the oriental sciences and came out successful. Passing the examination 
of Fazil-e Adab (Graduate in Literature) from Allahabad, in A. H. 1334, 
he completed the Daura-e Hadith at Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

Having completed his educational career he became a teacher in 
Madrasa Mazhar al-Ulum, Benaras, where he continued to reach till the 
beginning of A. H. 1339. Then he joined the Daura-e Hadith again in the 
end of A. H. 1339 at Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and listened to the whole 
course. 

In A. H. 1340 he was appointed head-teacher in Dar al-Ulum, Mau, 
where he continued to teach higher books of Daura-e Hadith and other 
subjects for two years. Then, resigning from there, he again came to 
Mazhar al-Ulum, Benaras, as head-teacher. There he rendered educational 
services for a number of years. From there, in A. H. 1347, he again came 
back to his native Mau, where he was made head-teacher and Shaikh al- 
Hadith in Madrasa Miftah al-Ulum, Mau. He remained on this post till 
A. H. 1369. Thereafter, he, due to his ruling passion for writing books, 
separated from the Miftahal-Ulum, though he still looks after it as a 
patron. He is currently rendering valuable services to the religious sci- 
ences and is at the same time busy in producing books non-stop. Many 
ulema have had the honour of being his disciples. 

The details of his Arabic and Urdu works are as follows :- 

1) Istadrak wa Ta'liq-e Sharh-e Musnad-e Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal. 

2) Ta'liq wa Tehqiq-e Sunan-e Sa'eed bin Mansoor (2 vols). 

3) Tehqiq wa Ta'liq-e Musnad-e Humaidi (2 vols). 

4) Tehqiq wa Ta'liq-e Kitab al-Zuhd wal-Riqaq le-Abd Allah bin 
Mubarak. 

5) Tehqiq wa Ta'liq-e Al-Matalib al-A'liya (4 vols). 

6) Tehqiq wa Ta'liq-e Mukhtasar Al-Targheeb wal-Tarheeb Ic-lbn 
Hajar Asqalani. 

7) Ta'liq wa Tehqiq-e Musannaf-e Abd al-Razzaq (11 large vols). 

All the above-named books have been written in Arabic. The Urdu 
books are as follows :- 



90 

8) Nusrat al-Hadith. 9) Al-A'lam al-Marfu'ah. 10) Al-Azhar al- 
Marbu'ah. 11) Ahl-e Dil ki. Dil-awez Baten. 12) Irshad al-Saqlayn. 
13) Shar'a-e Haqiqi 14) Al-Tanqid al-Sadid 'ala al-Tafsir al-Jadid. 
15)_Tehqiq-e Ahl-e Hadith. 16) Rchbar-c Hujjaj. 17) Ahkam Allah 
le-Awlia Allah. 18) Ibtal-e Azadari. 19) A'yan al-Hujjaj. 20) Bist 
Raka'at-e Taraveeh. And there are many other books which have not 
been published so far. 

In the subject of Hadith, Rijal-e Hadith (narrators of Hadith) and 
Accessories of Hadith he has in the period had a distinct position 
which is acknowledged by all men of learning. 

It has been the wish of the Government of Kuwait for a number of 
years that he should go there but he could not go due to his academic 
preoccupations. The Shaikh al-Jame'a (Chancellor) of the Jame'a-e Azhar, 
Cairo, has also extended him a standing invitation to visit Egypt. 

Since A. H. 1373 he is a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar 
al-Ulum. 

71. MAULANA DR. MUSTAFA HASAN ALAVI 

He was born in 1897 (A. H. 1315) at Kakori, in the vicinity of Lucknow, 
which is a land famous for producing men of talents. During childhood he 
lived with his maternal grandfather, Hazrat Mohsin Kakorvi 1 , at Mainpuri, 
and went through the stages of elementary education. Then he was 
admitted to Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow. In A. H. 1330, at Maulana Hafiz 
Muhammad Ahmed 's (vice-chancellor, Dar al-Ulum, Deoband) persua- 
sion, he took admission in Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. Dr. Alavi says : "The 
lectures of my teachers in the Dar al-Ulum are still retained in my ears 
and eyes". During his student days in the Dar al-Ulum, he cultivated a 
taste for writing poetry in the company of Maulana Tajwar Najibabadi. At 
that time poetical symposiums were being held in the Dewan mohalla. Dr. 
Alavi, in those days used to wear spectacles. A couplet of those days is 
as follows 

'Honestly do I say that I am not fond of it; the cause of my using glasses 
is weakness of sight'. 

During the same period, in the company of Maulana Manazir Ahsan Gilani, 

1. A successful lawyer and a first class Urdu poet, he wrote an incomparable panegyric 
on the Holy P.ophet the first line of which is- "Samt-e Kashi se chala janib-e Mathura 
badal, Abr ke dosh pe lati hai saba Ganga-jal". (Translator). 



91 

he developed a fondness for prose-writing. Graduating from the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1334, he served there as an assistant teacher 
without accepting any remuneration. Then, after teaching some time in 
Madrasa-e Imdadia, Moradabad, he went to Lucknow. He passed the 
examination of Munshi Fazil from the Punjab University. Then he was 
appointed teacher of Theology in the Muslim High School, Etawa, and, 
thereafter, Professor of Persian in the Benaras College. In August, 1923 
(A. H. 1342), he got an appointment in a college in Lucknow. During 
this service he passed the M. A. Examination with Persian as his princi- 
pal subject, and in 1944 obtained the Ph. D. degree by writing a thesis 
on Malik Shah Seljuqi and his period. 

In 1960 (A. H. 1380) he was awarded the Certificate of Honour by 
the President the Republic of India, in appreciation of his being a dis- 
tinguished personality in the Arabic literature. He retired in 1963 (A. H. 
1393) from the Lucknow University and was appointed as a Research 
Professor on which post he is still working 1 . 

Dr. Alavi is the author of more than three dozen books in Arabic, 
Persian and Urdu many of which are included in the curricula of schools 
and colleges and in the syllabi for the examinations of the orienta 
languages. Fifteen of his books have been published, while twenty-three 
have still remained unpublished. 

He is a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum since A. H. 
1370. 

Besides being a religious divine and scholar, he has also had a taste 
for poetry; his brain is virtually a repository of verses,- if in a friendly 
meeting the topic turns to poetry, he goes on quoting verses after 
verses untiringly from memory. 

72. MAULANA SHAH VASI ALLAH A'ZAMI 

He was born at village Fatehpur Talnarja in Azamgarh district. He 
committed the holy Quran to memory at his native-place under the instruc- 
tion of Hafiz Wali Muhammad. Then he studied Persian and the elementary 

1. Alas ! He is now no more. The present translator read a news item in the Indian 
Express (Bombay ed.), dated Friday, Nov. 98, 1980, as follows -"Lucknow, Nov. 27 
(PTI) : Dr. Maulana Mustafa Hasan Alavi, a well-known scholar of Arabic died here 
yesterday following a brief illness 
"He was 85. He has authored several books and was a renowned poet". 



92 

books of Arabic in Jam'e al-Ulum, Kanpur. Thereafter he entered the Dar 
al-Ulum and completed the Daura-e Hadith in A. H. 1335. This was the 
early period of Mauiana Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri's dean- 
ship. Maulana Vasi Allah's memory was very retentive; all the sciences 
used to be always in his retention. 

After graduating from the Dar al-Ulum he went to the presence of 
Hazrat Thanvi and joined "the circle of aspiring" (halqa-e iradat); that is, 
he became a murid and got totally settled there. During the period of 
educational career itself he was rapt with improving his actions and the 
zest of devotion, and had become habituated to seclusion. During his stay 
in the Khanqah-e Imdadiya he remained cut off from the people and, trust- 
ing in Allah, plunged himself into traversing the path and the acquisition of 
filiation (nisba), and having quickly covered the stages of self-culture and 
tasawwuf (Sufism), was adorned with the robe of khilafat and authorisa- 
tion (ijazat), and allegiance (bia'ah) and inculcation (talqeen). At Hazrat 
Hakim al-Ummat's behest he entered wedlock at a late age. in A. H. 1343 
but even then he used to stay mostly in the Khanqah-e Imdadiya. 

In A. H. 1351 he went back to his beloved native-place and engaged 
himself into educating, training and improving the people. He was 
reckoned to be amongst the greatest spiritual successors (khalifas) of 
Hazrat Thanvi. His method of improving and training was exactly like that 
of his preceptor. 

Firstly he stayed at his native-place; then, in A. H. 1374, he went over 
to Gorakhpur and at last settled down in Allahabad. There he built a 
hospice. Many high-ranking ulema and many highly-placed persons and 
the affluent were his murids,- and thousands of the slaves of God derived 
spiritual grace from him. During the period of his stay in Allahabad, he, 
after the manner of his spiritual directors (Masha'ikh), rendered great 
services in the revival of the Sunnah. In this last era his beloved personal- 
ity was a great boon. In the last few years of his life he used to go to 
Bombay also where a circle of murids had been established and many a 
man had taken to and become steady on the virtuous tack. 

On 22nd Sha'ban, A. H. 1387, during his journey to Hejaz for pilgrim- 
age, he died on board the ship and the traveller who was going to the 
House of Allah reached the presence of Allah, the Lord of the House, 
Himself. He was laid to a watery grave in the Red Sea. 

At the fag-end of his life, on every occasion of spiritual intensity of 
feeling, he would keep reciting the following verse of Mirza Ghalib : - 



"Huwe ham jo mer ke ruswa, huwe kion na gharq-e daria, 
Na kabhi janaza uthta, na kahin mazar hota". 

"By dying we became defamed. Why didn't we get drowned in a sea so 
that neither our bier would have been lifted nor would there have been 
our grave anywhere"? 

Most probably it is usually said for similar occasions that whatever a 
qalander (roaming mystic) says, he says after seeing. 

His authorial remains are the following 

1. Al-lfadat al-Vasiyat. 15. Malfuz-e Tariq-e Kar. 

2. Tilawat-e Quran. 16. Rah-e Safa 

3. Ta'lim wa Tarbiat-e Awlad. 17. Tariqa-e Islah. 

4. Al-Tazkir bil-Quran. 18. Islahi Mazmoon. 

5. Tasawwuf wa Nisbat-e Sufia. 19. Mazmoon-e Namima. 

6. Vasiyat al-Ahsan. 20. Ukhuwwat. 

7. Vasiyat al-lkhlas. 21. Tauqir al-Ulama. 

8. Vasiyat al-Akhlaq. 22. Takhdir al-Ulama. 

9. Gulistan-e Ma'rifat 23. Jannat. 

10. Dibacha-e Ma'rifat. 24. Na'm al-Ameer. 

11. 'A'qibat al-lnkar ma'e Talash-e 25. Al-Usul al-Nadira. 

Murshid. 26 Al-Amr al-Fariq bain al-Mukhlis 

12. Miftah al-Rahmat. al-Munafiq. 

13. I'teqad wa Inkar. 27. Al-Na"m ala Khair al-Umam. 

14. Khumkhana-e Batin. 28. Al-Nasihat lil-Mustarshidin. 

29. Vasiyat al-Salikin. 

73. MAULANA MUFTI MUHAMMAD SHAF'EE DEOBANDI 

He was born in 1314/1896. Hazrat Gangohi proposed Muhammad 
Shaf'ee as his name. Originally he hailed from Deoband. He prosecuted his 
studies in the Dar al-Ulum and graduated from it in A. H. 1336 at the age 
of 22 years. Thereafter, in A. H. 1337, he was appointed a teacher for the 
elementary standards of the Dar al-Ulum and, making quick progress 
through stages of teaching, soon joined the cadre of the teachers of higher 
classes. He had affinity with Fiqh and Literature from the very beginning. In 
1350/1922 he was appointed to the Mufti's post. In 1368/1949 he went 
away to Pakistan, where, as a member of the Board of Islamic Teachings in 
the Constituent Assembly, he helped in compiling the Islamic Constitution. 
In 1951 he established a seminary under the name of Dar al-Ulum at 



Karachi which is now an important and great centre of Islamic learning 
there. 

Mufti Sahib's knowledge was vast and deep. He was one of the dis- 
tinguished ulema of the Deoband group and possessed excellent ability 
in nearly all the current Islamic sciences. He was also an author of many 
religious books; he was interested in compiling and writing books from 
the very beginning. A stock of very useful books has emerged from his 
pen on Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh and polemics. All his big and small books 
total up to nearly two hundred; on Fiqh alone he has had 95 books. In 
Fiqh he has made the present-day problems particularly the topic of his 
discussion and which therefore are a valuable source of knowledge and 
information for both the high and the low. The number of his fetwas is 
shown to be nearly 200,000. There was a time when small portions of 
his commentary entitled Ma'arif al-Quran were being broadcast every 
week from Radio 'Pakistan, and were generally liked by all. This com- 
mentary has been published in eight volumes under the title Ma'arif 
al-Quran. It is Mufti Sahib's magnum opus. Hundreds of his pupils and 
disciples are rendering religious services in different foreign countries 
besides those of the subcontinent. 

Initially he vowed allegiance to Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and after his 
death resorted to Hazrat Maulana Thanvi from whom he obtained khilafat. 
Hazrat Thanvi had great confidence in Mufti Sahib's knowledge and learn- 
ing. A great peculiarity of his was that the predecessors' zest had fully 
permeated him; in each and every minute thing he considered it necessary 
to conform to the predecessors' pattern. Along with teaching religious sci- 
ences and writing books he also engaged himself in spiritual beneficence. 
He had also had a taste for poetry,- a collection of his Arabic, Persian and 
Urdu panegyrics, elegies and several poems has already been printed and 
published. In Pakistan he commanded the position of the Chief Mufti 
(Mufti-e A'zam) and was remembered by this designation only. 

In the night of 11th Shawwal, A. H. 1396 (October 6, 1976) he went 
to glory. The year of death 1976 is derived from the chronogram "Faqih 
al-Ummat Janab al-Haj Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shaf'ee 1 ". 

74. MAULANA MUFTI ISMA'IL BISMILLAH 

He was born in 1316/1898 at Dabhel, a small village in Surat district. 

1. A good article on him by Maulana Manzoor Naumani has appeared in April, 1960 issue 
Of the monthly Al-Furqan (Lucknow). The late Mufti Sahib's son, Maulana Muhammad Taqi 
Usmani, editor of Al-Balagh (Karachi), has also published a voluminous (nearly 1400 
pages) commemorative number of his monthly (Translator! 



95 

He received primary education at his native-place and a nearby village 
named Kathore. Then he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. Due 
to arrangement of marriage during the course of his studies he went back 
to his native-place. Thereafter, living at Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi, he 
practised the art of fetwa-writing under Hazrat Maulana Kifayat Allah 
Dehelvi's guidance. In A. H. 1336 he again took admission in the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, and completed the Daura-e Hadith. 

After having completed the educational career he served as a teacher 
in his native-place and then departed for Johannesburg (South Africa). 
But very soon he returned from there and was appointed a teacher in 
Madrasa-e Ta'lim al-Din (present Jamia Islamia), Dabhel. In 1353/1934 he 
was appointed as a mufti in Burma. There, besides fetwa-writing, he 
established Jamiat al-Ulama-e Burma in collaboration with Maulana 
Ahmed Ashraf Randeri, and started many religious schools at different 
places. In this way he got a chance to render religious and political 
services to the Muslims of Burma. 

In 1359/1940, due to ill health, he returned to his native-place. There 
he was made superintendent of educational affairs in Jamia Islamia, 
Dabhel, and was soon promoted to the rector's post. His personality was 
cynosure for the people in Gujarat; his fetwas were held in high esteem 
not only by the common people but also the ulema of Gujarat. His 
fetwas were being regularly published in the Gujarati weekly, Muslim 
Gujarat (Surat), edited by Sayyid Azim al-Din Munadi, for nearly 33 years. 
These fetwas have been published in three volumes in the Gujarati 
language. The number of these fetwas is said to run into 35,000. Some of 
them are also found in the Urdu language. 

Mufti Bismilla Sahib was a very accommodating man, free from affecta- 
tion, and very regular in saying his daily offices and observing his daily 
practices. His usual practice was to recite one man2il 1 of the Quran daily. 
He died in 1379/1959. 

75. MAULANA SAYYID MEERAK SHAH KASHMIRI 

His native place was Kashmir. He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, in A. H. 1336. He was one of the distinguished disciples of 

1 The holy Quran is divided into seven stages (manzils) for recitation or reading; if one 
reads one stage daily, one can finish the whole Quran in seven days. The present translator 
had the honour of meeting Mufti Sahib twice or thrice in Navsari. He was indeed a very 
unassuming person, a man of few words and great piety. (Translator) 



96 

of Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri. He was a well- 
qualified scholar in the rational and the traditional sciences. After graduat- 
ing from the Dar al-Ulum he served as teacher in different madrasahs of 
Darbhanga and Moradabad. He was appointed a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum 
in A. H. 1341. Besides teaching, on the occasion of the Shuddhi-Sanghtan 
movement, he was appointed by the Dar al-Ulum to preach among the 
Malkana Rajputs of Agra. In those days the preachers who had been sent to 
Agra and its vicinity on behalf of the Dar al-Ulum used to work under his 
supervision. He worked very diligently and assiduously. In the late A. H. 
1344 he went to Lahore and there he became attached to the teaching- 
staff of the Oriental College. In the end he worked as the head-teacher in 
Jamia-e Madina, Lahore. He had translated the fourth volume of Sadr al-Din 
Shirazi's Asfar-e Arba'a for the Osmania University, Hyderabad, Deccan. 

76. MAULANA QARI MUHAMMAD TAyYIB SAHIB 

Grandson of Hazrat Nanautavi, he was born in 1315/1879. His 
chronogrammatic name is Muzaffar al-Din. He was admitted to the Dar al- 
Ulum at the age of seven. Within the brief preiod of two years he 
memorised the whole Quran with cantillation and orthoepy. After reading 
for five years in the Persian and Mathematics classes, he started reading the 
Arabic syllabus which he completed in 1337/1918 and obtained the sanad 
of graduation. During the course of education the teachers, because of his 
lineage, participated in teaching and training him on a high scale and in a 
special manner. The special sanad of Hadith he obtained from the most 
eminent ulema and teachers. The savant of the age, Maulana Muhammad 
Anwar Shah Kashmiri, was his special teacher in the science of Hadith. In 
A. H. 1399 he vowed allegiance to Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind. After his death 
he resorted to Maulana Anwar Shah and received training from him and in 
A. H. 1350 Hazrat Thanvi exalted him with khilafat. 

After graduation he started teaching in the Dar al-Ulum. By dint of his 
own knowledge and learning, geist, and ancestral relation and respectabi- 
lity he soon won admiration in the students' circle. In early 1343/1924 he 
was appointed as pro-vice-chancellor on which post he kept taking part in 
the administrative affairs in the administrative office until early 1348/1929 
under the supervision of his august father and Maulana Habib al-Rahman. In 
the middle of 1348/1929, after Maulana Habib al-Rahman's death, he was 
made vice-chancellor. The Dar al-Ulum has made remarkable progress 
under his management. In the year when he took the reins of administration 
of the Dar al-Ulum into his hands, there were only 8 administrative depart- 
ments; now their number has reched 24. At that time the income of the 



97 

Dar al-Ulum was Rs. 50,262; now it has risen to Rs. 2,600,000. In 1348/1929 
the staff of the Dar al-Ulum consisted of only 45 men; this number has now 
gone up to 175. At that time that magistral staff had only 18 teachers; now 
it numbers 59. The students' strength then was 450; now it is more than 
1,500. Similarly there has been outstanding addition to the buildings 
also : the Dar al-Tafsir, Dar al-lfta, Dar al-Quran, New Kitchen, the Upper 
Dar al-Hadith above the mosque, Bab al-Zahir, Jamia-e Tibbia, New Double 
storeyed Hostel, Guest House, two new halls of the Library, etc.; the 
construction and completion of these magnificent buildings are the 
memorable events of his regime only. 

On the academic side, in sermonizing, oration and lecturing, he has 
had a gifted proficiency and power of expression. From the time of his 
student days itself his speeches in the public functions are being heard 
with eagerness. Speaking even on the most important problems for two 
and three hours at a stretch he does not feel any inhibition or inconveni- 
ence. He has had special mastery in discoursing on the realities and 
mysteries of the Shari'ah and in making the subjects concise and compact. 
The moern educated class particularly enjoys his academic and 
philosophical style of discourse,- his lectures have been very popular 
particularly in Muslim University, Aligarh, and other universities, and some 
of his momentous lectures have been already published by the former. 
There is no region or state in the country where the echo of his lectures 
may not have reached. 

Among the foreign countries, he has visited Afghanistan, Burma, South 
Africa, East Africa, Zanzibar, Kenya, Rhodesia, Reunion, Aden, Kuwait, He- 
jaz, Madagascar, Ethiopia, Egypt, England, France, Germany, etc. There is a 
famous saying about him of the late Maulana Ahmed Sa'eed, the organiser 
of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind, that "all the vice-chancellors of the Dar 
al — ulum so far were stationary stars whereas Maulana Muhammad Tayyib is 
3 revolving planet". Addresses were presented to him wherever he went, 
people got interested in the Dar al-Ulum and its tack got publicity. 

Besides the administrative affairs of the Dar al-Ulum, the things he has 
had an idiosyncratic interest in are education, teaching, missionary work 
and preaching. These accomplishments have earned him a distinctive posi- 
tion in the country. His zest for amusement consists in reading and writing 
books. This diversion always continues over and above the administrative 
affairs of the Dar al-Ulum and the time-table of teaching,- particularly the 
free hours in the course of a journey are spent in this only. During the 
period he stays in Deoband there is usually held a general sitting in the 



male parlour between Asr and Maghrib in which the topic is generally of 
academic interest. He has an affinity with poetry also. The collection of 
his poetical compositions has been published under the title Irfan-e Arif, 
comprising his Urdu, Persian and Arabic poems. 

Along with these diverse engagements the activity of spiritual 
allegiance and instruction also continues both during travels and at home. 
The circle of his murids is very vast, in India as well as in foreign countries. 

The number of his books is nearly hundred, all written on different 
Islamic themes. Out of these fifty to sixty have been published; the most 
famous among them are Science Awr Islam, Al-Tashabbuh fil-lslam, 
Khatim al-Nabi'yyin, Islam Men Akhlaq ka Nizam, Fitri Hukumatjslam 
Awr Masihi Aqwam, Hadith-e Rasul ka Qurani Mai'yar 1 , Kalima-e 
Tayyibah, etc. 

Since A. H. 1336 he used to deliver a speech every Friday in the 
Jam'e Masjid, Deoband, and this practice continued for nearly 20 to 22 
years but then it had to be given up due to frequency of journeys; how- 
ever, as a better compensative, the speeches became country-wide. In A. 
H. 1352 when some assassinator attempted King Ibn Sa'ud's life from 
which the king had an hairbreadth escape, a congratulatory function was 
held in an inn at Mecca on behalf of the ulema and leading men of India, 
and Maulana Muhammad Tayyib was made its chairman. The delegation of 
the Indian ulema congratulated King Ibn Sa'ud, and on this occasion it 
was Maulana Tayyib who, after a brief speech in Arabic, had read out the 
resolution of the congratulatory function. 

In 1972 the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, Bombay, in which 
the ulema of all the sects and the heads of all the effective organisations 
were participating, had chosen him as its president. In this connection 
the then prime-minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, invited him twice 
and discussed the topic of Personal Law with him. Anyway, he has had a 
special academic dignity in the country and the community. Several 
academies are busy in printing and publishing his compilations. He has 
also participated several times in the Mutamar-e A'lam-e Islami, Cairo, 
and Rabeta-e A'lam-e Islami, Mecca. 

1. Maulana M. Salim Qasimi had got this small book translated into English by the present 
translator far Jamia-e Diniyat-e Urdu nearly six years ago but unfortunately the Jamia has 
not been able to publish it for want of funds. It is a very demonstrative book on the 
topic. 

(Translator! 



77. MAULANA MUHAMMAD CHIRAGH GUJRANWALVI 

He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1337. During his student 
days, he compiled his glorious teacher, -Hazrat Shah Sahib Kashmiri's dis- 
course on Tirmizi Sharif, entitled Al-Arf al-Shazzi. Besides Hadith, he 
had had a deep study of other sciences also. First he served as head- 
teacher in Maulana Abd al-Aziz Gujranwalvi's madrasah and then, with 
the co-operation of some other gentlemen, he established his own 
madrasah in his own native-place Gujranwala. 

Maulana Chiragh Muhammad's Urdu writings used to be very chaste and 
clear. He participated ardently in the movement for the independence of 
India and repeatedly went to jail and imprisonment. 

78. MAULANA MUHAMMAD IDRIS KANDHLAVI 

He was born in A. H. 1318. His early education took place in 
Khanqah-e Ashrafiya, Thana Bhavan. Then he prosecuted his studies in 
Mazahir-e Ulum (Shaharanpur) and studied upto the Daura-e Hadith. 
Eagerness for more education brought him to the Dar al-Ulum and he again 
joined the Daura-e Hadith. He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1337. The symptoms of virtuousness and piety were conspicuous in him 
from the very beginning. He is one of the distinguished disciples of 
Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri. He had a special interest 
in Tafsir, Hadith, Dialectics and Arabic Literature, and an excellent mastery 
in writing Arabic and Persian verses extempore. He had attained a high 
place in knowledge and learning, abstinence and piety, and in conform- 
ance to the predecessors' pattern,- the signs of piety and fear of Allah used 
to be eminently perceived from his face. He used to lead a very simple 
life. As regards truthfulness he was very bold and daring; without the fear 
of the blamer's blaming, he would not hesitate in speaking candidly, 
openly, without fear of or favour to anyone. In knowledge and practice he 
was a replica of the pious predecessors. The condition of his engrossment 
in the acquisition of knowledge was such that he could recall completely 
and readily all the arts and sciences. He was being reckoned amongst 
outstanding religious divines and high ranking dons. Besides lecturing and 
teaching he' had ample interest in writing and compilation also. On 
Mishkat Sharif he has written a commentary entitled Al-Ta'liq al-Sabeeh in 
eight volumes; the first four of which have been published in Damascus. 
On the science of Hadith he has had another book entitled Tohfat al-Qari 
fi Hall-e Mushkilat al-Bukhari. Under the title of Ma'arif al-Quran he has 
written a commentary on the holy Quran in several volumes. It is said that 



100 

the total number of books written by him is nearly hundred. He used to 
be always busy in teaching and writing; this zest was so engrossing that 
he always remained indifferent to worldly goods and equipments. 

On Maqamat-e Hariri he has penned a scholium in Arabic which is 
very famous and popular among the ulema engaged in the teaching-job 
and the students. His book entitled 'Aqa'id al-lslam 1 on the science of 
beliefs and his Sirat al-Mustafa on the theme of the prophetic biography 
are very important works. In repudiation and refutation of Christianity and 
Qadianism also he has written many disquisitional books. 

He started his teaching profession from Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi, but 
after some months the Dar al-Ulum drew him to itself where he got a 
chance to teach books of different arts and sciences. From 1338/1919 to 
1346/1927 he served in the Dar al-Ulum and then went to Hyderabad, 
where he stayed ten to twelve years and continued to serve as a teacher. 
In A. H. 1358 he was again called back to the Dar al-Ulum and lessons of 
Tafsir and Hadith were assigned to him. His teaching of Hadith and Tafsir 
was very famous and popular among the learned. In this way he graced 
the masnad of teaching for 18 years in the Dar al-Ulum. In A. H. 1368 he 
migrated to Lahore. In Pakistan he was appointed chancellor of the Jamia-e 
Abbasia at Bhawalpur and then, from 1952 to the end, he served as 
professor of Hadith in Jamia-e Ashrafia, Lahore, for 22 years. In Lahore he 
used to deliver a sermon every Friday which people used to attend very 
eagerly. He was considered a distinguished and high-ranking religious 
divine of Pakistan. 

Besides children, he left behind him a large library. He died in Lahore 
on 7th Rajab, 1394/1974 and lies in eternal rest there. 

79. MAULANA MUFTI MAHMUD AHMED NANAUTAVI 

He was from amongst the Siddiqi Shaikhs of Nanauta. He was born in 
Nanauta on 14th Zil-hijja, 1310. He received his primary education at his 
native-place. He graduated in A. H. 1337 from the Dar al-Ulum. The major 
part of his life he passed at Mhow Cantonment (Malwa, Madhya Pradesh). 
There he established a Dar al-lfta and continued to render educational and 
religious guidance to the Muslims. His fetwas were being highly valued in 

,1. This book, which should be read by all Muslims, had also been translated by the present 
translator for the Jamia-e Diniyat-e Urdu but unfortunately pecuniary stringency has not 
allowed Maulana M Salim Qasimi to publish this English version which can be very useful 
for those Muslims and their familites who have settled in foreign countries. (Translator) 



101 

Malwa and Rajasthan. He had profound ability in Tafsir, Fiqh and fetwa- 
writing; at the same time he had great interest in politics and communal 
problems. Great academic benefit accrued to the people in that region. 
He was famous there with the appellation of Mufti-e Malwa. By reason of 
his simple-mindedness his personality had a halo of glory and greatness 
about it. His being in Madhya Pradesh was the signpost of knowledge and 
guidance. 

One of his books entitled Sirat-e Tayyiba is on the topic of the 
prophetic life. In this book he has written the prophetic biography in 
such an easily intelligible style that even men of less than average ability 
can fully derive benefit from it. In Sirat-e Tayyiba he has tried to present 
more and more aspects of the prophetic life in less and less words; at 
the same time some such points are found in this book which are not 
found together in any other book. 

From A. H. 1373 till his end he continued as a member of the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al- Ulum. He died on 14th Shawwal, A. H. 1388 (January 
4,1969) at the age of 78 years. He lies in eternal sleep at Mhow. 

80. MAULANA GHULAM GHAUS HAZARVI 

He was an inhabitant of the Hazara district in Pakistan. He graduated in 
A. H. 1337 from the Dar al-Ulum He is one of the proficient and disting- 
uished graduates of the Dar al-Ulum and is an orator having great com- 
mand over the language. He has worked ardently against Qadianism. He 
participated in the movement for the independence of the country and 
passed through the hardships of jail and imprisonment. After the partition 
of the country he became the organiser of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Pakistan 
and then its president. By reason of his academic fame he has attended 
Mutamar-e A'lam-e Islami as a representative of the ulema of Pakistan. He is 
reckoned amongst the eminent ulema of Pakistan. Some time back the 
Jami'at al-Ulama-e Islam has formed its ministry in the North-West Frontier 
Province also under the chief-ministership of Maulana Mufti Mahmud. He is 
at present reckoned amongst the famous men of the country. 

81. MAULANA ATHAR AU BENGALI 

His native-place was Bengal. He graduated in A H. 1338 from the Dar 
al-Ulum. He was an authorised khalifa of Hazrat Thanvi. In, the pre-partition 
days he rendered academic, educational and national services on a large 
scale in East Pakistan; in the post-partition era he became the president of 



102 

the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Islam in East Pakistan, as also a member of the 
Pakistan Assembly. He was counted among the great ulema of Bangla 
Desh. In the end he formed the Nizam-e Islam Party. Due to the change 
of ministries and particularly in connection with the formation of Bangla 
Desh he had to suffer the hardships of jail and imprisonment. He had 
achieved great fame and distinction in Bangla Desh. In consistency he 
was a specimen of the truth-loving ulema of the old. He established a 
madrasah on a large scale in Kishoreganj. This madrasah is considered the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, of Bengal;- as in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, the 
medium of instruction in this madrasah also was Urdu. Maulana Athar Ali 
himself used to teach in this madrasah. 

Maulana Athar AH was born in Sylhet in 1309/1891, and belonged to 
a respectable and learned family of East Bengal. He died of paralysis on 
9th Shawwal, A.H. 1396/1976. 

82. MAULANA NAJM AL-DIN JEHLUMI 

He hailed from Jehlum, Punjab. He graduated in A. H. 1338 from the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. For a long time he served as professor of the 
Arabic language in the Oriental College, Lahore. He was very famous in 
the academic circle of the Punjab for his knowledge and learning, virtue 
and peity. He commanded proficiency in Tafsir and Hadith also along 
with Arabic literature. He went to glory in 1952. 

83. MAULANA BADR-E A'LAM MEERUTHI 

His home-town was Meerut. He was born in 1316/1898 in Badaun, 
where hjs august father Haji Tahawwur Ali was an inspector in the Police 
Department. He received his early education in the English School at 
Allahabad. During the course of his education, on hearing Hazrat Thanvi's 
sermon when he got inclined to acquire the religious sciences, his father 
sent him to the presence of Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi at 
Saharanpur. He graduated in Hadith in A. H. 1336 from the Mazahir-e 
Ulum and the very next year he was appointed assistant teacher there. But 
very soon he left teachership and reached Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, for 
further studies. Joining the Daura-e Hadith there he read the Sahih-c 
Bukhari in A. H. 1339 under the instruction of Hazrat Anwar Shah Kashmiri 
and then, in A. H. 1340, he began to render teaching service in the Dar 
al-Ulum. In the beginning of A. H. 1344 he was appointed assistant teacher 
and in the middle of A. H. 1346 he accompanied Hazrat Shah Sahib to 
Jamia-e Dabhel. There, along with his teaching work, he assiduously kept 



103 

attending Shah Sahib's lectures on Sahih-e Bukhari for five years He 
rendered the service of teaching the science of Hadith for 17 years at 
Jamia-e Dabhel. In the end he was made head-teacher there but due to 
ill-health he went to Bhawalpur from Dabhel. 

In Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, after Hazrat Shah Sahib's death, ie 
compiled his teacher's learned lectures into four volumes entitled Faiz al- 
Bari 'ala Sahih al-Bukhari, in which, having presented his teacher, 
Allamah Kashmiri's rare academic disquisitions and singular inquiries, he 
has accomplished a momentous academic achievement. 

In 1362/1943 he became attached to Nadvat al-Musannafin, Delhi, 
where he was assigned the work of compiling a comprehensive book on 
Hadith in the Urdu language entitled Tarjuman al-Sunnah. He started this 
work in a grand manner but after he had completed four volumes, the 
period of "borrowed life" came to an end. 

Maulana Badr-e A'lam first achieved the honour of vowing allegiance 
to Hazrat Maulana Khalil Ahmed Anbathvi; then he grasped the 'skirt of 
faith' of Maulala Mufti Aziz al-Rahman, and, in the end, became attached 
to Mufti Sahib's successor, Qari Muhammad Ishaq Meeruthi, from whom he 
also obtained khilafat. In 1947, after the partition of the country, he went 
to Pakistan. There Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani entrusted him the work 
of establishing a Dar al-Ulum for the Islamic sciences. As such, very pain- 
stakingly he prepared its programme and succeeded in gathering expert 
teachers; but, after a few years only, the magnetism of the prophetic love 
drew him to the illuminated Madina. In the holy land he engaged himself 
with complete composure of mind in academic and practical occupations. 
During his residence in Madina countless South Africans vowed allegiance 
to him and his spiritual grace spread sufficiently in South Africa. He was a 
devout, ascetic, perspicacious gnostic and a well-versed theologian- 
scholar. At last, after a long illness, he paid the debt of nature on 5th 
Rajab, A. H. 1385 and was laid to rest in the Jannat al-Baq'ee. 

Besides Faiz al-Bari and Tarjuman al-Sunnah he has written several 
other books like Jawahir al-Hikam, etc. Hazrat Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi's 
famous book entitled Zubdat al-Manasik on the propositions of hajj has 
been epitomised by Maulana Badr-e A'lam under the title Khulasat 
al-Manasik. 

84. MAULANA MUHAMMAD yUSUF SHAH KASHMIRI MIR WA'IZ 

The far-famed Mir Wa'iz of Kashmir, Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Shah 



104 

Kashmiri, was bom in Kashmir on 24th Sha'ban, A. H. 1313. His family is 
known as "Mir Wa'iz family" in Kashmir and is highly revered there. The 
title of Mir Wa'iz has been hereditary in this family for the last several 
generations. 

Maulana Vusuf Shah received early education from his august father, 
Maulana Ghulam Rasul Shah Sani and Maulana Husain Wafa'i; and then, 
living in the Dar al-Ulum for some years, he graduated from it in A. H. 
1340. ' ■ 

After graduation he founded a seminary in Srinagar under the name 
of Oriental College. The purpose of the establishment of this college 
was to provide educational arrangements for the Muslims of Kashmir 
who were till then stuck in the morass of ignorance due to the indiffer- 
ence of the then government, and to prepare, through this seminary, 
qualified men as teachers, tutors, preachers, imams and khatibs for the 
mosques. Maulana Yusuf Shah himself used to teach in this college. This 
seminary well-served the religious sciences. Students were taught for 
the Arabic Examinations of the Punjab University also in this college. 

The said Maulana, during his student days at the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
had been much impressed by the Khilafat Movement. Besides founding the 
Oriental College in Kashmir, he, in order to create political consciousness 
among the people, also established Khilafat Committee in 1925. This same 
political struggle later on took the form of Muslim Majlis. To make the 
voice of the backward Muslims of Kashmir effective, he started a paper 
entilted Islam to be published every third day, and then another entitled 
Rehnuma, he also established a press for printing these papers. 

In 194-6, prior to the partition of the subcontinent, Maulana Yusuf Shah 
had gone to Pakistan due to some necessity and then some such circumst- 
ances cropped up that he could not return to his native-place. After some 
time he was made head of the government of that part of Kashmir which 
was under the influence of Pakistan. During the establishment of Pakistan 
he translated the holy Quran into the Kashmiri language and wrote a brief 
exegesis also. This is the first-ever translation and exegesis of the whole 
holy Quran in the Kashmiri language. Its first volume which consists of the 
translation and commentary of the Quran upto and including Sura-e Tauba 
has been published. The script of the translation is Nasta'liq. 

While as regards academic position Mir Wa'iz was outstanding among 
his contemporary ulema, in respect of devotions, self-discipline and 



105 

truthfulness in practical life, his life was an excellent speciment of the 
pious predecessors. His sincere efforts have played a great part in the 
religious and political awakening of the people of Kashmir. 

He died on 16th Ramazan, A. H. 1389 (December 7, 1968), in the state 
of fasting, exactly at the time of the breaking of the fast, at Rawalpindi. 

85. MAULANA HABIB AL-RAHMAN LUDHIANVI 

Maulana Habib al-Rahman's family, as regards learning and practice, 
has been the cynosure of the high and the low in the Punjab. Since 
1857 the ulema of this family have always, in every period, arrayed 
themselves against the English; they always remained in the forefront of 
the struggle for the freedom of the country and in this connection 
suffered all sorts of troubles. 

Maulana Habib al-Rahman was born on 11th Safar, A. H. 1310 (July 3, 
1892) in Ludhiana. He learnt the holy Quran and Urdu in the Madrasah at 
Ludhiana. Then he studied in the madrasahs at Nikodar, Dist. Jullundur, 
and Amritsar. In A. H. 1335 he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum. Here, in 
the company of Shah Sahib, he cultivated interest in understanding the 
Quran which continued throughout his life inspite of politica 
preoccupations. 

From the very beginning he had a penchant for politics. So, in 1919/ 
1338, during the period of the Khilafat Movement, he had begun to 
attend the functions of this movement along with Maulana Shabbir 
Ahmed Usmani. It was about this time that the notorious bloody incident 
of Jalianwala Bagh occurred at Amritsar which shook up his emotion of 
liberty. In 1921 he was arrested for the first time for the crime of civil 
disobedience and then this sequence of imprisonment and jail went on 
intermittently till the freedom of the country. 

In 1929 when Majlis-e Ahrar was established in the Punjab, he joined 
it and after a short time he was elected as its president. He kept taking 
part ardently in different political activities. He had joined the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind from the very beginning and remained its member 
continuously till 1950. All his life was spent in political preoccupations. 

In 1947, after the country was vivisected, he had to leave Ludhiana in 
an extremely helpless condition,- he went to Lahore with the refugees and 
from there he later on came to Delhi and settled down there perma- 
nently. He passed the last ten years of his life there only, continuously 



106 

struggling for communal unity as well as trying for the release of 
mosques and Islamic endowments in the East Punjab. To aid and serve 
the oppressed and the needy was his dearest hobby. 

While he had covered only 64 stages of life, he passed away on 
11th Safar, A. H. 1376- He was laid to rest in the graveyard attached to 
the Shahjahani Mosque (Jam'e Masjid, Delhi). 

86. MAULANA MUFTI ATIQ AL-RAHMAN USMANI 

He is Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman's eldest son. He was born in 
Deoband in A. H. 1319. His chronogrammatic name is Zafar al-Haq. He 
started memorising the holy Quran from the age of nine.- From the first 
to the last he studied under the teachers of the Dar al-Ulum and 
graduated from it in A. H. 1341. From A. H. 1344 to A. H. 1346 he 
worked as assistant teacher ,in the Dar al-Ulum, also doing the work of 
fetwa-wnting at the same time. In A. H. 1346 he went to Jamia-e 
Islamia, Dabhel, where, for five years, he worked as mufti and teacher; 
and in A. D. 1930, during the period of the movement of manufacturing 
salt launched by the Indian National Congress, he, due to his interest in 
politics, resigned along with his companion Maulana Hifz al-Rahman 
Sioharvi, from the Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, and for five years he 
rendered services concerning Tafsir, Ifta and preaching at Calcutta. There 
he gained much popularity. During the same period he prepared a plan 
for starting the Nadvat al-Musannafin. Through his efforts, this institution 
was established in 1357/1938 at Qarol Bagh, Delhi. The purpose behind 
the establishment of this institution was to render the valuable services 
of disseminating and publishing the Islamic sciences. Accordingly, more 
than one hundred valuable books have so far been published from the 
Nadvat al-Musannafin, comprising topics of Tafsir, Hadith, history, 
lexicography, ethics and politics. The Nadvat al-Musannafin publishes a 
high-ranking monthly entitled Burhan also. 

From the start Mufti Sahib has been the organiser and the animating 
spirit of the Nadvat al-Musannafin. A great exploit of his is that inspite 
of the ruinous commotion of 1947 he not only kept this institution alive 
but also intrepidly revivified it and turned the wilted and ruined garden 
again into a blossomy and blossoming orchard. 

Mufti Sahib is reckoned amongst the most eminent and seasoned 
men of learning in the country and one of the ardent spirits of the time. 
He .is a member of many educational and religious institutions, and has 
been a member of the Muslim University Court, Aligarh, for a long time. 



107 

He had been the right-hand man of Maulana Hifz al-Rahman in all the 
affairs of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind; after the latter's demise he was 
made the officiating president of this organisation. Nowadays he is the 
president of the Majlis-e Mushawarat. He has been concerned with all the 
national and communal works from the very beginning. 

He is proficient equally both in writing and oratory. Due to his engross- 
ment in national and communal affairs he has not been able to produce 
any book of his own but the books published by the Nadvat al-Musannafin 
are in fact the mirror of his own taste for writing and sound planning. Self- 
respect, liberty of conscience, liberty of the self, understanding, minute- 
ness and jurisprudential insight are his special characterstics. 

He has been a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, since A. H. 1368; his opinion in the Majlis is highly esteemed. 

87. MAULANA HIFZ AL-RAHMAN SIOHARVI 

He was born in a zamindar (landlord) family in A. H. 1318 at Siohara, 
District Bijnor. His chronogrammatic name is Hifz al-Rahman (orthographi- 
cally Rahman written with Allf). His august father, Shams al-Din, was an 
assistant engineer first in the Bhopal state and then in the Bikaner state. 
Maulana Hifz al-Rahman had two other brothers. His father gave both of 
them higher English education whereas the felicity of acquiring education 
in the religious sciences fell to his lot only in the whole family. He was 
mostly educated in.Madrasa Faiz-e A'm at Siohara and Madrasa-e Shahi of 
Moradabad. Entering the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1341, he studied the high- 
est books of philosophy like Sadra, Shams-e Bazigha, etc., and 
completed the Daura-e Hadith in A. H. 1342. 

On receiving a demand from Madras for a teacher, he was sent to 
Madras on behalf of the Dar al-Ulum. There, at Periamet, he spent one 
year in the work of teaching and. preaching. During this period began his 
authorial life and he wrote two booklets; entitled Hifz al-Rahman 
le-Mazhab al-Nauman and Malabar Men Islam. And it was during the 
same period that he went for hajj (to Mecca) and a visit to Madina. On 
his return from Hejaz he joined the Dar al-Ulum and served as a teacher 
there in A. H. 1344. Thereafter he went to Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, where 
he remained busy in teaching for nearly five years. 

In 1352/1933, on the invitation of Anjuman-e Tabligh al-lslam, 
' '-utta, of which Maulana Abu I Kalam Azad was the patron, he went to 



Calcutta, where he rendered the service of teaching the Quran for five 
years. The cogent style in which he elucidated the meanings and 
knowledge of the holy Quran to the people quickly built up his greatness 
and popularity in Calcutta which lasted there till the end. 

In 1357/1938 when Nadvat al-Musannafin was established in Delhi, he 
came back to Delhi with his old companion, Maulana Mufti Atiq 
al-Rahman Usmani. 

In the Nadvat al-Musannafin he rendered very valuable authorial 
services : he lucubrated high-ranking and disquisitional books like Islam 
Ka Iqtesadi Nizam, Akhlaq Awr Falsafa-e Akhlaq and Qasas al-Quran . 
Prior to the establishment of the Nadvat al-Musannafin he had already 
written Rasul-e Karim on the prophetic life and in1351/1932, Balagh-e 
Mubeen in the Delhi District Jail. 

In 1942/1361 he was elected as the chief organiser of the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind. Side by side with the academic interest of teaching and 
writing, he had also had a deep interest in the thorny field of politics. As 
such, the major part of his life was spent in serving the country and the 
nation and in the struggle of the independence movement, and in this 
connection he had often to suffer the hardships and tribulations of jail 
and imprisonment. 

In 1947, after the independence of the country, communal roits broke 
out in the whole country, resulting in wholesale carnage here and there 
and when the flames of this fire began to blaze in Delhi also, the Muslims 
were staggered. In such critical and crucial circumstances, Maulana Hifz 
al-Rahamn faced the grave conditions with unusual spirit, daring and 
resolution; he jogged the leaders and, exerting pressure upon the 
officials, accomplished the great exploit of restoring peace and order, 
and dispelled fear and apprehension from the hearts of the terror- 
stricken Muslims; in short, through his unflagging efforts the staggered feet 
of the Muslims became firmly fixed again. In fact this is such a distinctive 
and momentous achievement of his that it deserves to be written in 
letters of gold. History can never forget the tremendous service he has 
rendered to the Indian Muslims after 1947. 

At the time when massacre and looting were the order of the day 
everywhere in Delhi, Maulana's Hindu friends told him with great insist- 
ence that as your safety in the town has become precarious, it is our 
request that you shift to the security camp of the refugess', but with 



109 

great daring and trenchancy, he rejected the counsel for shifting to a 
camp, saying: 'There can be nothing more shameful and timorous for us 
than this that in our own country we may live like refugees; it is indeed 
a time of severe trial but we should put up a bold front against it'. 

Impressed by the same services of Maulana Hifzal- Rahman, the com- 
munity awarded him the title of Mujahid-e Millat ("The Crusader of the 
Community"). Touring all over the country he awakened the community's 
conciousness and familiarized it with the Zeitgeist. He tried his best to 
save the Muslim University, Aligarh. A great peculiarity of his was this 
that on the one hand he enjoyed the confidence of the community and 
on the other the governent too looked upon him respectfully. 

The cumbrous responsibilities that he had to face after 1947 
impaired his health and with unusual preoccupations the disease went 
on increasing. From the doctors' diagnosis it became known that it was 
the dreadful disease of cancer. So he was taken to Bombay for treat- 
ment but there was no abatement in the disease. At last as a last trial 
for treatment he was taken to America where, after two and a half 
months' treatment, he seemed to pick up spirit and so came back. But 
the 'promised hour' had come. On 1st Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1382 
(August 2, 1962), this temerarious crusader of the community left this 
temporary abode and presented himself before his Lord. His eternal 
resting-place is in the famous graveyard named Mehndiyun, of Hazrat 
Shah Wali Allah, in New Delhi. 

Maulana Hifz al-Rahman 1 was a member of the governing bodies of 
many madrasahs, schools and colleges. He was a member of the Execu- 
tive Council and Court of the Muslim University, Aligarh, for a long time, 
and remained a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum from 
A. H. 1362 till his death in A. H. 1382. 

88. MAULANA SAYYID MUHAMMAD MIAN DEOBANDI 

His chronogrammatic name is Muzaffar Mian. He belonged to the 
famous Rizvi Sayyid family of Deoband. He was born in 1321/1903 in 
District Buland Shahar where his father was posted in connection with his 
service in the Canal Department. His education began at home. He read 
the holy Quran under the instruction of a tutor of District Muzaffamagar. 
He entered the Persian class of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1331 

1. For details about him see Maulana Manzoor Naumani's article which is an almost eye- 
witness account of him in Al-Furqan (Lucknow) monthly of July, 1977. (Translator) 



110 

and graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A H. 1343. Firstly he became a 
teacher at Arrah, Shahabad, in Bihar; then he served as a teacher and 
mufti for a long time in Madrasa-e Shahi of Moradabad. Thereafter he was 
appointed as the organiser of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind and also 
served as its chief organiser for one year. He was one of the sincere and 
efficient leaders of the Jami'at al-Ulama. During the British regime he had 
to undergo jail-sentences several times. 

Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Mian is the author of several books. He 
had a deep insight in jurisprudence and history, and he was a renowned 
author and historian. His political and authorial services will always be 
commemorated in the history of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind. His 
important works are : Ulama-e Hind ka Shandar Mazi, Ulama-e Haq ke 
Mujahidana Karname, Sirat-e Muhammad Rasul Allah, Tarikh al-lslam, 
Ahd-e Zarrin, Panipat Awr Buzurgan-e Panipat, Tehrik-e Shaikh al- 
Hind; and in Hadith, Mishkat al-Athar, which is included in the syllabus 
of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. The syllabus of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind 
which is entitled Dini Ta'lim ka Risala is also his work; these treatises are 
included in the syllabi of many Islamic madrasahs and maktabs. He had a 
vast knowledge of the political history and record of the Jami'at al- 
Ulama. In familiarizing the masses with the political services of the ulema 
of India he has accomplished a great authorial work. 

He had also had a deep knowledge of the history of the last Islamic 
era in India. His articles on the academic, political, religious and preach- 
ing services of the Wall Allahian family and the elders of Deoband are 
considered very authentic; the writers of Europe and America also give 
references of his works. His books enjoy a universal popularity. 

In spite of his participation in political activites, in his simplicity, 
reclusion and committment to remembrance formulae and daily offices 
along with consummate proficiency in knowledge and learning, and in 
humility and self-effacement, asceticism and contentment, self-discipline 
and devotions, righteousness and piety, he was a specimen of the pious 
predecessors 1 . 

In the last phase of his life he served as Professor of Hadith in 
Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi, and as secretary of the Idara-e Mabahis-e Faqiha. 
He was a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in 
A. H. 1370. 

1. This translator has had the honour of having translated, at his request, two of his 
booklets, one of which Din-e Kamil Al-lslam, has been published in Johannesburg, South 
Africa. He had blessed me for this work. He was indeed a very pious divine, very honest in 
his dealinss. (Translate- ' 



On 16th Shawwal, A. H. 1395 (October 22, 1975) he left this mortal 
abode for the eternal r ealm, at the age of 74 years; and lies in eternal 
sleep in Delhi. 

89. MAULANA MUHAMMAD BIN MUSA AFRIQI 

His ancestral native-place is a sleepy village, Simlak, adjacent to 
Dabhel, in Surat district, but his family had migrated to South Africa some 
generations ago and had settled down in Johannesburg. He was born 
there around 1322/1904. For his primary education his august father sent 
him to India. Here he read at Palanpur under the instruction of Maulana 
Nazeer Ahmed Palanpuri. In A. H. 1342 he took admission in the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, and graduated from it in A. H. 1344. No sooner did he 
come to the Dar al-Ulum than he joined the circle of Hazrat Shah Sahib's 
murids; and Hazrat Shah Sahib's way of life influenced him so much that 
in sitting and standing, gait, conversation and in all other modes of 
behaviour he became an exact specimen of his teacher and spiritual 
preceptor. Inspite of being wealthy there was extreme simplicity and 
humility in his disposition and way of living. He used to lead a simple 
life like common students but he used to exceed others in taking part in 
good works and used to spend money lavishly. Besides Arabic, Persian 
and Urdu, he was well-versed in English and French also. 

After having completed his educaton he went to Johannesburg and 
there, along with his very vast commercial business, continued to render 
religious services on a large scale. For the teaching of Islamic and con- 
temporary sciences he founded Waterfall Islamic Institute in Johan- 
nesburg. He built a magnificent building for it and used to bear himself 
all the expenses of the Institute. According to the system of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, along with free education, the provision for the students' 
boarding was also made by him. He was president of the Jami'at al- 
Ulama-e Transvaal for a long time. The construction and progress of the 
Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, owes largely to his huge financial help. He was 
always interested in academic works also. Under the name of Majlis-e 
llmi 1 he established a writers' guild at Dabhel in which he made arrange- 
ments for the publishing of academic books at his own cost. Taking a 
micro-film of the marginalia written by Allamah Muhammad Anwar Shah 
Kashmiri in his own hand on Allamah Zaheer Ahsan Nimvi's (d. A. H. 
1322) book, Athar al-Sunan, he published its copies for men of learning. 

1. Majlis-e llmi, Dabhel, has rendered the remarkable achievement of publishing Hazrat 
Shah Sahib's and other ulema's important books. Allamah Zai'lai's Nasab al-Rayah 'ala 
Takhrij-e Ahadith-al-Hedaya and Faiz al-Bari 'ala Sahib al-Bukhari are .particularly 
noteworthy Both these books have been printed in the Egyptian ryoe at Cairo. 



It is from his sons' financial aid that Maulana Habib al-Rahman A'zami 
has edited and published Ibn Abd al-Razzaq's Musannaf. 

He died in Johannesburg on April 16, 1963 (21st Zi-qa'da, A. H. 
1382). 

90. MAULANA SA'EED AHMED AKBARABADI 

He was born in Agra around 1325/1907. His ancestral native-place is 
village Bachhrayun in Moradabad district. His primary education took 
place at home; then he read in Madrasa-e Shahi at Moradabad and later 
graduated from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1344. Thereafter he 
did Maulavi Fazil's course at the Oriental College, Lahore, after which he 
served as a teacher at Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, for two years. From there 
he went to Delhi and was appointed teacher of oriental languages in 
Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri. During this period he did M A. from St. 
Stephen College, Delhi, and was appointed a lecturer in the same college 
in place of Shams al-Ulama Maulana Abd al-Rahman. Then in 1949/1368, 
he was appointed principal in Madrasa-e A'liya, Calcutta. 

In 1958 he was selected for the post of the Dean of the Faculty of 
Theology in the Muslim University, Aligarh. Before his taking charge this 
department of Theology was in poor shape in the university. Maulana 
Akbarabadi, during his tenure of office, putting in great effort, and 
developing this department both academically and administratively, 
accomplished the tremendous exploit of bringing it on par with other 
departments of high standard; and now this department too has become 
a department commanding a high standard like other departments of the 
university. The introduction of the post-graduate department for doing 
Ph. D. in the Faculty of Theology is also the result of Maulana's effort. 

Retiring from the Muslim University, Aligarh, Maulana Akbarabadi is 
now busy in academic works in the Research Institute, Tughlaqabad, 
New Delhi 1 . 

Maulana Akbarabadi is editor of the high-ranking Urdu academic 
monthly, Burhan, of Nadvat al-Musannafin, Delhi, since 1357/1938. His 
articles are very well-argued, pithy and thought-provoking and are read 
very eagerly in both the modern and the old circles. He is the author of 
many top-notch, disquisitional books among which Islam Men Ghulami ki 
Haqiqat, Ghulaman-e Islam, Wahy-e llahi, Fahm-e Quran, Musalmano ka 
Urooj-o Zawal, Siddiq-e Akbar, etc. are monumental. Besides being a 

1. He has recently resigned from this Institute. (Translator). 



master of the pen he is also a successful orator. 

During his service in Aligarh, he had been to the world-famous 
McGill University of Canada as a visiting professor 1 . He has also visited 
many countries of Asia, Russia, Africa and Europe and has attended 
many international seminars, including Mutamar-e A'lam-e Islami, Cairo. 
He is a divine of international fame; he has been a member of the 
Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, since A H. 1382. 

91. MAULANA MUHAMMAD MANZOOR NAUMANI 

His native-place is Sanbhal; he was born there on 18th Shawwal, A. 
H. 1323. He received his early education first at Sanbhal and then after 
some time, in Madrasa-e Abd al-Rabb, Delhi. Then he studied at Dar al- 
Ulum, Mau, Azamgarh. In the end he joined the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
where he lived for two years and in A. H. 1345 secured the highest 
number of marks in the examination of Daura-e Hadith. 

After completing his education, he spent three years in teaching in 
the Madrasa-e Ch ilia of Amroha and for four years he taught in Nadvat 
al-Ulama, Lucknow, as Prof, of Hadith. In 1353/1934, he started a 
monthly entitled Al-Furqan from Bareilly. He published two special 
issues of Al-Furqan entitled Mujaddid Alf-e Thani Number and Shah 
Waii Allah Number. Initially the Al-Furqan had an orientation towards 
polemics but in 1942/1361 it changed into an academic and religious 
journal; (it is still going strong). He is connected with the Tablighi 
Jama'at since A. H. 1343. He is also a member of the Rabeta-e A'lam-e 
Islami, Mecca. 

Maulana Naumani is a successful Urdu writer and author. His books 
are commonly intelligible; the style of prose is simple, fluent and clear, 
and all his books are -popular in the circles of both the high and the 
low. His Ma'arif al-Hadith, of which six volumes have been published 
so far, is a very comprehensive selection of the prophetic hadiths, and 
is a masterpiece in which he has explained the hadiths with due regard 
to the present-day psychology of the people of this modern era. 

Islam Kiya Hai? Din Wa Shari'at, and Quran Aap se Kiya Kehta Hai? 

1 On and from 20th April, 1979, he has been appointed visiting professor at Durban 
University, South Africa, for a period of one year. He has been called there by the late 
Maulana Sayyid Sulaiman Navdi's son, Dr. Sayyid Salman Nadvi, dean of the Faculty of 
Islamic studies in that University. (Vide Burhan, Delhi, May, 1979 issue. Translator) 



are his monumental works. Besides these, Kalima-e Tayyiba ki Haqjqat, 
Namaz ki Haqiqat, Aap Hajj Kaise Karen? Barakat-e Ramazan, Tehqiq-e 
Mas'ala-e Isal-e Sawab, Tasawwuf Kiya Hai? Tazkira-e Imam-e Rabbani, 
Malfuzat-e Maulana Muhammad llyas, Bawariq al-Ghayb (2 vols), 
Ma'rikat al-Qalam, Hazrat Shah Isma'il Shaheed Per Ma'andin Ke 
llzamat, Khaksar Tehrik, Quran 'Mm Ki Raushni Men, Islam Awr Kufr Ke 
Hudood, Qadianiat, etc. are his other important works. 

'He was elected a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, in A. H. 1362; he is its oldest member and attends its meetings 
and those of the Executive Council very regularly. 

92. MAULANA HAMID AL-ANSARI GHAZI 

He is the eldest son of Hazrat Nanautavi's grandson (daughter's son), 
Maulana Mansoor Ansari. He was born in Anbatha in1327/1909. He took 
his primary education at Maler Kotla under the instruction of the famous 
teacher of the time and his maternal grandfather, Maulana Siddiq Ahmed 
Anbathvi. From A. H. 1341 to A. H. 1346 he studied in the Dar al-Ulum. 
He is a lucid writer, a stylist literary man, a distinguished journalist and 
speaker in the Urdu language. He has been editor of Al-Jami'at, Delhi, 
Madina, Bijnor, Jamhouriat, Bombay, and other papers. Islam Ka Nizam-e 
Hukumat is his famous book published by the Nadvat al-Musannafin, 
Delhi. There is a valuable book of his on the prophetic life also, entitled 
Khulq-e Azeem. He has good mastery in composing poetry also. He has 
had a deep insight in politics and in this field he was connected with 
the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Maharashtra. He has been a member of the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum. since A. H. 1382. 

In 1392/1972 he has acquired the honour of having visited the two 
holy cities (Mecca and Madina). His elegant and magnetic personality is 
an attractive combination of amiability, humility and dignity. For making 
arrangements for the centenary celebration of the Dar al-Ulum the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has selected him and he is currently 
busy in performing this gigantic task very assiduously and efficiently. 

93. MAULANA QAZI ZAYN AL-A'BIDIN SAJJAD MEERUTHI 

He belongs to the Qazi family of the Meerut city. His family has 
graced the important post of Qazat in Meerut since Muhammad Tughlaq's 
(A. H. 725 to A. H. 752) time and has always been distinguished in 
knowledge and learning. Qazi Sahib is the dearly beloved scion of the 



same family and a repository of his ancestral traditions 1 . 

Qazi Sahib was born in Meerut around 1328/1910. He received 
primary education at Madrasa-e Dar al-Ulum, Meerut, and then at 
Madrasa-e Imdad al-lslam, Meerut. He studied Mishkat and Baizavi 
under Maulana Abd al-Momin. He cultivated a taste for the Arabic 
literature in the company of Maulana Akhtar Shah Khan, a teacher in 
Madrasa-e Imdad al-lslam. During the same time he passed the exami- 
nation of Fazil-e Adab-e Arabi (Graduate in Arabic Literature) of the 
Allahabad University and studied English upto the High School level. For 
completing the course of Hadith he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, in A. H. 1345. He acquired the grace of Hadith from Hazrat 
Shah Sahib and Hazrat Madam and graduated in this course with 
distinction in A. H. 1346. 

During his student career itself he had gained expertise in composing 
Arabic panegyrics and in translating from Arabic into Urdu, and his arti- 
cles had begun to be published in standard journals of Urdu. Maulana 
Tajwar Najibabadi used to publish an Urdu monthly entitled Adabi 
Dunya from Lahore in those days; he made choice of Qazi Sahib for the 
post of its joint-editor and as such the latter went to Lahore. When 
Nadvat al- Musannafin was established in Delhi in 1357/1938, Qazi 
Sahib too was one of its writing members. It was during this period that 
he wrote the history of the Muslim nation in three parts, entitled Nabi-e 
Arabi, Khilafat-e Rashida and Khilafat-e Banu Umayyah. Besides these, 
Qazi Sahib is the author of several other books. His important works are 
as -follows : — 

Bayan al-Lisan (Arabic-Urdu Dictionary); Qamoos al-Quran 
(Dictionary of the Quranic Terms); Intikhab-e Sihah Sitta, Sirat-e 
Tayyiba, Shaheed-e Kerbala, Kalam-e Arabi, etc. 

1-Qazi Sahib's ancestors were active participants in the Wall Allahian movement. His 
great grandfather, Qazi Ahmed Allah Shaheed, was a companion of Hazart Sayyid 
Ahmed Shaheed in the caravan that had gone for hajj in 1236/1821 He tasted the cup 
of martyrdom in 1246/1831 in the battle of Balalcot. His grandfather, Qazi Abd al-Bari, 
inspite of the great responsibility of his post, took conspicuous part in the war of 
independence of 1857. Maulavi Muhammed Has him to whose Hashimi Press Hazrat 
Nanautavi was attached in the last phase of his life was a member of the same family. 
Qazi Sahib's auaust father, Maulana Basheer al— Din, was one of the most well-guided 
disciples of Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman Usmani and Maulana Nazir Hasan Deobandi. 
He had acquired a sanad of Hadith from Hazrat Maulana Fazl-e Rahman Ganj 
Moradabadi and it was he who had compiled and published Shah Abd al-Aziz 
Dehelvi's Tazkira-e Azizia, Maifuzat-e Azizi, etc. 



116 

Sayan al-Lisan, in which every word, apart from its root, has been 
given in its original form and fully explained grammatically and syntacti- 
cally, has run into several reprints. Similarly, the Qamoos al-Quran too, 
in which, besides the lexicographic disquisition of the Quranic terms, 
very concise and complete notes have been written on all important 
words, is a popular dictionary. 

Once he used to publish an esteemed Urdu monthly entitled 
Al - Haram from Meerut. His style of writing is lucid, simple, easily com- 
prehensible and fascinating. He has had perfect mastery in translating 
from Arabic into Urdu. 

In 1957 Prof. Muhammad Mujeeb invited him to serve as Prof, of 
History and Exegesis in the Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi. As such he 
graced this post there for a long time 1 . 

Since 1382 A. H. he is a member of the Majlis-e Shura; besides this 
he is also a member of the Administrative Council of the Nadvat 
al-Ulama, Lucknow, and Faculty of Theology, Muslim University, Aligarh, 
and Executive Council of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind, etc.; and is also 
president of the All-India Dini Ta'lim Board. 

94. MAULANA SHAMS AL-HAQ FARIDPURI 

He was a resident of District Faridpur (Bangla Desh). He was born 
circa 1328 A. H. First he received education in Mazahir-e Ulum, 
Satwanpur, and then took admission in the Dar al-Ulum from where he 
graduated in A. H. 1346. 

Maulana Faridpuri, for his academic and preaching services, 

1. For the English system of education two institutions of the Muslims in India are 
considered important: Muslim University, Aligarh, and Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi. In both 
these institutions the Faculty of Theology has been connected mainly with the graduates 
of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, The first-ever dean af this Faculty in the Muslim University 
was Maulana Abd Allah Ansari. Then his eldest son, Maulana Ahmed Mian Ansari headed 
it and thereafter Maulana Sa'eed Ahmed Akbarabadi, through his tremendous efforts, has 
made this Faculty, which was in an ordinary condition before, equal to the other 
faculties in the university, and now it enjoys the same status which is had by other 
faculties. 

In Jamia Millia, Delhi, the late Khwaja Abd al-Hayy was the dean of the Faculty of 
Theology formerly. Then Qazi Zayn al-Abidin Sajjad was appointed on this post; a great 
advantage that flowed from this is that as regards tack all these three great institutions 
became consistent with each other. 



117 

established a madrasah in Dacca, named Jamia-c Qurania. He built magni- 
ficent buildings for the madrasah and also built a mosque. This madrasah 
had a conspicuous position amongst the seminaries of Dacca. 

Maulana Shams al-Haq was a very good author of the Bengali 
language. He rendered great service in familiarising the Bengali Muslims 
with religious education. He translated the Bihishti Zewar into the Bengal 
language and it became very popular in Bengal. Besides this, he has 
translated many other books of Hazrat Thanvi into the Bengali language. 

Along with candidness and well-wishing, truthfulness and dauntless- 
ness were his main traits. He had close relations with the rulers in East 
Pakistan, but when any religious matter came up, he would not shrink 
from and fail in expressing his opinion with daring and pluck. In the last 
part of his life he was suffering from ill-health but there was no failing in 
his ambition and aspiration for religious services. 

He died in the month of Zi-qa'da, 1388 A. H., aged nearly 60 years. 

95. MAULANA SAYYID FAKHR AL-HASAN 

He was born on 10th Rajab, A. H. 1323, at village Umri, his ancestral 
native-place in Moradabad district. His chronogrammatic name is Mazhar 
Husain. He received the knowledge of the holy Quran, Theology, Urdu 
and primary Persian from Hafiz Nasim' al-Din and Hafiz Abd al-Qadir 
Amrohi. His august father was a librarian in the Madrasa-e Shahi, 
Moradabad. So, around A. H. 1335, he took admission in the said 
madrasah. There he completed the course of Persian and studied the 
elementary books of the Nizami Syllabus under. his own father. Then he 
went to Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and completed the intermediate 
courses. In A. H. 1343 he came to the Dar al- Ulum and, completing the 
course of Hadith in A. H. 1347, he became a graduate. 

After graduation he was appointed as a teacher in Madrasa-e A'liya, 
Fatehpun (Delhi). From there he went to Bihar and was appointed in 
Madrasa Shams al-Huda, Patna, for teaching certain books of the Sihah. 
But after one and a half years he returned to Madrasa-e A'liya, 
Fatehpuri, where later on he was made its head-teacher. In A. H. 1362 he 
was called to the Dar al-Ulum and was appointed a teacher of the higher 
classes and was given books like Sahih-e Muslim, Umoor-e A'amah, etc 
(for teaching). In the Dar al-Ulum his teaching of the Sahih-e Muslim and 
Tafsir-e Baizavi has attained special fame. Accordingly, the first volume 



of his lecture on Baizavi entitled Al-Tafsir al-Havi has been published 
and met with general approbation. He is also very proficient in givins 
sermons and speeches. 

In A. H. 1387, after Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi's demise, he 
was appointed principal (Sadr al-MudarrasIn) in the Dar al-Ulum on 
which post he is still working 1 . 

He has had permission (for initiation) and khilafat from Hazrat Shah 
Abd al-Qadir Raipuri. 

96. MAULANA QAZI SAJJAD HUSAIN KARATPLRI 

He was born in A. H. 1328. He is a resident of Karatpur, District Bi- 
jnor. He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1347. He 
passed the examinations of Maulavi A'lim and Fazil-e Adab from the 
Allahabad Board and those of Munshi Fazil and Maulavi Fazil from the 
Punjab University. 

First he was appointed a teacher in Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri, and 
was then made principal. He has had the honour of vowing allegiance to 
Hazrat Maulana Madani. He has written useful and easy annotations on 
Shaikh Sadi's Gulistan, Bostan, Karima, and Divan-e Hafiz Shirazi, Mala 
Bud Mino, Gulzar-e Dabistan, Hamd-e Bari, Pand Nama and other 
Persian text-books, and has published these books with extreme accuracy 
and care. He has also written in Urdu a commentary on the Sab'a Mu 
allaqa and has named it Taushlhaat 2 . 

In recognition of these academic services the Government of India has 
given him the Persian Award. Some of his articles have been published in 
the daily Al-Jami'at, etc. He is equally proficient both in Urdu writing 

1. It is sad to note that Maulana Fakhr al-Hasan is now no more. As I read in the Urdu 
daily, Da'wat, Delhi, on 22nd Sept., 1960, at Sural, about his sad demise, I inquired from 
the Daftar-e Ihtemam and Maulana Abd al-Haq confirmed the news that Maulana Fakhr 
al-Hasan died at about 1-00 a.m. between 6th and 7th Zi-qida, A. H. 1400, (17th & 18th 
Sept., 1980). and was laid to rest eternally in the Qasimi graveyard. Thousands of 
students, teachers, members of the office staff and citizens participated in the funeral 
service which was performed by Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, vice-chancellor, 
in the lhata-e Maulsari. May lights of Divine Mercy and fragrance of the flowers of Paradise 
illumine and perfume his grave I (Translator) 

2. He has since published with notes and translation Akhlaq-e Mohsini and two Daftars of 
Masnavi Maulana Rum also. This great effort on the part of Qazi Sahib will go a long way in 
boosting the flagging cause of the Persian language and literature, in India. Translator) 



119 

and speech. Along with knowledge and learning, he is a courteous and 
complaisant divine of high morals. He has been a member of the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind for a long time. He is also discharging the duties as 
general secretary of the Dini T'alim Board, Delhi, and is a deputy 
superintendent of the Hamdard Dawakhana, (Waqf), Delhi. 

97. MAULANA MASIH ALLAH KHAN 

He belongs to famous Shirwani family of the Aligarh district. He was 
born at his ancestral native-place, Sarai Barla, in Aligarh district. Initially 
he read upto VI class in the government school. From his very boyhood 
he was much fond of Zikr ('remembrance') supererogatory devotions 
(nawafil), awrad (litanies compounded of strung-together azkar or 
phrase-patterned devotions or remembrance formulae) and waza'if 
(daily offices or recitations, usually prescribed by a Shaikh for the 
murid), and religious education. Disgusted with the government school, 
he left studies. At last, his father, being constrained, permitted him to 
acquire religious education. Upto the Mishkat al-Masabih, he studied at 
his own native-place. In A. H. 1348 he took admission in the Dar al- 
Ulum, where he completed the Hadith Course in A. H. 1349 and stayed 
two years more to study the books of rational sciences like Umoor-e 
A'amah, Qazi Mubarak, Tasrih, Sharh-e Chaghmini, Sa'ba Shidad, etc. 

During his student-career itself he had acquired the honour of owing 
allegiance to Hazrat Thanvi, and then, very soon, in A. H. 1351, he was 
exalted with khilafat also. Once Hazrat Thanvi wrote the names of 
eleven of his favourite khalifas in a declaration; in it he stated that 

I write the names of some of my competent spritual successors on 
whose method of teaching I rely; you may connect your training with 
anyone of them you like." 

Amongst these favourites was also the name of Maulana Masih Allah 
Khan. 

In A. H. 1357 Hazrat Thanvi sent him as a teacher to a madrasah in 
Jalalabad. At that time this madrasah existed as an ordinary maktab 
(primary school), but within a few years, due to his sincere efforts and 
toil and moil, this madrasah which is known as Miftah al-ulum, is being 
reckoned among the great Arabic seminaries of India. Through his 
utmost efforts and mature enterprise magnificent buildings of the 
madrasah and the mosque have been built. The compound of the 



madrasah is very vast and the mosque is very graceful. 

After the Friday prayer a common assembly is held at his place in 
which, besides the teachers and taught of the madrasah, a large number 
of his proselytes living in the vicinity also gather, and he himself reads 
out Hazrat Thanvi's discourses and sermons. The circle of his proselytes is 
very wide. He has had a special knack of explaining complex matters and 
discussions in a very easy style, with examples, events and anecdotes. 

On the science of Tasawwuf he has written a book entitled Shari'at 
wa Tasawwuf which has been derived from Hazrat Thanvi's books per- 
taining to Tasawwuf. The propositions and topics of Tasawwuf have been 
explained in such an easy and simple style in the light of the Book and 
the Sunnah that even an average man can understand them fully. 
Maulana's spiritual grace is common and is reaching outside India also. 

98. MAULANA MUHAMMAD YUSUF BINNORI 

He is a member of a learned Sayyid family of Peshawar district. His 
ausust father, Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya, was a high-ranking divine 
and a famous personality. His family has been respectable in the North 
West Frontier Province since the time of Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Thani. 
Although Maulana Binnori did not actually take admission in the Dar al- 
Ulum, his educational career has always been associated with the 
teachers of the Dar al-Ulum : he studied the science of Hadith under 
Hazrat Shah Sahib Kashmiri at Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, and thus his 
academic and educational life has always been connected with the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. He is an intelligent, ingenious, self-effacing and 
versatile divine; and is a repository of Hazrat Shah Sahib's sciences and 
knowledge. In the science of Hadith he has had a high-ranking work 
entitled Ma'arif al-Sunan, in which he has preserved Hazrat Allamah 
Muhammad Anwar Shah's sciences with full positivity and firmness. 

He was engaged in teaching Hadith in Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, and 
then in the central madrasahs of Pakistan. Due to his extraordinary 
academic capabilities he is popular and well-known in the academic 
circles of, besides those of Pakistan, other Islamic countries also. He has 
had rapport with Mutamar-e A'lam-e Islami, Cairo, and Rabeta-e A'lanve 
Islami, Mecca. He worked as Professor of Hadith in the famous Madrasah 
Tando Allahyar of Sind for a long time, and then established a madrasah 
in the mosque at New Town, Karachi, and started teaching in the said 
mosque with mere reliance on Allah. Allah Most High accepted his 



121 

honesty of purpose and sincerity and today the same madrasah of 
humble beginning is reckoned as the central Dar al-lllum of Pakistan. 
As regards the expenses of the madrasah he is extremely cautions and- 
committed to asceticism and piety. 

The lauded Maulana is also an author. He writes chaste and literary 
Urdu. He has also started a journal entitled Bayyinat for the madrasah in 
which disquisitional articles of distinguished writers are published. He 
has played an important part in getting the Qadiani sect legally declared 
non-Muslim. He has had a respectable and handsome personality. In 
Arabic literature he commands the same proficiency which a born Arab 
can have; the ulema of Egypt and Arab countries acknowledge his ability, 
learning and accomplishments 1 . 

These lines had been written when news came that Maulana Binnori 2 
passed away at Islamabad in the morning of 17th October, 1977 (A. H. 
1397). "We belong to Allah and unto Him is the retreat" I 

99. MAULANA SAYYID MINNAT ALLAH RAHMANI 

He was born on 9th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1332, at Khanqah-e Rahmani, 
Monghyr. His august father, Maulana 3 Sayyid Muhammad Ali (d. 1346/ 
1927) was a matchless divine of his time and one of the great khalifas of 
Hazrat Shah Fazl-e Rahman Ganj Moradabadi (d. A. H. 1313). 4 . He read the 
holy Quran and took the primary education in Persian and Arabic at his 
native-place. At the age of eleven years he went to Hyderabad. He stayed 
there for one year and studied the books of Arabic grammer and syntax 
and logic under the instruction of Mufti Abd al-Lateef (d. 1379/1927). 

1. Maulana Binnori, when he was at Dabhel, often used to come to Navsari. I had the good 
fortune of meeting him at the residence of my Shaikh, Hazrat Ghulam Muhammad Mujaddidi 
Naqshbandi Kabuli, a direct descendant of Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Thani; in 1948, and it was 
on this occasion that I had been told that the Maulana was a descendant of Hazrat Sayyid 
Adam Binnori who was Hazrat Mujaddid's khalifa. After my Shaikh's departure to Karachi 
the same year, Maulana Binnori continued to serve at Dabhel The second time I met Film 
near the Jame Masjid here, I found him worried. On enquiry he told me that his small 
daughter had been operated by an experienced doctor for tonsils but there was too much- 
loss of blood and her delicate health was worrying him. Though I was much younger than 
he, he listened to my words of sympathy and encouragement patiently. He was indeed a 
very learned divine, very polite, very affable and very candid and forthrightCTranslator). 

2. See Al-Furqan (Lucknow) monthly of Sept. - Oct., 1978, for some aood articles on him; 
also Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Number of Bayyinat (Karachi). (Translator) 

3. For details of his life, vide Sirat-e Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Ali 

4. For details, refer to Tazklra-e Maulana Fazl-e Rahman by Mau. S. Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi. 



122 

Then, having taken admission in Dar al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow, 
he studied there for four years. During this period he studied Hujjat 
Allahil Baligha under the instruction of an illustrious divine of that era, 
Maulana Hafeez Allah (d. A. H. 1362). Maulana Rahmani was counted 
amongst the distinguished students of the Nadvat al-Ulama. In A. H. 
1349 he took admission in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, for the comple- 
tion of his courses and graduated from it in A. H. 1352. He was one of 
the favourite students of Hazrat Maulana Madani. He has also had a 
working knowledge of the English language. He has abundant compe- 
tence both in writing and speech. He is the author of several books; his 
style of writing is simple, easy and fascinating; he has complete mastery 
over language and expression. 

He was elected to the Bihar Legislative Assembly in A. H. 1355 and 
was installed as Sajjada-nashin of Khanqah-e Rahmani in A. H. 1361. His 
august father had made the said Khanqah (hospice) a great academic, 
religious and preaching centre in east India. After having graced the seat 
of the head of the order' (masnad-e sajjadigi), he turned his attention 
towards reforming the people. There is a vast circle of his murids 
(spiritual disciples) and mustarshids (aspirants to the straight path') in 
Bihar, Orissa and Bengal. Since A. H. 1374 fie is a member of the 
Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. His mature opinion is given 
importance in the Majilis. In A- H. 1376 he was selected as Amir-e 
Shari'at of the Imarat-e Sharayyah of Bihar and Orissa. Besides benefit- 
ting people spiritually, he is also occupied with the work of teaching. In 
short, his p'erson is a charming confluence of Shari'at and Tasawwuf. 

The re-establishment of the Jamia-e Rahmani and its uncommon 
progress is his important educational and administrative achivement. The 
said Jamia is now reckoned amongst the great seminaries of Bihar. 
Under his aegis the library of the Jamia has progressed by leaps and 
bounds and has at present a valuable stock of choice books of the 
ancient and modern sciences. 

During Maulana Rahmani's time the Amarat-e Sharayyah too has come 
to limelight; its branches are working at various places in Bihar and 
Orissa. This institution has been maintaining the Shara'i laws in its gamut 
of influence. 

In 1383/1964 Maulana Rahmani participated as the Indian delegate in 
the Mutamar-e A'lam Islarni, Cairo. A historical memento of this 
academic and cultural journey is his Safar Nama-e Misr. 



123 

As general secretary of the All-India Muslim Personal Law Board he has 
rendered great services in connection with the social laws of the Muslims; 
an important achievement of his is that he has won the confidence of all 
the religious representatives of different tacks and sects whom Hakim 
al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib had gathered on one platform. 

100 MAULANA SHARIF HASAN DEOBANDI 

He was a resident of Deoband, where he was born on 9th August, 
1920. In Deoband itself he committed the holy Quran to memory under 
the instruction of the late Hafiz Abd al-Haq,- then for three years he 
studied the primary books of Persian and Arabic in the madrasah at Bhitt 
(Dist. Saharanpur). Thereafter he entered the Dar al-Ulum and completed 
the Nizami curriculum. He graduated in the Hadith Course in A. H. 1358. 

After graduation, he was appointed head-teacher, in Shawwal, 1360/ 
1941, in Madrasa Imdad al-Ulum of Khanqah-e Imdadia, Thana Bhavan. He 
had perfect proficiency in all the arts and sciences. Due to the grace of 
the company of Hakim al-Ummat Hazrat Thanvi he cultivated an affinity 
with Hadith and Ifta. About A. H. 1364 he was made principal of 
Madrasah Isha'at al-Ulum, Bareilly, where, besides lecturing on Hadith, he 
also discharged the duty of fetwa-wnting. After nine years he was made 
Professor of Hadith in Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel (Dist. Surat), where he 
used to teach Sahih-e Bukhari and Jam'e-e Tirmizi. 

In A. H. 1383 he was called to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. He had a 
special interest in the science of Hadith. His taking charge of lecturing on 
the Bukhari Sharif after Maulana Fakhr al-Din Ahmed was his great 
academic achievement. Practically till his last breath ' he continued to 
work as Professor of Hadith. All his life passed in study, teaching and 
serving the seekers of the religious sciences. His lectures used to be 
replete with academic matter and the students of Hadith used to come 
out satisfied from his lecture. He died in; harness : his educational 
benefaction continued till a few hours before his demise. 

In knowledge and practice, piety and purification, and moral virtues 
and good qualities, Maulana Sharif Hasan was a reminder of the great 
ulema. On account of his academic erudition and his specialization 
and interest in the science of Hadith, as also due to his spotless charac- 
ter, he was considered pre-emineat among the contemporary ulema. He 
used to meet all the high and the low with a cheerful countenance. His 
exterior and interior both were pure, and he had a very accommodating 



disposition, following the policy of 'live and let live'. 

He died on the night between Hth and 15th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 
1397, of some cardiac disease; after a few hours of illness; at the age of 
nearly 59 years. His eternal resting-place lies in the Qasimi sraveyard. 

101 MAULANA ASHRAF ALI KAMARLAI 

He hails from District Kamarla in Bangla Desh. He graduated from the 
Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1364. Besides teaching, he has been rendering valu- 
able educational services through speech and oratory, sermons and incul- 
cation, religious and social reforms, and books and articles. He has 
served as head teacher in Madrasa-e Laodi, Dar al-Ulum Jasarlakhpur 
Senior Madrasah and Madrasa-e A'liya, Haibatnagar. He has happened to 
teach almost all the books of the Nizami Curriculum. Hundreds of 
students in Bengal have derived religious and academic benefit from 
him. He also does the important work of fetwa-writing in his region, and, 
having displayed the uncommon merit of his talents in the field of 
polemics, has received praise and compliments from the men of 
knowledge. 

Besides being an eloquent and fervent orator in the Bengali language, 
he is also a successful article-writer, translator and author. Long time back 
he had started translating the Shama'il-e Tirmizi and Sahih al-Bukhari 
into the Bengali language but it could not be known whether these trans- 
lations could be completed or not. He owes allegiance to Hakim al-lslam 
Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib and is an active divine, putting 
his knowledge into practice. 

He is the organiser of the Nizam-e Islam Party and has always striven 
for establishing the Islamic system of government in his country. 

102. MAULANA MUFTI MAHMUD 

He is an inhabitant of Kalachi in District Dera Isma'il Khan. The year of 
his birth is circa A.H. 1342. Initially he received education in his native- 
place and Bajuchistan. In Shawwal, A.H; 1364, he took admission in the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, and graduated from it in A.H. 1365. For five to six years 
he rendered teaching services in Najm al-Madaris, Kalachi, etc.; and 
established a madrasah in Kot Azam for teaching the Holy Quran and Urdu. 

He has good insight in Hadith and Fiqh. His fetwas are respected and 



relied upon in Pakistan and he is reckoned amongst the distinguished 
ulema of Pakistan. Along with having insight in the religious sciences, he 
has also had deep knowledge of the modern sciences. He is very daunt- 
less and forthright in speaking the truth. He graces the post of organiser 
in the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Pakistan and has been, at a time, a member of 
the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. He was also chief-minister in the 
North West Frontier Province for some time and during his ministry he 
eradicated many Shara'i indecencies. He has also represented Pakistan in 
the Egyptian Mutamar-e A'lam-e Islami. 

His academic and political services continue even today 1 . His efforts 
in getting the Qadiani sect constitutionally declared a non-Muslim 
minority have been important. At present he is the president of the 
Mutahadda Muhaz (United Front) of Pakistan. He commands a conspicu- 
ous position in the Pakistani politics. 

1. But these services have ceased on and from 14th October, 1980, when, at Karachi, he 
deid of a massive heart attack. He was already a patient of chronic diabetes but with 
his strong will power he went on serving and defending the religion. From Karachi his 
bier was taken on 15th October, by a special plane, to his residence at Multan, where 
he was principal and Professor of Hadith in the Madrasah Qasim al-Ulum. After funeral 
prayer there, it was again taken to his birth-place, Paniala, for the final funeral service 
and burial. 

This information has been culled from an obituary notice Maulana Manzoor Naumani 
has written in his esteemed monthly, Al-Furqan (Lucknow), (the combined lOth-llth 
issue of Oct. -Nov., 1980) According to this obituary, Maulana Mufti Mahmud was born 
at Paniala, a village in Dera Ismail Khan, in a zamindar family, in Rabi al-Sani, A. H. 1337 
(A. D. 1919). After having passed the Matriculation Examination from the Govt. High 
School, Paniala, and finishing the primary books of Grammar and Logic at home, the 
dominant penchant for religious education made him join the Madrasa-e Shahi at 
Moradabad, where he read under the instruction of Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Din and 
other teachers and completed the Daura-e Hadith in 1360/1940. 

He was one of those Indian ulema who had staunchly opposed the vivisection of 
the country and the formation of Pakistan. As such, for a long time, he could not take 
any part in the Pakistani politics. Later on, however, when the atmosphere became 
favourable, he successfully fought three elections (1962, 1970 and 1977) to become a 
member of the National Assembly, and formed and headed a ministry in 1972 in the 
N. W. F. P. but later resigned along with his colleagues in protest against the steps taken 
by President Zulfiqar All Bhutto. A very popular public figure for his dervish-like lifestyle 
and a towering personality in the Pakistani politics, it was Maulana Mufti Mahmud who led 
the movement against Mr. Bhutto's political skulduggery that put an end to his regime. 

Nearly ten months back Mufti Sahib had come to India to attend the Centenary Celeb- 
rations of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, his alma mater, from where he also went to visit Dar 
al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow, and stayed there for two, three days. May Allah have 
mercy on him ! 

For details, vide the said issues of Al-Furqan (Translator). 



CHAPTER V 



SADR MUDARRISIN (PRINCIPALS) 



From its very inception the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has been the 
greatest centre of the science of Hadith and it is due to the attraction of 
this peculiarity that students from distant countries besides India resort to 
it in large numbers. On the masnad (seat) of principalship in the Dar 
al-Ulum there have always been appointed such ulema who, besides their 
knowledge and learning, particularly that of the science of Hadith, are 
considered peerless at the time for their asceticism and piety, and 
spiritual wayfaring and gnosis. Along with the exoteric sciences students 
derive the esoteric grace also from them. 

1. HAZRAT MAULANA MUHAMMAD YAQUB NANAUTAVI 

On this great post in the Dar al-Ulum it was Maulana Muhammad 
yaqub Nanautavi who was appointed first of all. He had acquired the 
knowledge of sciences from his august father, Hazrat Maulana Mamluk Ali, 
and Hazrat Shah Abd al-Ghani Mujaddidi Dehelvi. 

Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi was born in Nanauta on 13th 
Safar, A. H. 1249. Manzoor Ahmed, Ghulam Husain and Shams al-Duha are 
his chronogrammatic names. 

■ He memorised the Holy Quran in Nanauta. In Muharram, A. H. 1260, 
when he was eleven years old, his august father took him to Delhi. His 
education began with Mizan, Munsha'ab and Gulistan. He acquired all 
the then current sciences from his august father but the science of Hadith 
he' completed under the instruction of Hazrat Shah Abd al-Ghani Mujad- 
didi. In the traditional and the rational sciences he was like his father. He 
had been endowed with a very nimble mind. 

Maulana Mamluk Ali died in Zil-hijja, A. H. 1267/1851. Thereafter he 
stayed in Delhi for one year and then was appointed in Government 
College, Ajmer. It is stated in Maktubat-e Yaqubi: 

"He went to Ajmer employed on Rs. 30/. At that time he was very 
young. On seeing him the principal of Ajmer College remarked: 'The 
maulavi is good but he is much too young, a teenager'. At the principal's 



recommendation he was given the Deputy Collector's post but he did 
not accept it. Thereafter he was sent to Benares on Rs. 100/- per month. 
From there he was appointed on Rs. 150/- as Deputy Inspector at 
Saharanpur. It was here that he witnessed the event of Mutiny" 1 . 

v 
During that period he stayed at Nanauta. He became relieved of 
responsibility by resigning from government service, and joined service 
in Munshi Mumtaz All's press at Meerut. He himself writes in Sawanh-e 
Qasirni 

"Munshi Mumtaz Ali established a press at Meerut. He called Maulavi 
(Muhammad Qasim) Sahib for old friendship's sake and gave him the 
work of emendation. This work was nominal; his purpose was to keep 
Maulavi Sahib with himself. This humble self, after visiting Bareilly and 
Lucknow, got employed in the same press at Meerut" 2 . 

In 1283/1866 he (Maulana Yaqub) came to Deoband and was 
appointed on the post of principal. He was the first Professor of Hadith 
of the Dar al-Ulum. The grace of his education and training produced 
many distinguished ulema who shone like sun and moon on the firma- 
ment of knowledge and learning. In the brief span of 19 years 77 
students acquired the prophetic sciences from him. Among them were 
the celebrated and matchless ulema of their time like Maulana Abd al- 
Haq Pur Qazvi, Maulana Abd Allah Anbahtavi, Maulana Fateh Muhammad 
Thanvi, Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan Deobandi, Maulana Khalil 
Ahmed Anbahtavi, Maulana Ahmed Hasan Amrohi, Maulana Fakhr al- 
Hasan Gangohi, Maulana Hakim Mansoor Ali Khan Moradabadi, Maulana 
Mufti Aziz al-Rahman Deobandi, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Maulana 
Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed and Maulana Habib al-Rahman (Allah's mercy 
be on all of them I). 

Looking to Maulana Muhammad Yaqub and the educational benefac- 
tion of his disciples it would be no exaggeration to say that the major- 
ity of the ulema who are in existence at present in India, Pakistan, 
Bangla Desh, Afghanistan and Central Asia have mostly feasted at this 
very table of knowledge. As regards his circle of teaching it is stated in 
Ashraf al-Sawanh that 

"Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub (Allah's mercy be on him I) who, 
besides being an expert in every subject, was also a very great master of 

1. Maktubat-e Yaqubi, p. 5, p u b. : Thana Bhavan, 1929 
2 Sawanh-e Qasirni, pp. 20-21. 



128 

hidden knowledge and a consummate Shaikh. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali 
Thanvi has acquired very great graces and blessings (barakat) from the 
lauded Maulana and has picked up the uncommon and strange sciences 
mostly from him only; and he used to describe most of the Maulana's 
statements, states, spiritual facts and knowledge with great delectation, 
and often used to say: 'Rather than being a circle of teaching, it used to 
be a circle of tawwajuh ('confrontation' : a technique of contemplation 
in which one's being is concentrated on someone). The condition used 
to be such that while giving a lesson of Tafsir and explaining the meaning 
of verses, tears used to roll down torentially from the eyes 1 ." 

Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub had traversed the stages of the 
Sufi way (suluk) and the mystical intuitive knowledge (marifat) under 
the guidance of Hazrat Haji Imadad Allah Mahajir-e Makki. He often 
used to be in a state of absorption (jazb) and intoxication (kaif). He 
had absolutely rjp attention towards worldly concerns. The letters he has 
written to a proselyte of his, Munshi Muhammad Qasim Nayanagri, are 
an album of suluk and marifat and a manual of sufistic realities; they 
are a comprehensive guide book for the salik (pilgrim on the way). It is 
the opinion of this writer's learned friend, Muhammad Ayyub Qadri, that 
Maktubat-e Yaqubi seem to be an abridged Urdu edition of the letters 
of the famous Shaikh of the Chishtiyya order, Makhdoom Jehangir Ashraf 
Semnani (d. 808/1405). The purport of these letters is conformance to 
the Sunnah and submission to Allah 2 ". 

Although there was domination of power (jalal) and absorption (jazb) 
in 'his disposition and the condition of its awe and effect was such that 
people used to have a feeling of consternation in talking with him, he 
used to behave with all and sundry with great affability and condescen- 
sion. As was the case with his elders, there was great independence in his 
nature which can be estimated from this event that once a gentleman who 
had great influence over his temperament said to him : "It is an earnest 
wish of such and such a Nawab Sahib that once you condescend to go 
to his place".' The Maulana said : "We have heard that any maulavi who 
goes to the place of that Nawab Sahib, the latter gives him one hundred 
rupees. Since he is himself calling us, he may perhaps give us two hundred 
rupees. But for how many days will these hundred or two hundred suffice 
us ? By going there we will not smirch the reputation of maulaviism" 3 . 

1 Ashraf al-Sawanh vol. i, p. 33, Pub.: Kutub Khana Ashrafiya, 'Delhi. 

2. Maulana Ahmed Hasan Nanautavi, p 197 

3. Arwah-e Salasa, between anecdotes 439 and 440 



The preface-writer of the Maktubat-e Yaqubi, Hakim Amir Ahmed 
Ishrati, writes 

"Hundreds of his pupils and proselytes and pupils of his pupils are 
present in the cities of India, Kabul and Bukhara, etc. He is skilled both 
in the rational and the traditional sciences. Besides being a great scholar 
and divine he was also a salik and majzoob (an enraptured one); and 
even as he was a spiritual physician, he used to treat external (physical) 
ailments also. 

"He was very well-mannered, well-behaved, well-conditioned, well- 
toned and well-spoken. He was a great master of accomplishment and 
mystical visions. He prophesied many things some of which have al- 
ready occured and some are being awaited to happen" 1 . 

Wonderful accounts of the Maulana's apocalyptic powers have been 
heard. Once the topic was broached in the Chhatta Mosque that the En- 
Slish had achieved such powerful sway over India that it was no more 
easy to disroot them. The Maulana was present in this majlis. Started, he 
said : "At night it will be their rule and in the day of those — India will 
be overturned like a row-mat without war". 

Who can say that it did not happen like this between the night of 
14th — 15th August, 1947 ? 

Another incident has been recorded in the Arwah-e Salasa with the 
narration of a man who was himself present at that time. He has stated 
that in those days a function for the coronation of Queen Victoria was 
held. Hazrat Maulana Yaqub Sahib was residing in Delhi and often used 
to remain absent (from home) during day. The narrator says that he him- 
self asked him : "Where do you remain absent"? He replied : "I have 
been ordered that in the vicinity of Delhi at whichever place I happen to 
step, it would be populated, and so I patrol around the city so that the 
desolate places may be re-populated". The narrator's statement is that all 
the places he had patrolled are being rehabilitated as New Delhi 2 . 

He went on pilgrimage (to Mecca) twice. The first hajj he performed 
in 1277/1860, in the company of Maulana Muhammad Qasim (may his 
secret be sanctified I). Maulana Muzaffar Husain Kandhlavi and Haji 

1. Arwah-e Salasa, between anecdotes 439-440. 
2 Arwah-e Salasa, anecdote no. 347 



130 

Muhammad Abid Deobandi were also with them. This journey was made 
en route ■ Punjab and Sind. He has himself written a detailed 
memorandum of this journey in his Bayaz-e Yaqubi. For the second hajj he 
went in 1294/1877. This time also there was a large company of the ulema. 
Besides Hazrat Maulana Nanautavi, Hazrat Maulana Gangohi, Maulana 
Muhammad Mazhar Nanautavi, Maulana Muhammad Munir Nanautavi, 
Maulana Hakim Zia al-Din Rampuri, Shaikh al-Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan 
Deobandi, etc. there were nearly one hundred men in this holy caravan 1 . 

Mauiavi Jamal al-Din 2 , Madar al-Miham (prime minister), Bhopal State, 
was a pupil of Hazrat Maulana Mamluk Ali. On account of this connection 
he invited Maulana Muhammad Yaqub on a large salary to Bhopal but the 
Maulana, despite his meagre pay at the Dar al-Ulum, did not like to sever 
his connection with it and instead sent his sister's son, Maulana Khalil 
Akhtar Anbahtavi, to Bhopal. 

Maulana Muhammad Yaqub had a taste for versification and poetry. 
His non de piume was Gumnam. During his student days in Delhi he had 
seen the peerless poets of the time like Ghahb, Momin, Zauq, Sehbai and 
Azurda, and his ears were acquainted with the resounding furore of their 
poetical symposiums. In a letter to his proselyte, Munshi Muhammad 
Qasim Nayanagri, he has counselled him to read the poetical composi- 
tions of Dard, Sauda and Zauq as there is painfullness and effectiveness in 
them. The Maulana's poetical compositions in Persian and Urdu have 
been recorded in Bayaz-e Yaqubi. Besides mastery of composition, 
pathos, touchingness and power of affecting are also found in them. 

In authorial works three treatises have been left by him. Though 
Sawanh-e Qasimi is a very brief biography, it is very valuable in respect 
of language and expression, and events and chronicles. 

His second collection is entitled Muktubat-e Yaqubi, which consists 
of 64 letters. These letters had been written in answer to queries, 
describing the solution of the difficulties of the mystic path, religio-legal 
propositions, and the modus operandi of the mysticai path and system. 

The third collectanea is Bayaz-e Yaqubi : it consists of the chronicles 
of the pilgrimage-journey, chains of authorities of the tomes of Hadith, 
poems, devotional exercises, etc., containing some medical (tibbi) 
recipes at the end. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi has written marginal 

1. Muktubat-e Yaqubi, p. 153 

2. Mauiavi Jamal al-Din (b. 1216/1801) was a native of Kotana village near Delhi. Having 
acquired education from Shah Abd al-Aziz Dehlavi and Shah Rati al-Din, he became 
prime-minister in the erstwhile Bhopal state. He cherished special faith in Shah Wali Allah 
Dehlavi and got several of his books published amongst which Hujjatillahil Baligha and 



notes wherever necessary on both these collections. 

A few days prior to his demise he had gone to his native-place, 
Nanauta, there he died on 3rd Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1302/1884, of cholera.' 

It is stated in a note in the Muktubat-e Yaqubi — 

' On Saturday night, 1st Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1302, Maulavi Muhammad 
yaqub Sahib (Allah's mercy be on him was suddenly, soon after having 
finished the Isha Prayer, involved in cholera. He fainted. He passed away 
from this mortal world at about 1-oo a. m. on the night of Monday. His 
noble grave is situated at Nanauta, in the northern direction, near the 
road to Saharanpur, in the new garden that has been cultivated by 
Mo'een al-Din. 'We belong to Allah and unto Him is the retreat' I This is a 
soul-crushing event" 1 . 

The chronicles of his life are met with here and there in Maktubat-e 
Yaqubi and Arwah-e Salasa 

2 HAZRAT MAULANA SAYYID AHMED DEHELVI 

The lauded Maulana was one of the most glorious ulema. Besides the 
traditional sciences, he was considered a leading authority in noetics; in 
the science of mathematics and astronomy particularly his fame had 
reached Europe. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim used to say : "The 
Beneficent Lord has endowed Maulavi Sayyid Ahmed with such ability in 
and affinity with the mathematical sciences that the inventors of these 
sciences too perhaps had had this much only". 

In the third year of the establishment of the Dar al-Ulum, 1285/1868, 
he was invited as a second teacher. After Hazrat Maulana' Muhammad 
Yaqub's death, he was appointed on the post of principal in which 
capacity he worked for six years. During this brief period 28 students 
completed the Daura-e Hadith under his instruction. During his tenure of 
principalship he went for hajj in A. H. 1305. 

Having resigned from the Dar al-Ulum in 1307/1885, he went to 
Bhopal and died there (after some time). 



(Footnote from the previous page continued) 

Izalatal-Khifa arc important. In his own book entitled Kaukab-e Durri he has given urdu 

meanings of difficult Quranic words. His daughter Zakkia Begum was Nawab Siddiq Hasan 

Khan s first wife. Nawab Ali Hasan Khan and Nawab Nur al-Hasan Khan were her sons He 

died in 1299/1881 (Ma'aslr-e Siddiqi and Mau. Khalid Ansari Bhopali's letter to this 

author). 

1 Maktubat-e Yaqubi, p. 153. 



132 

Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Dehelvi owed allegiance to Hazrat Nanautavi. 
Hazrat Thanvi writes in the margin of his masnavi Zer-o Bum — "Janab 
Maulana (Sayyid Ahmed) commanded exceptional skill particularly in the 
science of mathematics; his consummate expertise in these sciences was 
well-known and famous" 1 . 

The paraphrastic translation of the couplets on which the said margi- 
nal note has been written is as follows :— 

"Secondly, the wayfarer of the path of the Prophet is Maulavi Sayyid 
Ahmed Dehelvi. 

If I put into writing the worth of his geist, it will not be over and 
hundreds of pens will have broken. 

He is the seal of noetics and the science of philosophy, as also of 
mathematics and other difficult sciences. 

He is virtuous and pious, short-spoken, clement, as well as generous 
and liberal and bountiful." 

It is a pity that details of Maulana Sayyid Ahmed's life could not be 
found. 

3. HAZRAT SHAIKH AL-HIND MAULANA MAHMUD HASAN 

Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind was the first-ever pupil in the Dar al-Ulum. It is 
about him that it has been said that the student who first of all opened 
the book before the teacher, it was Mahmud. The Shaikh al-Hind was 
born in 1268/1851 at Bareilly where his august father, Maulana Zulfiqar 
Ali, was attached to the government education department. Primary 
education he acquired from his uncle, Maulana Mehtab Ali, who was a 
famous divine. While he was reading Qaduri and Sharh-e Tehzib, the Dar 
al-Ulum came to be established, and he entered it. After completing the 
course of the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1286, he lived in attendance on Hazrat 
Nanautavi and acquired the science of Hadith. Thereafter he studied 
certain higher books of different sciences under the instruction of his 
august father; and in 1290/1873, he received the "turban of proficiency" 2 
at the auspicious hands of Hazrat Nanautavi. During his student career 

1. With ref. to Al-Qasim Dar al-Ulum No. Muharram, A. H. 1347, pp. 19-20. 

2. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, A. H. 1290, p. 10, 



133 

itself he was counted amongst the distinguished pupils of Hazrat 
Nanautavi, who used to show special affection to him. As such, in 
view of his high academic and mental capacities, the elders' choice 
fell upon him for the teachership in the Dar al-Ulum, and, in 1291/ 
1874, he was appointed as the fourth teacher from which post he 
gradually progressed and got promoted to the post of the principal in 
1308/1890. 

Like his external knowledge and learning his interior was also rich. 
In 1294/1877, he acquired the honour of performing the hajj in the 
company of his revered teacher Hazrat Nanautavi. In the holy Mecca he 
also received the honour of vowing allegiance to Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah 
(may his secret be sanctified I). A big caravan of ulema had been formed 
in this pilgrimage-journey in which, besides Hazrat Nanautavi, pre- 
eminent ulema like Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, Hazrat 
Maulana Muhammad yaqub Nanautavi, Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Mazhar 
Nanautavi, Maulana Muhammad Munir Nanautavi, Hakim Zia al-Din Rampuri 
and Maulana Ahmed Hasan Kanpuri were in the company. Totally there 
were nearly one hundred men in the caravan. The Shaikh al-Hind had also 
had khilafat from Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki. The salary of 
the principal in those days in the Dar al-Ulum was Rs. 75/- but he never 
took more than Rs. 50/-; the remaining Rs. 25/- he used to contribute to 
the fund of the Oar al-Ulum. Due to his great academic personality the 
number of students had gone up from 200 to 600 During his tenure 860 
students completed the course of Hadith. The Shaikh al-Hind's educa- 
tional grace prepared a group of famous and illustrious ulema like Hazrat 
Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Maulana Ubayd Allah 
Sindhi, Maulana Mansoor Ansari, Hazrat Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani, 
Maulana Mufti Kifayat Allah Dehelvi, Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, 
Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Asghar Husain Deobandi, Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al- 
Din Ahmed, Maulana Muhammad Izaz AN Amrohi, Maulana Muhammad 
Ibrahim Balliavi and Maulana Sayyid Manazir Ahsan Gilani (may Allah have 
mercy on all of them I). 

As regards the Shaikh al-Hind's circle of teaching and its peculiarities, 
Maulana Mian Asghar Husain has stated : — 

"Seeing his circle of teaching, the circle of hadith of the pious 
ancestors and great traditionists used to come before the eyes. The 
Quran and Hadith were on his tongue and the practical methods 
(mazahib) of the four Imams he had by heart, and the statements of the 
Companions and Followers (Tabi'in), jurisconsults and mujtahids were 



safe in his memory. While lecturing neither the veins of his neck swelled 
nor did the mouth foam, nor he would make his lecture obtuse and 
incomprehensible by the use of abstruse words. He would use such 
light and easy words in idiomatic Urdu and speak with such fluency and 
fervour that it would seem as if a river was overflowing. It is no 
hyperbole. Thousands of those who had seen him are present (to 
testify) that the same man of spare frame, unassuming, skeletal, frail man 
of God who looked an ordinary, meek student in the rows of prayer, 
used to appear on the seat of teaching while lecturing as if he was a 
lion of God who was proclaiming truth with all the force and grandeur 
at his command. There was no hoarse high-pitch in his tone but intelli- 
gible, audible voice easily reached up to the door of the madrasah. 
There was not a scintilla of pretence and affectation in his tone but 
God Most Hish had endowed his speech with effect and his talk used 
to be cogent so that the hearer would rise up after being convinced 
that what he was saying was true. 

"Many talented, intelligent and shrewd students who, after having 
attended upon and deriving benefit from different teachers, used to 
come to Hazrat Maulana's presence, and, on getting satisfactory answers 
to the searchings of their hearts and hearing the imports and lofty 
topics of the Quranic verses and the prophetic hadiths, would bow 
their head in" submission and admit that no other person had such 
knowledge and such a research scholar was not there in the world. 

"In open questions he used to describe the practical methods 
(mazahib) of the three Imams (Allah's mercy be on them J), rather of 
other mujtahids also and used to quote arguments also briefly, but 
when Imam Abu Hanifa's turn came, there used to appear expansion in 
Maulana's heart, liveliness on his face, fluency in his speech and 
fervency in his tone. He would go on stating argument after argument, 
witness after witness, and context after context; there would be no 
pause in speech and he would give preference to the great Imam s 
mazhab in such a way that the right-minded and the just would rock 
with admiration. Presenting corner and far-fetched hadiths of different 
topics he would prove the purport thereof in such a way that it would 
sink into the heart and the audience's heart would bear testimony and 
would see with their eyes that he was right. 

"Inspite of all this the respect and reverence to the Imams of Islam 
and admission of their accomplishments had become an inseparable 
part of his teachings. He would himself lecture in such a manner and 



135 

would clearly instil that all the practical methods of the mujtah id-Imams 
are true, reasoned through and ratified by the Book and the Sunnah, that 
to find fault with them is the cause of misfortune and rudeness towards 
them is the cause of loss. 

"He had had a special attachment to Imam Bukhan amongst the 
traditionists and to the great Imam amongst the mujtahid-lmams" 1 . 

Maulana. Ubayd Allah Sindhi writes"! read Maulana Muhammad 
Qasim's Hujjat al-lslam under the instruction of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind. 
Sometimes, while reading the book, I used to feel as if knowledge and 
faith (iman) were descending upon my heart from on high" 2 

THE BEGINNING OF THE STRUGGLE FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF 
INDIA 

The First World War had not begun yet but its portents had begun 
to appear. The British Government had begun a cold war against the 
Ottoman empire and day by day the situation was growing more and 
more delicate, so much so that the dreadful flame of war blazed up in 
1914/1333. This was a period of great restlessness and anxiety for the 
Shaikh al-Higd. The ideal of the Indian National Congress till then had 
not proceeded beyond the demanding of rights. Such were the 
circumstances that compelled the Shaikh al-Hind to launch a revolutio- 
nary movement; he prepared a plan to overthrow the British Government 
through an armed revolution. As you proceed further it will be known 
that it was a very well-organised plan. 

The period of 1330/1911 was a very calamitous period for the world 
of Islam. The European powers had decided through a secret pact to 
make a short work of the Turkish empire. The implementation of this pact 
began with Italy's invasion on Tripoli which was then a part of Turkish 
territory; France usurped Morocco and the Christian states of Balkan 
began a series of attack upon the Turks. It was wholly British politics that 
was working behind the scene. These events were very disquieting for 
every sympathetic Muslim. The way the English and other European nations 
were up in arms and at war with the Turks and had resolved to obliterate 
them from existence, had extremely provoked the Muslims' sentiments, and 
as such anglophobia was on the increase. At this time great ferment 

1 Hayat-e Shaikh al-Hind, pp 23 25 

2 Shah Wali Allah Awr Unkl Slyasi Tchrik, p. 266. 



and frenzy were prevalent among the Indian Muslims. The Muslims of the 
whole world used to consider the Ottoman caliphate as the bulwark of 
Islam and they used to look upon it with respect and reverence. Its 
monarchs were called with the titles of Khalifat al-Muslimin (the 
Muslims' Caliph') and Khadim al-Harmayn al-Sharifayn ('the Servant of 
the Holy Sanctuaries'). 

During this time the Shaikh al-Hind had prepared a plan on a large 
scale to finish off the English paramount power in India through an armed 
revolution for which he had chalked out a well-organized programme. A 
large group of his disciples and colleagues who had fanned out in India 
and abroad was striving ardently and with temerity to put into action his 
prepared plan. From amongst his disciples, Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi, 
Maulana Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari and many other disciples were 
participating, having devoted all their lives to implement the Shaikh al- 
Hind's political and revolutionary programme. It was a very organized 
movement which made the atmosphere in the whole of India favourable 
for future freedom. This work had been started at two fronts, one inside 
the country and the other outside; preparation for an armed struggle was 
going on at both the fronts. 

The general idea prevalent then was that it was not possible to eject 
the English from India without might, and since weapons had been 
seized from the Indians, it was thought necessary to obtain foreign help 
and assistance in the supply of arms and soldiers to make the war of 
independence. In this connection the Shaikh al-Hind first of all looked at 
Afghanistan; the borders of India and Afghanistan touching each other, it 
was easiest to get help and weapons from there. Along with this help 
could also be taken from the free tribes inhabiting the border of India, 
and hence the free territory of Yaghistan had been made the centre for 
the soldiers. 

The Shaikh al-Hind established rapport with those ulema of the North 
West Frontier Province who had been students in the Dar al-Ulum. The 
plan was to spread a network against the English from Afghanistan to 
India and then, at an opportune time, the united and organized might of 
India and the free tribes was to launch an attack upon British India and, 
on the other hand, a war of independence was to be started in the 
whole country. It was his belief that it would be such a situation which 
the English would not be able to face. 

Since it was necessary to take help of foreign governments also in 
freeing India, he ordered Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi to go on a special 



137 

mission to Kabul, sent Maulana Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari to 
inculcate jihad in the free> tribes, and himself embarked on a journey to 
Hejaz to obtain help from the Turks. The English meanwhile were at war 
with Germany. The synopsis of the details given officially regarding the 
movement of "the Silken Letters" in para 164 of the report of the 
Rowlatt 1 Committee is as follows :— 

"The events of Silken Letters were discovered in August 1916/1344. 
This was a plan that had been proposed in India with the idea that 
disturbance be created on the north-western border on the one hand 
and, on the other, bolstering it up with the uprising of the Indian 
Muslims, the British Government be put to an end. To put this proposal 
into shape a man named Maulavi Ubayd Allah crossed the north-western 
border in August, 1915/1333, with three of his companions. Ubayd Allah 
was formerly a Sikh who had later on become a Muslim. He acquired 
religious education in Deoband. The greatest personality among those 
people whom Ubayd Allah had influenced was that of Maulana Mahmud 
Hasan who had been a principal of this institution for a long time. Ubayd 
Allah wanted to start a universal Islamic movement against the British in 
India through the graduate ulema of Deoband. Secret meetings used to 
be held at Maulana Mahmud Hasan's house. It is said that some men of 
the north-west border also used to participate in them. On September 8, 
1915/1333, Maulana Mahmud Hasan left India and reached Hejaz. The 
important objective of both Ubayd Allah and Maulana Mahmud Hasan 
was to simultaneously cause an aggression on India from outside and stir 
rebellion in India itself. Ubayd Allah and his friends first contacted the 
fanatical India party of fighters (mujahidin) and then they reached Kabul. 
There Ubayd Allah met the Turk-German Mission. After some days his 
Deobandi friend, Muhammad Mian also joined him. This man had gone to 
Hejaz along with Maulana Mahmud Hasan from where he had come back 
in 1916/1334, having obtained a proclamation of jihad which Maulana 
Mahmud Hasan had taken from the Turkish commander-in-chief of Hejaz, 
Ghalib Pasha. This document is known as "Ghalib Nama".- Muhammad 
Mian distributed its photo-copies on the way in India and among the 
frontier tribes. 

"Ubayd Allah and his companions had prepared a plan of a provi- 
sional government at the dissolution of the British government. According 

1. Seeing the tendency of general political unrest in India, the British Government had 
appointed an enquiry committee in 1917/1336, headed by an English Judge named 
Rowlatt by whose name it had come to be known as Rowlatt Committee. This committee 
had sought out many secret organizations. (Tarikh-e Hind by H'ashimi Faridabadi, p. 434). 



138 

to this plan, a man named Mahendra Pratap 1 was to be the president. 
This man was an ardent Hindu of a respectable family. In the end of 
1914/1332 he had been given a passport to go to Switzerland, Italy, 
France, etc. He went straight to Geneva and there he met the notorious 
Hardayal 2 , who introduced him to the German consul. From there he 
came to Germany and was sent on a special mission to Kabul. Ubayd 
Allah himself wanted to be the home-minister of India and Barkat Allah 3 
to be the prime-minister. Barkat Allah was a friend of Krishna Verma and 
a member of the American Ghadr Party. 

"In the beginning of 1916/1334 the members of the German Mission 
having failed in achieving their objective went away from Afghanistan" 

1. Raja Mahendra Pratap was a nobleman of Mathura district. In 1914/1333 he left India 
and went to Switzerland and joined the Ghadr Party in America. During World War I he 
had also accompanied the German and Turk members of the mission that had been sent 
to Afghanistan from Germany. It was Raja Mahendra Pratap who, in his capacity as the 
head of the Provisional Government, had signed those letters that had been sent during 
his stay in Kabul on behalf of the Provisional Government to the governor of Russain 
Turkestan and the Czar of Russia, requesting both the governments to part company with 
the British and help oust the English from India. (Naqsh-e Hayat, vol. ii, p. 211, 242) 

Raja Mahendra Pratap, a little before India won freedom, had retired from political life 
and come back to India. He is still alive and is living in Dehradun According to his own 
statement, he had been appointed president till Congress formed a government. In this 
Provisional Government, Maulavi Barkat Allah had been made prime-minister and Maulana 
Sindhi, home minister. (My Life Story, p. 51). 

Among those liberty-loving Indians who, sitting in America and Europe, had started 
efforts for freedom, Lala Hardayal 's Ghadr Party has achieved great fame. 

, Maulavi Barkat Allah had received education in Bhopal. Originally he was a resident of 
Fatehpur but he used to call himself Bhopali He was, as if, a hafiz of the Holy Quran and 
the Sihah Sitta. He had also read English upto the matriculation class. In his enthusiasm 
for tabligh (preaching) he first went to England and from there to America and for some 
time served as Professor of Urdu in the Tokyo University Along with the preaching of 
Islam at every place he used to strive for the organization of the Muslims and the free- 
dom of the country. Amir Habib Allah Khan (of Afghanistan) had insistently stayed him 
with himself, but after some time he went to Russia. Lenin used to respect him much. 

From Russia he went to Germany, France and Switzerland and in the end died at 
California 

(Sarguzisht-e Mujahidin-e Islam by Ghulam Rasul Mehr, p 513) 

4. The failure of the German Mission in Afghanistan delayed the freedom of India by a 
quarter century. The ruler of Afghanistan, Amir Habib Allah Khan had told the German 
Mission that for launching an invasion on India from Afghanistan it was necessary that 
there should be first a pact with the Indian National Congress for which a leader like 
Maulana Muhammad Ali or Pandit Motilal Nehru from amongst the Indian leaders should 
come to Kabul. But the German Mission could not succeed in giving such an assurance to 
Afghanistan. 

For details, vide Tarikh-e Deoband, pp 222 to 242; and Mushahidat-e Kabul wa 
yaghistan with ref. to Mehr's Sarguzisht-e Mujahidin-e Islam, p. 515. 



139 

but the Indian members stayed behind. On behalf of the provisional 
government they sent letters to the governer of Russian Turkestan and the 
Czar of Russia, requesting them to part company with Britain and to 
extend help in putting an end to the British rule in India. These letters 
bore Raja Mahendra Pratap's signature. The letter to the Czar of Russia had 
been written on a gold tablet. The provisional governement had also 
made a suggestion to establish connection with the Turkish government. 
To achieve this end Ubayd Allah wrdte a letter on July 9, 1916/1334 to 
Maulana Mahmud Hasan. Along with it there was a letter from Muhammad 
Mian Ansari in which there was a mention of the dissemination of the 
Ghalib Nama and the proposal for the establishment of a provisional 
government and an army under the name "Hizb Allah". It had been sug- 
gested to mobilise this army from India. The function of the provisional 
government was to establish unity with the Islamic government. Maulana 
Mahmud Hasan had been requested to convey all these events to the 
Ottoman government. These letters have been written on yellow silk" 1 . 

"There was a complete and arranged outline of the Hizb Allah in 
Ubayd Allah's letter. The centre of this army was to be established at 
Madina. Maulana Mahmud Hasan himself had to be its commander-in- 
chief. Secondary centres under local commanders were to be established 
at Constantinople, Tehran and Kabul. Ubayd Allah was to be the comman- 
der at Kabul. The names of three patrons, twelve generals and several 
high military officers are given in this list. These "Silken Letters" have 
come into the hands of the British government. On account of the infor- 
mations given in these letters some precautions were considered nece- 
ssary. In 1916/1335 Maulana Mahmud Hasan and four of his companions 
were apprehended by the British government. They are at present war 
prisoners under British surveillance,- the signatory of the Ghalib Nama, 
Ghalib Pasha is also a war prisoner. He has confessed that he has signed 
the letter which Mahmud Hasan's Party had put before him" 2 . 

The Shaikh al-Hind, in order to make his scheme successful, despite 
his old age, undertook a journey to Hejaz in 1333/1915. Meeting the 
Turkish governor of that region, Ghalib Pasha, and Anwar Pasha, the then 
minister of war of Turkey, he settled certain important matters. From 
Hejaz, via Baghdad and Baluchistan, he wanted to reach the independent 

1- It is on account of these letters that the Shaikh al-Hind's movement has been named 
"Silken Letters". 

2. Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi's Zati Diary, pp 53, 60, with ref. to Naqsh-e Hayat, vol. ii, 
pp. 238-244 



140 

tribes of the Frontier when suddenly, during the Great War, Sherif Husain, 
the ruler of Mecca, at the instance of the English officials, apprehended 
him and handed him over to them. This arrest along with hK companions 
took place on 23rd Safar, A. H. 1335. Along with the Shaikh al-Hind, 
Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani, Maulana Ozair Gul, Hakim Nusrat Husain 
and Maulavi Waheed Ahmed were also arrested. From the holy Mecca 
they were taken to Jeddah where they were kept in detention for nearly a 
month. On 18th Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1335/January 12, 1917, they were 
taken on board a ship to Suez, and then from there to Malta, which was 
then considered the safest place in the British empire for the prisoners of 
war. Statements were taken from the Shaikh al-Hind and his companions. 
Among the questions put to them during the course of recording their 
statements, the following three were important: — 

(1) What was the purpose of your meeting Ghalib Pasha and other 
Turkish ministers in Madina ? 

(2) Why have you evaded signing the fetwa anathematizing (takfeer) 
the Turks ? 

(3) The details of Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi's political activities in 
Afghanistan were asked. 

On this side enquiries were made from the Shaikh al-Hind's collea- 
gues in India. In short, this chain of enquiries continued from Zi-qa'da, A. 
H. 1334 (September, 1916) for over a year; complete details of which are 
given in Safar Nama-e Asir-e Malta and Naqsh-e Hayat. He was kept in 
detention at Malta along with his companions for three and a quarter 
years. After the war was over he got the permission to return to India and 
on 20th Ramazan al-Mubarak, A. H. 1338/1920, he stepped on the shore 
of Bombay. After reaching Deoband he first of all went to the Dar al-Ulum 
and then went home. 

As soon as he reached India, he joined the Khilafat Movement. He 
issued a fetwa of Non-cooperation against the British Government which 
engendered great agitation in the country. After the discovery of the 
Shaikh al-Hind's project, although the movement of the Silken Letters had 
apprently died down to all intents and purposes, his passion for liberty 
had not admitted any diminution. On his reaching India the British 
government, through various means, tried to incline him to withdraw from 
politics but he rejected all therr means. Disembarking from the ship at 
Bombay he met the late Maulana Shaukat Ali and other members of the 



141 

Khilafat Committee. Maulana Abd al-Bari Farangimahali from Lucknow and 
Gandhiji from Ahmedabad came and met'him in Bombay. Talks were held 
with other leaders also 1 . The Shaikh al-Hind, with the Khilafat Committee 
and the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind, joined the movement for the freedom of 
the native land and thus the scheme of an armed rebellion for the inde- 
pendence of India came to an end. 

The preface-writer of Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi's Zati Diary 
(Personal Diary) has written that 

"the Shaikhal-Hind's party had had the same position in the First 
World War which Azad Hind Fauj and Azad Hukumat-e Hind have had 
during the course of the Second World War. Even as the present 
activities after the war are in fact the developed form of the rebellious 
struggle during the course of the war, the politicial struggle of the 
Khilafat Movement (from 1919/1338 to 1922/1341) was also a 
developed form of the activities of the Shaikh al-Hind's party and his 
colleagues. If Subhash Chandra Bose bears the palm for the activities of 
the Azad Hind, the centre of activities after the First World War was the 
Shaikh al-Hind himself. His political activities began from 1905/1323 and 
were a part of that programme which Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi 
remembers as Shah Wali Allah's political movement" 2 . 

During the First World War, after the defeat of the Ottoman Caliphate, 
the Khilafat Movement started in India with great vigour and vehemence; 
this was in fact the beginning of an organized effort on a great scale for 
the -freedom of the country before which the country-wide politics of the 
Indian National Congress had'been eclipsed. At that time Gandhiji gave 

1. Sir Raheerh Bakhsh who was in those days an eminent personality was especially 
influential in the circle of seminaries. At the instance of the British officials he was also 
present at the shore of Bombay to welcome him. He tried in different ways to persuade 
the Shaikh al-Hind to keep aloof from politics but the latter refused emphatically to 
do so. 

Maulavi Sir Raheem Bakhsh belonged to a Rajput zamindar family of Thaska Miran, Dist. 
Karnal. In the beginning of his career he was hostel-superintendent in the Lahore Chiefs' 
College and a tutor of the students. Children of the rulers of princely states used to read 
in this college. Then he was appointed president of the Council of Regency in the 
Bhawalpur State. He was a virtuous, religious and orthodox Muslim. He had had the 
connection of allegiance with Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. Several religious reforms 
were enforced in Bhawalpur through him. For a long time he was a patron of Mazahir-e 
Ulum, Saharanpur. He was also connected with Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and was also a 
supporter of the movement for Dar al-Ulum Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow. He died at the age 
of 76 years, on 3rd Muharram, A.H. 1354/1935. 
9. Dibacha Zati Diary of Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi. 



142 

proof of his extraordinary political statesmanship and farsightedness. 
Sensing the delicacy of the grave conditions of the situation, he joined the 
Indian National Congress with the Khilafat Committee as a result of which 
the national movement of India became so strong and vigorous that it 
became difficult for the English rulers to sustain India. The effect of this 
joint and united struggle was that India covered the stages of freedom 
very speedily and within the period of 27 years only the country became 
free. 

To overlook or ignore this important turn in the histoy of the struggle 
for the independence of India is not just. Had Gandhiji not joined 
Congress and the Khilafat Commitee at that time, it would not have been 
easy at all for India to cover the stage of freedom so quickly. 

When the Shaikh al-Hind, after his arr vial in India, joined the Khilafat 
Movement and issued a fetwa for non-cooperation with the British, it 
produced such stir and excitement in the country that the people became 
intent upon closing down even the Muslim University, Aligarh. The Shaikh 
al-Hind was very ill at the time and yet he went to Aligarh in this state of 
illness and inaugurated the Jamia-e Millia-e Islamia (which later on shifted 
to Delhi) on October 29, 1920 (16th Safar, A.H. 1339) in the Jame Masjid 
of Aligarh. The significant political address he delivered on this occasion 
would always remain memorable in the political history of India. 

A remarkable exploit of the Shaikh al-Hind is this that through his 
efforts Aligarh and Deoband began to be seen on one platform and the 
distance between the two was very much reduced. In short, besides 
knowledge and learning and asceticism and piety, he had had consum- 
mate skill in politics and statesmanship also. Although after his return 
from Malta his health had deteriorated and the physical faculties had 
weakened due to old age, he vehemently participated in political works. 
The disposition could not bear this heavy stress and strain and mean- 
while he undertook the journey to Aligarh. After returning from there 
when his condition became alarming, he was taken to Delhi to be treated 
by Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari. Hakim Ajmal Khan was also participating in 
treating him, but the promised hour had come; he departed to the eter- 
nal realm on 18th Rabi al-Awwal, A.H. 1339 (November 30, 1920). 

The bier was brought to Deoband and next day this treasure of learn- 
ing and accomplishments was concealed, near Hazrat Nanautavi's auspici- 
ous grave, from the eyes of the world. 

Besides innumerable divines and scholars amongst his disciples, the 



143 

Urdu translation of the Holy Quran, Idalla-e Kamila, Izah al-ldalla, 
Ahsan al-Qura, Jahd al-Maqal, Al-Abwab wal-Tarajum, various fetwas 
and political addresses are his authorial remains. 

Biographical details regarding him are found in the following books : — 

(1) Hayat-e Shaikh al-Hind by Maulana Mian Asghar Husain 
Deobandi. 

(2) Naqsh-e Hayat by Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madani. 

(3) Asir-e Malta by Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madani. 

(4) Tazkira-e Shaikh al-Hind by Maulana Aziz al-Rahman Bijnori 

(5) Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind by Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Mian. 

A BASELESS CHARGE 

Some people have accused the management of the Dar al-Ulum for 
the arrest of the Shaikh al-Hind. They have stated that this movement of 
the Shaikh al-Hind was very clandestine and secret, unknown to anyone 
save some particular persons. The British Government came to know of 
the confidential secrets of the movement through the management and 
consequently the arrest was made. To make a review of the reasons for 
arrest and to reach the right conclusion it is necessary to study closely 
the events that befell in connection with the arrest so that the reality of 
the incident may be known. 

In view of the circumstances that led to the Shaikh al-Hind's arrest it 
is difficult to believe the authenticity of this charge. It is stated in the 
report of the Rowlatt Committee which is an important official document 
on this arrest that "this conspiracy was discovered in August, 1916" 1 . 

What deserves pondering here is that August, 1916 (Shawwal, 1334) is 
that period when the Shaikh al-Hind was staying in Hejaz and exactly one 
year before, in August, 1915, he had already left for hajj and after hajj 
was busy in implementing his political project. To instigate the indepen- 
dent tribes of the Frontier to make war against the English that famous 
persuasive letter had already been caused to be written by Ghalib Pasha, 
the Turkish governor of Hejaz. After having acquired this letter which is 
known as "Ghalib Nama" in the history of India, the Shaikh al-Hind was 
himself preparing to reach the independent tribes when he was 

1, For details, see Naqsh-e Hayat, vol. li, P 238 



144 

suddenly apprehended along with his companions in Mecca. All these 
details have been derived from Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani's auto- 
biography entitled Naqsh-e Hayat. 

In Hayat-e Shaikh al-Hind, which is a compilation of Maulana Mian 
Asghar Husain and has been written in Rajab, 1339, three, four months 
after the Shaikh al-Hind's demise (on 18th Rabi al-Awwal, 1339), Mian 
Sahib says : — 

"that at the time of the Shaikh al-Hind's pilgrimage -journey the 
Government did not entertain any suspicion regarding his behaviour. His 
pilgrimage -journey was thought to be a religious hajj -journey. This is the 
reason that till his departure and, after reaching Bombay, till the sailing of 
the ship, no extraordinary investigation was made on behalf of the 
Government nor came the turn for any special interrogation. At the time 
of obtaining the passport in Bombay Hazrat and his companions were not 
riddled much with enquiries and questioning,- rather, after enquiring the 
routine matters they were given the passport" 1 . 

Maulana Madani writes in Naqsh-e Hayat that it had become well- 
known among the common people that Maulana (Shaikh al-Hind) was 
migrating from Deoband and now would pass life permanently in the 
holy cities; and since the late Maulana had distributed his property 
among the heirs according to the Shara'i law, this had further bolstered 
up the people's thinking. Maulana had made arrangements for household 
expenses also for a long time 2 . 

From this specific difference of the event of journey it becomes 
clear that the British Government was not aware till the Shaikh al-Hind's 
journey to Hejaz of his political movement; or at least it did not have 
any positive proof with it on the basis of which it could institute any 
legal proceedings. If the British government had come to know of the 
Shaikh al-Hind's movement through the management of the Dar al-Ulum, 
as it has been alleged by certain circles, then it is evident that the 
government should have received this intelligence prior to the 
pilgrimage -journey and the process of investigation should have started 
from that very time, but this (allegation) is refuted by that policy of the 
British officials which they adopted a year later. It is stated in the Naqsh-e 
Hayat that the process of investigation in India continued from Zi-qa'da, 

1. Hayat-e Shaikh al-Hind, pp. 31-32 

2. Naqsh-e Hayat, vol ii, pp. 275. 



A. H. 1334 (September, 1916) for more than a year 1 . That is, the arrest of 
the Shaikh al-Hind and his companions and the- process of investigations 
started in September, 1916, at a time when they were staying in Hejaz. 

Here arises the question that if the British Government had come 
to know of the Shaikh al-Hind's movement through the management of 
the Dar al-Uium, it is obvious that in that case the government could 
never give him permission to go to Hejaz, and, at that, to a country 
which was then under the suzerainty of Turks with whom the English 
were at war — the war which is. known as World War 1. The Shaikh al- 
Hind's "crime" too was very heavy in the eyes of the government; i. e., 
to stir "rebellion" against the English and to overthrow the British 
Government by taking help from the Turks. Under these circumstances the 
British Government's inaction in starting any proceedings and to permit 
him along with his companions to proceed to Hejaz is incomprehensible. 
The opportunity to apprehend the Shaikh al-Hind fell into the hands of 
the British Government absolutely by chance. It so occurred that during 
the course of the great war the Sherif of Mecca revolted against the 
Turkish suzerainty and became a vassal of the English. The latter 
demanded the Shaikh al-Hind from him as a war-prisoner and he 
willingly obliged them by capturing the Shaikh al-Hind and entrusting 
him to the English because the British Government had aided the Sherif in 
launching a revolt against the Turks. Had the Sherif of Mecca not revolted 
against the Turks it was not possible to arrest the Shaikh al-Hind in the 
territories of the Turkish Government. 

The secret official record of the British period of that era which has 
recently become public under the title "Silken Letters Conspiracy Case" 
also corroborates the unsoundness of this charge. It is stated in the said 
official record regarding the Shaikh al-Hind's journey for pilgrimage that 
in August, 1916, when the British officials came by the silken letters, they 
could know about this movement. The said report says that 

"it became known on inquiring from the U. P. C. I. D. about Mahmud 
Hasan and Khalil al-Rahman 2 that both of them are considered disloyal; 
moreover, Mahmud Hasan is getting large sums of money as contribution 
from the Muslims, and that he and Dr. Ansari (Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari) 
are allies and collaborators. It is suspected regarding them that they have 
rapport with the antagonist and disaffected people beyond the Frontier, 
and this mission has political ends before it" 3 . 

1. Naqsh-e Hayat, vol. ii, pp 2228-242. 

2. The correct name is Khalil Ahmed, i. e., Maulana Khalil Ahmed Saharanpun. 

3. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind, p. 145 



It is stated further : — 

"There was also the rumour that he would meet some particular Turk 
officers in Hejaz but no such information could be received in time so 
that they could be withheld in India itself 1 . 

"In the autumn of 1915 and the spring of 1916 certain members of 
these parties returned to India, but as long as we did not get satisfactory 
intelligence regarding Ubayd Allah's conspiracy and Mahmud Hasan's 
connection with him, they were not interrogated" 2 . 

From this official secret report also it is known that till one year after 
the pilgrimage -journey the British officials had only suspicions regarding 
the Shaikh al-Hind's political activities and were not in the know of any 
reliable information. The British officials came to know of the movement 
only when they came by those silken letters. 

Hence the correct thing appears to be that only which has been 
shown in the report of the Rowlatt Committee that the government came 
to know of the Shaikh al-Hind's movement at that time when he was 
sojourning in Hejaz in 1916. This fact is supported by the statement of 
Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani also who was with the Shaikh al-Hind in 
the arrest. In his autobiography, Naqsh-e Hayat, Maulana Madani 
writes : — 

"One year had passed over the Shaikh al-Hind's sojourn in Hejaz. The 
late Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari thought that money with the Hazrat for 
expenses must have exhausted and hence money should be sent to him. 
For this purpose, in Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1334/1916, a near relative of the 
Shaikh al-Hind was sent to Hejaz. On the way the said relative was 
thoroughly searched but the police could not get anything. After return- 
ing from hajj the Shaikh al-Hind had told him certain important things 
regarding the movement; among those things was also this how the 
letters of Anwar Pasha, the minister of war of Turkey, had been sent to 
India through Maulavi Hadi Hasan. Here the British officials were flustering 
in search of the Ghalib Nama. When the said relative returned from Hejaz 
and reached Bombay, he was arrested and taken to Allahabad, where the 
officers of the C. I. D. discovered all the secrets from him through 
threatening" 3 . 

1. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind, p. 171. 

2. Ibid., p. 172. 

3. Naqsh-c Hayat, vol. ii, p. 228-233. 



This process of investigation Maulana Madani has named "Betrayal of 
the Secret". As regards the secrets the police came to know from "the 
said relative", Maulana Madani has stated that "among them were certain 
things that had they been proved, there is no knowing how many would 
have tasted the cup of martyrdom and how many would have received 
life sentence to pass in Andaman Island" 1 . 

As stated earlier, on the one hand,- according to Maulana Madani's 
statement, the Indian police came to know all the secrets from the said 
relative, on the other, exactly at the same time it so happened that in 
July 1916/1334, Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi and Maulana Muhammad 
Mian Mansoor Ansari who were then active workers in the Shaikh al- 
Hind's movement, according to the unanimous statements of Maulana 
Sindhi's Zati Diary and Naqsh-e Hayat, wrote 2 letters to the Shaikh al- 
Hmd, informing him about the distribution of the photo-copies of the 
Ghalib Nama among the independent tribes. Besides this these letters 
also contained description of political conditions in Afghanistan, men- 
tion of the formation of the provisional government in Afghanistan, infor- 
mation about the establishment of a military organization under the 
name of "Hizb Allah", and details of the places of military centres, 
names of civil and military officers, etc. These writings and letters had 
been written with extreme scrupulousness on silken cloth instead of 
paper. These documents were handed over to a reliable man named 
Abd al-Haq and he was sent to Sind with the instruction to convey 
these with utmost confidentiality and caution to one Shaikh Abd al- 
Raheem who was an important member of the movement. In the letter 
addressed to the said Shaikh he had been instructed to go for hajj and 
present these documents to the Shaikh al-Hind. Abd al-Haq, despite 
the instruction for using utmost precaution, proved very remiss in 
acquitting the faith put in him. En route, he, trusting through his naivety 
a man named Khan Bahadur Haq Nawaz Khan 3 of Multan, made a men- 
tion of these documents to him. This Khan Bahadur's son, Allah Nawaz 
Khan, was at that time the secretary of the Provisional Government of 
India in Afghanistan. Deluded most probably by this reason, Abd al-Haq 
supposed the said Khan Bahadur to be a sympathiser of the movement, 
but the Khan Bahadur's loyalty was attached to the British government 4 . 

1. & 2. Naqsh-e Hayat, vol ii, pp 231 & 542 respectively. 

3. In Tchrik-c Shaikh al-Hind, with ref. to the official record, this name is Rabb Nawaz 
Khan. 

4. Abd al-Haq was indeed a simpleton. He did not know that the sine qua non for the 
award of big and high-sounding titles from the British government was nothing but utmost 
loyalty or some great exploit that might strengthen the British hold on India. These Sahibs, 
Bahadurs, Sirs, etc. used to await the publication of the Annual Honours list like one awaits 



148 

He coaxed the documents out of Abd al-Haq for seeing and instead of 
returning them after perusal, made them over to Sir Michael O'Dwyer, the 
governor of Punjab 1 . The officials of the British government itself were 
sparing no pains in running to earth the "Ghalib Nama" and the process 
of inquiring from those connected with the Shaikh al-Hind was on. 
Stumbling upon these documents all the proceedings of the movement 
became known to the British officials. These were the same letters which 
are known as "Silken Letters" in the political history of India. 

From the afore-said details it is explicitly proved that till the Shaikh 
al-Hind's journey to Hejaz the British officials were not aware of his 
political activities; they got the scent after his journey to Hejaz but no 
proof could be had despite investigation. 

According to Maulana Madani's statement, on the one hand, in the 
end of A. H. 1334 (September, 1916) 2 , particulars were known orally 
from that gentleman who has been called "the said relative", and, on the 
other, exactly about the same time the "silken letters" which had been 
dispatched through Abd al-Haq, were come by, as a result of which, 
according to Maulana Madani's statement, the process of investigation 
continued for more than a year. 8oth these incidents occurred during the 
Shaikh al-Hind's sojourn in the holy Mecca. 

Be it clear here that the letter Maulana Ubayd Allah Sindhi had sent to 
Shaikh Abd al-Raheem from Kabul along with the silken letters was dated 
Monday, 9th Ramazan. As this incident occurred in A. H. 1334, it should 
be considered that of Monday, 9th Ramazan, A. H. 1334 (corresponding 
-to July 10, 1916). 

Haq Nawaz Khan got these letters through Abd al-Haq on 15th 
August, 1916. It means that five weeks after the writing of the silken 
letters these had fallen into the hands of the British officials. 

(foot-note continued from previous page) 

a beloved; irrespective of caste and community, these snobbish title-holders — of course 
there were rare exceptions like those of Dr Sir Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal and Dr Sir 
Rabindra Nath Tagore — would have no qualm or compunction in stooping low to betray 
their own country. This is the main reason that the great revolutionary Urdu poet of India, 
Josh Malihabadi, has inveighed against these "small props of British empire" in a very 
vitriolic language and invective (Translator). 

1. Naqsh-e Hayat, vol ii, pp 170, 194 & 142, with ref. to Zati Diary of Maulana Sindhi 

2. The date for the British officials' receiving the Silken Lelters as given in the official 
records is August 15, 1916. Vide Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind, p. 182. 



149 

No clue is found in these events from which it may be surmised that 
during the time of the Shaikh al-Hind's stay at Deoband the Government 
of India had come to know of his political plan. The long and the short 
of it is that as far as the logical analysis of the events is concerned, no 
proof is available, in the light of historical facts, for sustaining this 
charge against the management of the Dar al-Ulum. 

4. MAULANA MUHAMMAD ANWAR SHAH KASHMIRI 

Hazrat Shah Sahib was a native of Kashmir. He was born on 27th 
Shawwal, A. H. 1292/1875, in a respectable and learned Sayyid 
family. This family is considered most distinguished in knowledge and 
learning in the whole of Kashmir. At the age of four and a half years 
he started reading the Holy Quran under the instruction of his august 
father, Maulana Sayyid Mu'azzam Ali Shah. Extraordinary geist and a 
matchless memory being inherent in him from his very childhood, he 
finished the reading of the Book of Allah and some elementary books 
of Persian in the brief span of one and a half years and engaged in 
the acquirement of the scholastic education. He was hardly fourteen 
years old when the unbounded passion for the pursuit of knowledge 
incited him to leave his native place. For nearly three years he lived in 
the madrasahs of Hazara and acquired ability in different arts and 
sciences but the fame of Deoband made him restless for further 
accomplishment. 

Accordingly, in 1311/1893 he came to Deoband 1 . Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hind was then gracing the principal's masnad. The teacher recognised 
the pupil and the pupil the teacher in the very first meeting. After the 
prescribed books he started reading the books of Hadith and Tafsir 
and within a few years he gained a distinguished position with fame 
and popularity in the Dar al-Ulum. Then, in 1314/1896, having finished 
the higher books of Hadith, Tafsir and other arts, he went to attend 
upon Hazrat Gangohi and besides obtaining a sanad of Hadith , he 
also acquired esoteric knowledge. 

After graduating from the Dar al-Ulum he taught for some time in 
Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi. In 1320/1903 he went to Kashmir. There, in 
his district, he opened a madrasah named Faiz-e Aam. In 1323/1905 

1. In certain articles Shah Sahibs admission has been written in 1308 but it is not 
correct. Vide Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum for A. H. 1311, p. 72, and Students' Admission 
Register No 678. 



150 

he went to perform hajj. For some time he stayed in Hejaz where he 
availed himself of the opportunity of benefitting from the libraries In 
1327/1909 he came back to Deoband where the Shaikh al-Hind retained 
him. Till 1333 he went on teaching books of Hadith without taking any 
salary. In the end of 1333/1915 when the Shaikh al-Hind thought of 
going to Hejaz, he bestowed the honour of succeeding him to Shah 
Sahib. He thus graced the principal's masnad in the Dar al-Ulum for 
nearly twelve years. Due to certain differences with the management of 
the Dar al-Ulum, he resigned from principalship in 1346/1927 and went 
to the Madrasah of Dabhel in western India, where, till 1351/1932, he 
was busy in teaching Hadith. 

If the Shaikh al-Hind raised the repute of the Dar al-Ulum in the four 
quarters of the globe, Shah Shaib, gracing the masnad of teaching in the 
Dar al-Ulum, illuminated the world of Islam with the light of religious 
knowlege. In the science of Hadith he was a matchless traditionist; in 
jurisprudential sciences, the greatest jurisprudent; if in conformance to 
the Shan 'ah, he was a specimen of the ancient virtuous men, then in 
esoteric knowledge he was the Junaid of his time and the Shibli of the 
period. If his existence was the cause .of strength for the Shari'ah, it was 
a source of pride for the Mystic Path also. He had acquired the honour 
of khilafat from Hazart Gangohi. 

The Islamic world has produced very few such erudite and practical 
ulema. If, on the one hand, Shah Sahib was incomparable in respect of 
erudition amongst his contemporaries, on the other, his person was 
peerless in abstinence and piety. He was a consummate commentator of 
the Quran, traditionist and philosopher. The presence of even a single 
merit in man is not a small thing, whereas his "turban of proficiency ' 
was beset with several rubies. The fact is that his being had caused a 
revolution in the world of academics. The large number of the thirsty 
seekers of knowledge who slaked their thirst from this "ocean of 
sciences" is sui generis. The flood of his academic benefaction was 
surging from the Middle East to China and thousand of students from 
India and outside India assuaged themselves from it. His disciples have 
fanned out in legions in undivided India, Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, 
China, Egypt, South Africa, Indonesia and Malaysia. During his stay in the 
Dar al-Ulum, 809 students completed the Hadith Course. 

From on high he had been endowed with such an incomparable 
retentive memory that let alone the topics and meanings, even passages 
with pages and lines from a book once seen would be remembered. 



151 

Anything that entered his brain once through eyes or ears used to be 
retained and preserved for ever, and during the course of a lecture he 
would go on giving references after references with ease. At the same 
time he was so much fond of reading that the treasures of all the 
sciences could not fill the extensive skirt of his search and assuage the 
thirst for knowledge. Due to his voracious, vast and versatile reading 
and power of memory he was as though a moving and talking library. 
Besides the Sihah Sitta, most books of Hadith were almost at the tip of 
his tongue. On being asked disquisition-demanding propositions in the 
search and research of which lifetimes pass away, he would answer the 
inquirer within a few minutes with such comprehensiveness that neither 
there would remain any doubt in the inquirer's mind nor would he have 
the need to look up in a book; furthermore, the pleasant thing was that 
even the titles of books with reference of their page numbers and lines 
were also shown. He used to speak off hand on every art and science 
as if all those subjects were ever present in his mind. During the course 
of a lecture he would go on giving innumerable references of books 
with utmost ease, so much so that even if there were five or ten scholia 
of a book, he had by heart each passage along with its page number 
and line. The entire stock of hadiths, prolix and extensive discussions 
regarding their soundness and unsoundness, and the ranks and positions 
of the narrators were on the tip of his tongue. Most manuscripts of 
famous libraries he had perused and they were present in his memory 
as if he had read them on the same day. 

Then his reading was not limited to only religious sciences; on the 
contrary, whichever book he could lay hands on he would read it from 
alpha to omega at least once, and whenever any discussion started about 
it, he would describe the contents of the book in such a way with refer- 
ences that the audience used to be agape and astonished. Once a man 
presented the most difficult questions of the science of. Jafar for 
solution. Shah Sahib, as usually, with extempore answers, gave references 
of several books and told him to refer to such and such books. 

Shah Sahib's memory was prodigious. Shaikh Ibn Humam's famous 
book, Fathul Qadeer, which is in eight bulky volumes, he had perused in 
such a way in twenty days that along with reading he was also 
summarising its Kitab al-Hajj in black and white and simultaneously was 
also writing answers to the objections Ibn Humam has raised against the 
author of the Hedaya During the course of a lecture he once said that "I 
had read the Fathul Qadeer 26 years ago but, thank Allah, I have never 
needed so far to see it again and even today whichever topic and 



discussion I present, you will find very little variance if you refer to it". 

This is only one incident; there are innumerable such incidents in his 
life. 

Dr. Sir Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal was very deeply connected with 
Shah Sahib and often used to refer to him in academic discussions; 
Dr. Iqbal was of the view that for the new codification of the Islamic 
propositions there was no man more suitable and better than Shah 
Sahib. 

In fine, as much service as he rendered to the sciences of Tafsir, 
Hadith and Fiqh is sui generis. On many vexed questions he wrote 
books also. The comprehensiveness of the series of his lectures on 
Hadith can be estimated from the Faiz al-Bari, which is a long lecture 
on Sahih-e Bukhari and has been published in four bulky volumes. He 
had consummate skill in reasoning (darayat). Between two divergent 
and conflicting statements, by force of his own ratiocinative power, he 
used to give preference unhesitatingly to one over the other. 

Besides the traditional and the rational sciences he commanded criti- 
cal view of the science of Tasawwuf also. On Shah Sahib's death, 
Maulana Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi had written in Ma'arif as under:— 

"His example was like that of an ocean the surface of which is calm 
and still but its bottom abounds with treasures of precious pearls. He 
was peerless in the period for his extensive Knowledge, the power of 
memory and the bulk of memorised matter. He was a hafiz and 
discerner of the science of Hadith, high-ranking in the literary sciences, 
expert in the rational sciences, well-versed in poetry, and consummate 
in abstinence and piety; till his last breath this martyr of knowledge and 
gnosis kept raising the slogan of "Said Allah and said the Apostle". 

When the most famous Egyptian divine of the time, Sayyid Rasheed 
Reza, came to Deoband and met Shah Sahib, he would spontaneously 
exclaim again and again: "I have never seen any religious divine like this 
glorious professor"! 

Anyhow, it was a stroke of luck for the Dar al-Ulum that next to the 
Shaikh ai-Hind the work of principalship was entrusted to him. Accord- 
ing to Maulana Sayyid Manazir Ahsan Gileni, in his time a great change 
for the better was wrought in the students' ability and very many ardent 
students benefitted from his circle of teaching. 

In national politics Shah Sahib was a follower of the tack of his 
teacher, the Shaikh al-Hind. He used to consider it the ulema's foremost 



153 

obligation to create the true Islamic life among the Indian Muslims. His en- 
ligntening presidential address in the eighth annual session of the Jamia't 
al-Ulama-e Hind held at Peshawar is a shining proof of this conviction. 

The zest for knowledge was so dominating in him. that for a long time 
the very thought of matrimony and marital state would perturb him. But, at 
last, at the emphatic insistence of the elders, he adopted the conjugal 
union and thereafter began to take salary. After having lived for a few years 
at Dabhel, the intensity of ailments at last compelled him to return to 
Deoband which place he had made his hometown, and here, on 3rd Safar 
al-Muzaffar, A. H. 1352/1933, he passed away at the age of sixty years. His 
auspicious grave is situated near the Idgah. 

In the commendation of Nafhat al-Anbar Hazrat Thanvi has 
remarked: — 

"According to me, among the many proofs of the truthfulness of Islam 
one is that of Hazrat Maulana Anwar Shah's existence; had there been any 
crookedness in Islam, Maulana Anwar Shah would have certainly 
renounced it". 

On Hazrat Shah Sahib's demise Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani had 
said in his condolatory speech that 

"had any man of Egypt and Syria asked me if I had seen Hafiz !bn Hajar 
Asqalani, Shaikh Taqi al-Dm bin Daqiq al-'ld and Sultan al-Ulama Shaikh 
Azz al— Din bin Abd al-Salam, then I could have said metaphorically: "/es, 
I have seen, because there is only precedence and subsequence of the 
period. Had Shah Shaib too been in the sixth or seventh century (hijri), he 
also would have been of their rank for being the owner of those 
peculiarities'". 

Shah Sahib was of a middle stature, having a fair complexion, hand- 
some features and a wide forehead- and his eyes had a magnetic 
attraction. 

The interest the late Dr. Sir Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal Lahori had 
developed in the last phase of his life in the Islamic teachings owed much 
to the grace of Shah Sahib's company. The learnd Dr. Iqbal had learnt 
much of Islamics from Shah Sahib and hence he used to revere him very 
much, and used to bow his head in submission, with sentiments of belief 
C'aqidat) and love, before Shah Shaib's opinions. 

More than a dozen of his books in Arabic and Persian on different 
Islamic topics, consisting of extremely vexed questions, have already been 
published and many more are awaiting publication. 



154 

Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Binnori has written in detail in Nafhat 
al-Anbar about the particulars of Shah Sahib's life. This book is in Arabic. 
Another book is Hayat-e Anwar, in Urdu, and is a valuable collection of 
articles from different writers. Al-Anwar and Naqsh-e Dawam are also 
good biographies. 

5. MAULANA SAYYID HUSAIN AHMED MADAM 

Hazrat Madani's homeland is village Allahdadpur Tanda in Faizabad 
district. He was born on 19th Shawwal, 1296/1879, in village Bangarmau, 
District Unnao, where his august father, Sayyid Habib Allah, was a head 
master. His family had come to India nineteen generations ago; by reason 
of its learning and piety this family of Sayyids has always possessed a 
particular glory and had been a large fief-holder during the monarehiea 
period. 

After having acquired early education in the primary school, he, at the 
age of twelve years, on 2nd Jamadi al-Sani, 1309/1891, came to Deoband 
and took admission in the first standard to read Mizan al-Sarf. Here 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind taught and trained him with special affection and 
favour. After completing the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum and having 
passed seven years in its academic milieu, when he went to his native 
place, his august father, yearning to migrate to the Prophet's City (Madina), 
had already packed up his kit. So he also started with his parents. Before 
his departure to Hejaz he had already vowed allegiance to Hazrat 
Gangohi. In the holy Mecca, as per his spiritual director's instruction, 
he derived spiritual graces for some time from Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah 
Mahajir-e Makki, and thereafter settled down in the illuminated Madina 
with his father. Although he- had not intended migration (hijrat) from India, 
he did not approve of coming back, leaving parental affection, as long as 
his august father was alive. 

During his stay in Madina, for nearly ten years, trusting in Allah, 
despite penury and straitened circumstances 1 , he rendered the service of 
teaching Hadith in the Prophet's Mosque. Genrallly he used to be 
occupied in teaching daily for 12 hours on an end. Different batches 
would come one after another and benefit from his academic benefac- 
tion. His lecturing on Hadith was much more popular and appreciated 
than that of other professors of Hadith in Madina, and its fame had 
attracted around him a very large number of students from different 
Islamic countries. The reason for such powerful attraction toward and 
general popularity of an Indian religious divine in the holy land of Hejaz 

1. Sydney Smith says: "Poverty is no disgrace to man, but it is confoundedly 
inconvenient". (Translator) 



especially in the Prophet's Mosque should be attributed to that peculiarity 
of the method of teachins that he had imbibed and inherited from the 
teachers of the Dar al-Ulum. 

During the period of his stay in the illuminated Madina he came to 
India several times and obtained the robe of khilafat from Hazrat Gangohi. 
In 1329/1915, for nearly one year, he stayed in Deoband and rendered 
teaching service. In 1333/1915, when the Shaikh al-Hind went to Hejaz, he 
preferred to stay with him only, and through him met Anwar Pasha, the 
Turkish Minister of War, and Jamal Pasha, and presented before them his 
revolutionary scheme. When the Arabs revolted against the Turks and Sherif 
Husain arrested the Shaikh al-Hind and made him over to the English, 
Maulana Madani was also among the Shaikh al-Hind's companions As 
such, he too had to live as a war-prisioner at Malta for three and a quarter 
years. When, in 1338/1920, they were released from detention at Malta, 
Maulana Madani also came to India along with the Shaikh al-Hind. This time 
of returning from Malta synchronized with the period of the beginning 
of the Khilafat Movement. Reaching India, he, under the Shaikh al-Hind's 
leadership, joined politics. His crusader-like temerarious sacrifices in this 
period had filled the Muslims' hearts with his glory and love. On the Shaikh 
al-Hind's demise he was unanimously acknowledged to be his successor. 
Due to participation and engrossment in political affairs he had to live 
several times and for long periods in jail, where he had to bear reason- 
ravishing tribulations and agonies for the freedom of the country. 

In 1346/1927, when Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri resigned 
from the Dar al-Ulum, there was no such personality among the group of 
the 'Dar al-Ulum, save Maulana Madani, who could fill that momentous 
vacancy beseemingly. Hence the elders' choice fell on him, and during his 
principalship the strength of the students increased more than twofold, 
exceeding even threefold in the Hadith Course. From A. H. 1346 to A. H. 
1377, in the course of 32 years of his principalship, 4,483 students 
graduated in the Hadith Course, whereas, prior to Hazrat Mauiana Madani's 
principalship the number of these noble graduates was only 2,751. 

In respect of multeity and comprehensiveness, his teaching of Hadith 
was considered typically singular in the world of Islam; as such its glory, 
fame and lure continued to be conducive in increasing the number of 
students from year to year. The circle of his students in the subject of the 
Prophetic Hadith is very vast, and there is no corner in the subcontinent 
where his disciples may not be present. Even as today, in the world of 
Islam, the Dar al-Ulum bears the mark of distinction in the teaching of the 
prophetic sciences, his academic benefaction too bears a special 
distinctness. 



Maulana Madani's daily practices and preoccupations were as 
under : — 

Tahajjud prayer, Zikr ('remembrance') and daily offices etc. in the last 
phase of the night till the Fajr prayer. After the Fajr prayer, reading of the 
Holy Quran and of other books for nearly an hour, thereafter, tea and 
breakfast in the male parlour; then the teaching of the Sahih-e Bukhari and 
Tirmizi Sharif till nearly 12-00 noon. After lunch and Zuhr prayer, he would 
go through the dawk, write replies to letters and talk with the guests. After 
Asr prayer till Maghrib there would be again lessons on the Sahih-e 
Bukhri. It was a daily stint to recite at least one para (1/30 part of the 
Quran) of the Holy Quran in the supererogatory prayers of Maghrib, after 
which there would be dinner and then, after the Isha prayer also, there 
would be often resumed the teaching of the Bukhari Sharif which would 
continue till midnight. 

His dinner-cloth was very broad at which at least ten to fifteen guests 
would always be commonly present. 

During his journey to Madras in Muharram, 1377/1957 he had a heart 
attack. On his coming back to Deoband the doctors diagnosed it to be 
dilation of heart. Treatment by local and outside doctors continued for 
some time but there was no improvement. Then the Unani treatment was 
started whereby some relief was felt. On 10th and 11th Jamadi al-Ula (3rd 
and 4th December) his disposition- was quite calm, and on 12th Jamadi 
al-Ula (5th December) he became quite cheerful; he took his lunch after 
several days and lay down for a siesta. At 3-00 when it was wished to 
waken him up for the Zuhr prayer it was found that Maulana Madani had 
gone to glory in sleep. The bier was brought to the Dar al-Hadith at 9-00 
p.m. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Zakariya, Shaikh al-Hadith of Mazahir-e 
Ulum, Saharanpur, led the funeral service and between the night of 12th 
Jamadi al-Ula, A. H. 1377 (5th — 6th December, 1957), this treasure of 
knowledge and gnosis^ that great savant who had kept the candle of 
prophetic hadith lighted in the Dar al-Ulum for 32 years ^nd gleaning from 
whose harvest of learning and accomplishments the students of prophetic 
knowledge had always felt pride — was laid to rest in dust. 

For detailed particulars about Hazrat Maulana Madani one may refer 
to his own autobiography entitled Naqsh-e Hayat as well as to the 
Shaikh al-lslam Number of Al-Jami'at, and Anfas-e Qudsiya by Mufti 
Aziz al-Rahman Bijnori. 

DIVISION OF THE POST OF PRINCIPALSHIP 

It was a practice in the Dar al-Ulum since Manulana Muhammad Yaqub 



157 

Nanautavi's (he was the first principal in the Dar al-Ulum) time that the 
lessons of Sahih-e Bukhari used to be assigned to the principal. Later on 
when administrative affairs increased, these too were assigned to the 
principal. In order to fill up the great void caused in the post for teaching 
the Bukhari Sharif by Maulana Madani's demise, the Majlis-e Shura divided 
this post temporarily into two posts : principalship and supervision of 
administrative affairs came to the lot of Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim 
Balliavi and for the lessons of the Sahih-e Bukhari Maulana Sayyid Fakhr 
al— Din Ahmed was selected. The wording of the resolution of the Majlis-e 
Shura is as under: — 

"The Majlis-e Shura, in view of the fact that after the demise of the 
Shaikh al— Islam Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed (may Allah illuminate 
his grave!), a like of whose consummate and great personality is not avail- 
able for the Dar al-Ulum, decides unanimously in order to make the 
educatuional system of the Dar al-Ulum better and better, that Maulana 
Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi be appointed on the post of principal and 
Director of Education, and in view of the distinctive aspect of the great- 
ness and glory of the Science of Hadith, Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al— Din 
Ahmed be appointed on the post of Professor of Hadith". 

It has been said further in the resolution of the Majlis-e Shura that "this 
special and distinguished post of Professor of Hadith shall not be 
considered permanent in the constitution of the Dar al-Ulum". Accord- 
ingly, after Allamah Balliavi's death the post of principalship was also 
entrusted to Maulana Fakhr al-Din Ahmed. 

■ (Resolution No. 3 of Majlis-e Shura held on 16th Rajab, 1377/1958). 

This was the first occasion that the post of Professor of Hadith was 
established for the teacher teaching Sahih-e Bukhari, and the administra- 
tive affairs were assigned to the principal. It is obvious that the lecturing 
on Bukhari Sharif has had superiority and distinction over administrative 
affairs. The teaching of Hadith at Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, fws been distinct 
and conspicuous from the very inception. 

For this reason it would be more suitable to present an account of 
Maulana Sayyid Fakhr al-Dm Ahmed prior to the particulars about 
Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi, so that the sequence of the 
teachers of the Bukhari Sharif which is the very soul of the authority of 
Hadith may not be broken. 

6. MAULANA SAYYID FAKHR AL-DIN AHMED 

His beloved native-place was Hapur. His ancestors, Sayyid Qutb and 



158 

Sayyid A'lam, along with their other two brothers, came to Delhi from 
Herat during Shah Jahan's reign. These gentlemen were amongst the 
distinguished divines of their time. Shah Jahan, for their teaching-work, 
built a madrasah for them at Hapur. Sayyid A'lam's genealogical chain 
reaches back to Hazrat Imam Husain through 26 mediums. 

Sayyid Fakhr ai— Din Ahmed was born at Ajmer in 1307/1889. His 
grandfather, Sayyid Abd al-Karim, was a station house officer (thanedar) 
in the Police Department there. His education began at the age of four 
years. He read the Holy Quran under' the instruction of his august mother 
and acquired knowledge of Persian from the elders of the family. In his 
twelfth year he began studying Arabic grammar and syntax under Maulana 
Khalid, a divine of his own family. During this period his father thought 
of reviving his ancestral madrasah which had been destroyed in the 
upheaval of 1857. After receiving education in this madrasah for some 
years, he was sent to Madrasa Manba al-Ulum at Gulaothi, where he read 
some books under the instruction of Maulana Mejid Ah and thereafter 
went to Delhi with the same teacher. He studied books of the rational 
sciences in the madrasahs of Delhi. In 1326/1908 when he came to the 
Dar al-Ulum, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind tested him for admission and he came 
off with flying colours in this test. According to the Shaikh al-Hind's 
instruction he completed Hadith Course (Daura-e Hadith) in two years 
instead of one. During his student career at the Dar al-Ulum itself he had 
begun to teach books of the rational sciences to the students. 

After graduation in 1328/1910 he became a teacher in the Dar al- 
Ulum. Then after some time the elders of the Dar al-Ulum, in Shawwal, 
1329/1911, sent him to Madrasa-e Shahi, Moradabad, where he lived for 
nearly 48 years. During this long period of nearly half a century many 
students of Hadith derived benefit from him 1 . 

Since the lauded Maulana was one of the favourite disciples of Hazrat 
Shaikh al-Hind and Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri, in his teaching of 
Hadith was found a happy blending of the colours (styles) of both the 
glorious teachers. As such, his lectures on Bukhari used to be very wide- 
ranging and detailed, discussing all the aspects of a hadith at length. After 
presenting the different practical methods (mazahib) of the jurisprudents 
(fuqaha), he used to adduce such forceful arguments in elucidation of 
support to and preference for the jurisprudential tack of the Hanafites that 
thereafter not the slightest anxiety was left in the mrnd of the audience. 
During his lecture, along with the different commentaries of the Sahih-e 
Bukhari, he also used to quote here and there appropriately the sciences 
and acquirements of his own teachers. In the teaching of Hadith his lecture 

1. Izah al-Bukhari, vol. i, pp. 7 & 12 



159 

used to be not only expansive and detailed but also easy and cogent, so 
that less gifted students too got a chance to derive the fullest advantage. 
The style of expression used to be very clear and chaste, fully reflecting all 
the features of his physical handsomeness, and wherefore his lectures on 
Bukhari had gained great fame and general popularity. In his time he was an 
unrivalled divine and a matchless professor of Hadith and the students used 
to take pride in being his pupils. 

In 1377/1957, after Maulana Madani's death, the members of the Majlis— e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum chose him for the post of the Shaikh al-Hadith in 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. Maulana Madani himself, during his terminal sick- 
ness, having insistently called him from Moradabad, had appointed him in 
his own place for teaching Sahih-e Bukhari. Earlier too he had taught the 
Sahih-e Bukhari twice at the Dar al-Ulum during the perioid of Maulana 
Madani's imprisonment and leave. In 1390/1970, as many as 275 students 
were attending his lectures on Hadith; the number of students of the Daura-e 
Hadith used to be the same, more or less, every year. 

Besides the educational preoccupations, he was aiso connected with 
national politics since the time of the Khilafat Movement, as a result of 
which he too had to bear the hardships and rigours of imprisonment and 
shackles. During Maulana Madani's presidentship of the Jami'at al-Ulama-e 
Hind he acted twice as vice-president; thereafter he was appointed presi- 
dent and went on discharging the functions of president of this organization 
till his last breath. At the fag-end of his life when health deteriorated, he 
was taken to Moradabad for change of climate, but the promised hour had 
come. After a brief illness at Moradabad, he passed away after midnight on 
20th Safar, A. H. 1392 (April 5, 1972). On receiving information of his 
demise many men from the Dar al-Ulum and Delhi had reached Moradabad. 

Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Tayyib, vice-chancellor, Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, led the funeral prayer and in the afternoon this world-illuminating 
sun of knowledge and learning set for ever in the land of Moradabad. 
"Everyone that is thereon will pass away" (LV:26). 

This great educational post in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, for teaching 
the Sahih-e Bukhari was being held continually for nearly 60 years by the 
disciples of Hazarat Shaikh al-Hind (Allah's mercy be on him!); with 
Maulana Fakhr al— Din Ahmed's death this continuity came to an end! 

7. ALLAMAH MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM BALLIAVI 1 

He was born in A. H. 1304 in a learned family of Ballia town in eastern 

1 . Although an account of Maulana Fakhr al-Din Ahmed as Shaikh al-Hadith has been given above, 
it will not be inappropriate to write about Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi as principal- 



in eastern U.P. His family had come from the Jhang district of the Punjab to 
Jaunpur and after some time had settled down in Ballia. The primary 
education of Persian and Arabic he acquired in Jaunpur from the famous 
physician, Maulana Ha'kim Jamil al-Din Naginvi and studied books of the 
rational sciences under Maulana Farouq Ahmed Chiryakoti and Maulana 
Hedayat Allah Khan (disciple of Maulana Fazl Haq Khairabadi). For learning 
Theology he became a pupil of Maulana Abd al-Ghaffar who was one of the 
most well-guided pupils of Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. In the 
late A. H. 1325 he entered the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and first studied 
books like Hedaya, Jalalayn.etc. and then graduated from it in A. H. 1327. 

After graduation, he was appointed as second teacher the very same 
year in Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpun. Then he remained engaged in teaching 
for some time in the madrasah of Umri, Dist. Moradabad. In A. H. 1333 he 
was called to serve in the Dar al-Ulum. From A.H.1340 to A.H. 1344 he 
served as principal in Madrasa-e Dar al-Ulum, Mau, Dist. Azamgarh, and 
Madrasa-e Imdadiya, Darbhanga (Bihar). In A. H. 1344 he was again called 
to the Dar al-Ulum. In the report for A. H. 1333 he has been mentioned in 
the following words: — 

"Maulavi Muhammad Ibrahim is fully qualified in all the sciences. He 
teaches all the books of rational sciences and philosophy excellently,- 
besides the terminal lessons of philosophy, logic and scholastic theology 
from Sadra, Shams-e Bazigha, Qazi Mubarak, Hamd Allah, Umoor-e 
A'mmah, he teaches lessons from Sharh-e Matal'e, Sharh-e Isharat, etc. 
also. The students remain very much inclined towards him. He is a very 
pleasant lecturer. In short, he is a teacher worthy to be appreciated and 
valued, one who is destined to earn name and fame". 

In A. H. 1362 he again sought separation from the Dar al-Ulum. Firstly 
he graced the masnad of the principal at Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel; there- 
after served Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpun, for some time in the same 
capacity and then became dean in the madrasah at Haat Hazari, Dist. 
Chittagong, Bengal. At last, in A. H. 1366, at Maulana Muhammad Tayyib's 
recommendatiion and by approval of the Majlis-e Shura, he came back to 
the Dar al-Ulum on which post he remained till his last breath. The 
number of his disciples exceeds thousands who, besides the subconti- 
nent, have fanned out to many countries of Asia and Africa. 

Allamah Balliavi was a mathcless don of the time in every art and 
science, particularly in scholastic theology and the science of beliefs. The 
outstanding services he rendered to Quranic Exegesis (Tafsir) and Hadith, 
Beliefs and Scholastic Theology, and other sciences, are sui generis. The 
period of his teaching work extends from A. H. 1327 to A. H. 1387 — 



161 

that is, over six decades. Students used to attend his lectures with great 
eagerness and absorption, longing to be benefitted from his lofty instruc- 
tions. Along with brevity, there was a quality of conciseness in his lecturing. 
The style of lecturing used to be very dignified, but at the same time he 
had had a special knack and mastery in enlivening his lecture with wit and 
humour and in tackling delicate points and solving important questions 
with mature skill. He used to adapt stories and anecdotes so skilfully with 
the propositions (masa'il) that all the aspects of a proposition would 
become clear and determined. A peculiarity of his lecture was also this 
that the pupils used to develop a deep affinity with the subject and the 
paths of knowledge and wisdom used to open up for them. In his time he 
had had no rival in his knowledge of Beliefs, Scholastic Theology, Logic 
and Philosophy. In Hadith he used to make greater use of reasoning 
(darayat) than of tradition. He had a deep insight into Hazrat Nanautavi's 
sciences. Besides being a pupil of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind he had also had 
the honour of vowing allegiance to him. 

Among Allamah Balliavi's works Risala-e Musafaha and Risala-e 
Taraveeh are in Urdu; and one treatise entitled Anwar al-Hikmat in 
Persian comprises articles on logic and philosophy. His scholium in Arabic 
on Sallam al-Ulum is entitled Zia al-Nujum. He had written scholia on 
Mebazi and Khiyali also but unfortunately they were lost In the end he 
was writing marginal notes on Jam'e Tirmizi but could not complete them. 
His health had been deteriorating for a long time and on 24th Ramazan, A. 
H. 1387, he responded to the call of death in the afternoon, at the ripe old 
age of 84 years and lies buried in the Qasimi graveyard. 

8. MAULANA SHARIF HASAN DEOBANDI 

He was a resident of Deoband. where he had come into the world on 
August 9,1920. In Deoband itself he committed the Holy Quran to memory 
under the instruction of the late Hafiz Abd al-Khaliq; then for three years he 
studied the primary books of Persian and Arabic in the madrasah at Bhitt 
(Dist. Saharanpur). Thereafter he entered the Dar al-Ulum and completed 
the Nizami curriculum. He graduated in the Hadith Course in A. H. 1358. 

After graduation, he was appointed head-teacher, in Shawwal, 
1360/1941, in Madrasa Imdad al-Ulum of Khanqah-e Imdadia, Thana Bha- 
van. He had perfect proficiency in all the arts and sciences. Due to the 
grace of the company of Hakim al-Ummat Hazrat Thanvi he cultivated an 
affinity with Hadith and Ifta. About A.H. 1364 he was made principal of 
Madrasah Isha'at al-Ulum, Bareilly, where, besides lecturing on Hadith, he 
also discharged the duty of fetwa-writing. After nine years he was made 



professor of Hadith in Jamia-e Islam a, Dabhel (Dist. Surat), where he used 
to teach Sahih-e Bukhari and Jam'e Tirmizi. 

In A. H. 1383 he was called to the Dar al-Ulum. He had a special 
interest in the science of Hadith. His taking charge of lecturing on 
Bukhari Sharif after Maulana Fakhr al-Din Ahmed was his great academic 
achievement. Practically till his last breath he continued to work as 
professor of Hadith. All his life passed in study, teaching and serving the 
seekers of the religious sciences. His lectures used to be replete with 
academic matter and the students of Hadith used to come out satisfied 
from his lecture. He died in harnesss: his educational benefaction 
continued till a few hours before his demise. 

In knowledge and practice, piety and purification, and moral virtues 
and good qualities, Maulana Sharif Hasan reminded one of the great 
ulema of yore. On account of his academic erudition and his specializa- 
tion and interest in the science of Hadith, as also due to his spotless 
character, he was considered pre-eminent among the contemporary 
ulema. He used to meet all the great and the small with a cheerful 
countenance. His exterior and interior both were pure, and he had a very 
accommodating disposition, following the policy of 'live and let live'. 

He died on the night between 14th and 15th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 
1397; of some cardiac disease, after a few hours illness; at the age of 
nearly 59 years. His eternal resting-place is situated in the Qasimi 
cemetry. 

9. MAULANA SAYYID FAKHR AL-HASAN MORADABADI 

He was born on 10th Rajab, A. H. 1323, at village Umri, his ancestral 
native-place in Moradabad district. His chronogrammatic name is Mazhar 
Husain. He received the education of the Holy Quran, Theology, Urdu 
and primary Persian from Hafiz Nasim al-Din and Hafiz Abd al-Qadir 
Amrohi. His august father was a librarian in the Madrasa-e Shahi, 
Moradabad. So, around A. H. 1335, he took admission in the said 
madrasah. There he completed he course of Persian and studied the 
elementary books of the Nizami Syllabus under his own father. Then he 
went to Mazahir-e Ilium, Saharanpur, and completed the intermediate 
courses. In A. H. 1343 he came to the Dar al-Ulum, completed the course 
of Hadith in A. H.1347 and became a graduate. 

After graduation he was appointed as a teacher in Madrasa-e A'liya, 
Fatehpuri (Delhi). From there he went to Bihar and was appointed in 



163 

Madrasa Shams al-Huda, Patna, for teaching certain books of the Sahih. 
But after one and a half years he returned to Madrasa-e A'liya, Fatehpuri, 
where later on he was made its head-teacher. In A. H. 1362 he was 
called to the Dar al-Ulum and was appointed a teacher of the higher 
classes and was given books like Sahih-e Muslim, Umoor-e A'mmah, 
etc. (for teaching). His teaching of the Sahih-e Muslim and Tafsir-e 
Baizavi has attained special fame in the Dar al-Ulum. Accordingly, the 
first volume of his lecture on Baizavi entitled Al-Tafsir al-Havi has been 
published and has met with general approbation. He is also very pro- 
ficient in giving sermons and speeches. 

In A. H. 1387, after Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Balliavi's death, he 
was appointed as principal in the Dar al-Ulum on which post he is still 
workin3 1 . 

He has got 'permission' and Khilafat from Hazrat Shah Abd al-Qadir 
Raipuri. 

10. MAULANA NASEER AHMED KHAN 

He was born on 21st Rabi al-Awwal, A. H. 1337, in village Bassai of 
Buland Shahar district. After memorizing the Holy Quran, he read all the 
Persian and Arabic books of the syllabus, from first to last, at Madrasa 
Manba al-Ulum, Gulaothi (Dist. Buland Shahr). He took admission in Daura-e 
Hadith of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A. H. 1362 and acquired success 
in it. In A. H. 1363 he completed the study of other arts and also 
acquired proficiency in Qira't-e Hafs and Sab'a 'Ushr in cantillation. 

After graduation, in the late A. H. 1365, he was appointed as a 
teacher in the Dar al-Ulum. In A. H. 1391, in view of his high administra- 
tive abilities, along with his teaching work he was appointed on the post 
of pro-vice-chancellor. Thereafter, in A. H. 1397, he was appointed as 
professor of Hadith. A fine blending of academic and administrative 
abilities is found in his personality. 

The teaching of Hadith by the lauded Maulana is generally liked (by 
all). His teaching discourses are lucid, coherent and logical. He has got 
great knowledge of the science of astronomy also; he has written a 
scholium on Risala Fatahiyya of astronomy which is included in the 
syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

There is simplicity, humility and condescension in his disposition, and 
his exterior and interior are identical; he is also cheerful and affable. 

1. He died at about 1-00 a. m. on lath Sept., 1980. 



ARBAB-E IHTEMAM (VICE-CHANCELLORS) 

1. HAJI SAYYID MUHAMMAD ABID 

Haji Sahib was a very pious, abstemious and competent saintly man of 
Deoband. He was far-famed in the art of amulet-writing and spiritua 
recitations. He was one of the pious founders of the Dar al-Ulum. The 
post for managing the Dar al-Ulum had been firstly entrusted to him only. 
Hazrat Thanvi says in his masnavi, Zer-o Bum 1 : 

'A consummate a'mil (spiritual theurgist), saint, man of God, closely 
following in the footsteps of the "Pride of the Prophets" (i.e., Prophet 
Muhammad); majestic as well as elegant was his dignity, he who was a 
mine of clemency and a repository of affability. 

His mystic squares and amulets were like a writing of destiny; his 
grace over the high and the low was like that of the moon.' 

Haji Sahib's year of birth was 1250/1834. After having read the Holy 
Quran and learned Persian he went to study the religious sciences at 
Delhi, but, during this period of education, the zest for Tasawwuf seized 
him so strongly that he could not complete his studies. He acquired 
khilafat from several saintly persons; he had received the honour of 
khilafat from Mianji Karim Bakhsh Rampuri and Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah 
Mahajir-e Makki (may his secret be sanctified!) also. 

Haji Sahib's spiritual director, Mianji Karim Bakhsh Rampuri, had 
received khilafat from Maulana Muhammad Hasan Rampuri (d. A. H. 1279). 
Mianji saw a dream that there was a very large star in the sky, surrounded 
by innumerable other stars, and then the large star had come into his lap. 
Next morning Mianji told his proselytes: "Some Sayyid would vow 
allegiance to me ; he would be a conformer of the Sunnah, great 
benefacton will reach the people from him and he would perform many 
religious works" 2 . 

Hazrat Haji Sahib lived in the Chhatta Mosque for sixty years. It is 
well-known among the people that for thirty years he never missed the 
Takbir-e Ula. He had taken upon himself to saying the Tahajjud prayer so 
regularly that he never missed a single prayer (to be made good after the 

1 Masnavi Zer-o Bum with ref. to Al-Qasim Dar al-Ulum Number, Muharram, A. H 

1347, p.19. 

2. Tazkirat al-A'bidin, pp. 63, 64 



165 

scheduled time) for sixty years. He was a master of mystical revelation 
and a wonder-working saint. Besides giving spiritual instruction and 
guidance, 'remembrance' and purification of heart, he had prodigious 
mastery in "the art of 'amalyat" (spiritual theurgy ). People used to come 
to him for amulets and spiritual practices and used to return well-satisfied 
(lit., with the skirts of their hopes filled with the pearls of their objectives). 
Despite the excess of different works, punctuality for him was extremely 
binding and every work used to be performed at its scheduled time. 

He used to get up in the last part of the night and, after finishing the 
Tahajjud (post-midnight) prayer and the daily offices and recitations, he 
used to say the Fajr (pre-dawn) prayer in the Chhatta Mosque. After this 
prayer he would read the Quran and then come out of his cloister to 
accept allegiance from those who came to vow allegiance to him and give 
amulets to those who came seeking amulets,- this work continued till after- 
noon. After Zuhr prayer would come the adherents of the path for whom 
there used to be Zikr and Shaghl ('recollection' and 'engagement' — 
spiritual exercises designed to render Allah's presence throughout one's 
being by rhythmical repetitive mvocaton of Allah's names,- methods 
employed to attain spiritual concentration. Translator), which continued 
till Asr prayer. After the Maghrib prayer "Khatm-e Khwajagan" was a daily 
practice. He used to retire to bed soon after the Isha prayer. 

Those who needed amulets sometimes used to cause him much 
embarrassment, but the state of his affability and graciousness was such 
that no one ever saw him sour-faced. He was extremely careful about 
conforming to the Sunnah. It is his maxim that "an inactive dervish is like 
a weaponless soldier; a dervish, in order to hide his condition, should 
express himself to be an a'mil". He was a saint of the Chishtiya-Sabiriya 
order and a personification of asceticism and self-discipline. 

Once it came to his knowledge that from amongst his proselytes one 
Haji Muhammad Anwar Deobandi had given up eating and drinking 
completely by way of self-repression. So he wrote to him with insist- 
ence: This thing is against the Sunnah; one must eat and drink in the 
traditional (masnun) manner, though .less" 1 . 

It is stated in Anwar-e Qasimi with reference to Sawanh-e Makhtuta 
that "Haji Sahib was a dignified, influential, devout and ascetic personage 
in Deoband. The impress of his saintliness was there on -the hearts of all 
the great and small, men and women, and the old and the young of 

1, Tazkirat al-A'bidin, p. 67 



166 

Deoband; his spiritual grace had ravished the hearts not only of the 
peopie of Deoband and its vicinity but also of other provinces. Besides 
being a devotee and an ascetic, he was also a very great a'mil (expert in 
spiritual practices and writing amulets); the spiritual grace of his amulets 
used to act as an antidote on the sick. His face used to remind one of 
the existence of God. 

"His consistency, resoluteness and resourcefulness were famous. 
Though he has renounced the world, if someone consults him, his 
opinion is usually as good as that of a worldly-wise man" 1 . 

It is stated in Sawanh-e Qasimi with reference to Sawanh-e Makhtuta 
that "the inhabitants of Deoband have had very great faith in him ; the 
people derive many kinds of benefit from his graceful person. 

"Followers of other reiigions too believe in his amulets. House and its 
equipments, land, garden, whatever was there in his property, he has given 
away all in the way of God and now lives with mere trust in God" 2 . 

He used to be very careful about the regularity of his daily schedule 
of works and practices. Hazrat Maulanan Muhammmad Yaqub Nanautavi 
used to remark that "a knowledgeable man can always show that Haji 
Sahib at this time should be busy in such and such work; if someone 
goes and sees he would find him busy in the same work" 3 . 

A discourse of Hazrat Thanvi has been reproduced in Ashraf al- 
Sawanh. It says in it "that I did take Haji Sahib to be a saintly person but 
I. did not think that he was also a Shaikh (spiritual guide) and Murabbi 
(spiritual patron); but during the course of an esoteric difficulty of mine I 
came to know from his satisfactory reply that he was an accomplished 
Shaikh and Murabbi"". 

The movement for the public fund for the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, had 
been started by him only. Haji Fazl Haq had stated in Hazrat Nanautavi's 
Sawanh-e Makhtuta as under: — 

"One day at the time of ishraq (which is 20 minutes after sunrise), 
Haji Sayyid Muhammad Abid, making a wallet of a white handkerchief 
and putting three rupees in it from his own pocket, went all alone from 
the Chhatta Mosque to call upon (the late) Maulavi Mehtab Ali. Maulavi 
Sahib donated six rupees most cheerfully and also gave his blessings. 

1. Anwar-e Qasimi, vo. i, p. 350-351, Lahore ed 

£. Sawanh-e Qasimi, vol. ii,pp. 239 & 341 ; National Press, Deoband. 

3. Ashraf al-Sawanh, vol.i, p 149. 

4 Ibid., pp.150 & 248. 



167 

Maulavi Fazl al-Rahman donated twelve rupees and this humble one (Haji 
Fazl Haq, author of the Sawanh-e Makhtuta), six. Rising up from there, 
he went to Maulavi Zulfiqar Ali (may Allah keep him safe!). Maulavi Sahib, 
as Allah willeth, is a patron of knowledge; promptly he gave twelve 
rupees. By a lucky coincidence, Sayyid Zulfiqar Ali Sani (II) Deobandi 
was also present there; on his behalf too, the former donated twelve 
rupees. Getting up from there this kingly dervish reached mohalla Abul 
Barakat. By this time two hundred rupees had been collected; by duskfall, 
three hundred. Then gradually it became the talk of the town and took 
air, and it is well-known the way it effloresced and fructified. This thing 
happened on Friday, 2nd Zil-qa'da, A. H. 1282" 1 . 

Besides membership of the Majils-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, its 
management was entrusted to him thrice. First time from the day of 
establishment to 1284/1867; second time from 1286/1869 to 1288/1871 
and third time from 1308/1890 to 1310/1892; totally this period comes to 
ten years. 

The construction of the Jame Masjid, Deoband, is also the result of his 
effort and endeavour only. In the end, due to excess of engagements, he 
resigned from' the management. The Dar al-Ulum gained many advantages 
from his influence and dignity and each step of it advanced towards 
progress. 

He died on Thursday, 27th Zii-hijj, A. H. 1331/ A. D. 1912, at the ripe 
old age of four score and one. The chronogram for the year of his death is 
"Madar al-Miham-e Bihisht-e Barin". Details of his life have been 
mentioned in Tazkiratal-A'bidin 2 . 

2. MAULANA RAFI' AL-DIN 

The lauded Maulana was born in 1252/1836. He was one of the famous 
khalifas of Hazrat Shah Abd al-Ghani Mujaddidi. Though his academic 
ability was unexceptional, he had an exceptional knack for administrative 
affairs, possessing wonderful qualities in this regard. He was being 
counted amongst the perfect saints of his time. Twice he was appointd as 

1 Sawanh-e Makhtuta with ref. to Sawanh-e Qasimi, vol ii, pp. 258-259. 
2. Haji Sahib is being called both Abid Husairi and Muhammad Abid but in all his writings 
that have come under the perusal of this writer, he has written his name as Muhammad 
Abid. It seems that initially his name was Abid Husain but later on he himself changed it to 
Muhammad Abid, even as Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah's name in the beginning was Imdad 
Husain but later on he had made it Imdad Allah Something similar has happened in this 
case also. (S m. Rizvi) 



168 

the vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulurn; first time in 1284/1867 and 1285/ 
1868, when Haji Muhammad Abid went for hajj, he officiated as vice- 
chancellor and then nearly three years later he was appointed permanently 
in 1288/1871 and served on this post till the beginning of 1306/1888. 
During his tenure of office the Dar al-Ulurn made much Headway, which is 
considered to be the result of his efficient administration. It is axiomatic 
that administrative efficiency rareiy combines with honesty and trustworthi- 
ness, but he possessed both these rare qualities in the highest degree. The 
total period of his administration is 19 years. 

Most of the early buildings of the Dar al-Ulum were constructed during 
his tenure of office. His architectural taste can be estimatd from the build- 
ings of that era, particularly the strength, solidity and beauty of construc- 
tion of Nav-darah, etc. Amongst the buildings of the Dar al-Ulum the Nav- 
darah has within it a conspicuous dignity. It is well-known that when the 
building of the Nav-darah (which was the earliest among the existing 
buildings) was being laid, he saw a dream that the Holy Prophet (peace 
and blessings of Allah be upon him!) was standing at the proposed site 
and was telling him that "this area is very small" and saying this, drew the 
area and map of the building with his auspicious staff and said: "Build it 
on these marks". Next morning when the Maulana got up and inspected 
the site, he found the marks intact. Accordingly, the foundaton of the 
building was dug on the' same marks and the construction was started. 

Hazrat Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman (d. 1347/1928) had received 
khilafat from Maulana Rati' al— Din. In 1306/1888, Maulana Rafi' ai— Din went 
to the illuminated Madina with the intention of migration and went to glory 
there after two years, in 1308/1890, and was buried in the Jannat al-Ba- 
q'ee (name of a historical graveyard). 

3. HAJI SAYYID FAZL HAQ DEOBANDI 

Haji Sahib belonged to a Rizvi Sayyid family of Deoband. He had had 
the honour of vowing allegiance to Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim 
Nanautavi. He was a member of the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum from 
the very inception. 

During Haji Muhammad Abid's vice-chancellorship he served the Dar 
al-Ulum for many years in the capacity of a manager. He was appointed as 
vice- chancellor when Haji Muhammmad Abid resigned in 1310/1892. He 
resigned from this post after having served the institution for nearly one 
year. 

Haji Fazl Haq had written a biography of Hazrat Nanautavi which has 



169 

not been published so far. Excerpts from this unpublished biosraphy 
have been given at various places in the Sawanh--e Qasimi, compiled by 
Maulana Manazir Ahsan Gilani, who has called his source Sawanh-e 
Makhtuta (Biosraphy in Manuscript). From these excerpts it appears that 
it must be a very comprehensive and complete biography. His authorial 
capacities were combined with administrative ability in the highest 
desree,- before his joining the Dar al-Ulum he had served in the govern- 
ment educational department at Saharanpur for a long time. 

4. MAULANA MUHAMMAD MUNIR 
NANAUTAVI 

He was a younger brother of the famous divine and author Maulana 
Muhammad Ahsan Nanautavi and Maulana Muhammad Mazhar. He was 
born at Nanauta in 1247/1831. Primary education he received from his 
father, Hafiz Lutf Ali, and then enterd the Delhi College, where he derived 
academic benefit from Maulana Mamluk Ali Nanautavi, Mufti Sadr al-Din 
Azurda and Hazrat Shah Abd al-Ghani Dehelvi. Maulana Muhammad Munir 
was a very active and ardent participant and fighter in the war of inde- 
pendence of 1857. He participated shoulder to shoulder with other elders 
in the battle of Shamli and fought very intrepidly. After this battle he went 
into hiding. After the declaration of general amnesty he went to his elder 
brother, Maulana Muhammad Ahsan, at Bareilly and, in 1861/1278, got an 
employment in the Bareilly College. He stayed in Bareilly till he got 
pension. During this stay at Bareilly he also acted as manager of his 
brother, Maulana Muhammad Ahsan's press, Matba-e Siddique, Bareilly. 

Maulana M. Munir paid allegiance to the Naqshbandiyya order. He has 
translated Imam Ghazali's book, Minhaj al-A'bidin, into Urdu under the 
title, Siraj al-Salikin, which was published in 1281/1864 from Matba-e 
Siddique. His other work entitled Fawa'id-e Ghariba also consists of the 
problems of Tasawwuf. 

Maulana Munir held a very high rank in honesty and integrity. An event 
regarding him has been given in the Arwah-e Salasa that the Maulana 
took two hundred and fifty rupees and went to Delhi to get the Annual 
Report of the Dar al-Ulum printed. By chance this amount was stolen 
there. Maulana Munir, without informing anyone of this mishap, came to 
his native-place Nanauta, collected money by selling his land, got the 
report printed and came back. When the members of the Majils-e Shura 
came to know of it, they inquired the proposition (mas'ala) regarding this 
from Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. The reply came from there 



170 

that "the vice-chancellor was a trustee and since the money was lost with- 
out any wrongdoing, he cannot be penalised for it". Showing Hazrat 
Gangohi's fetwa to Maulana Munir the members of the Majlis requested him 
to take back his money, but he said: "It is not a matter of fetwa. Had such an 
ncident befallen Maulana Rasheed Ahmed, would he have taken the 
money"? As such, despite insistence, he refused to take back the money 1 . 

5. MAULANA HAFIZ MUHAMMAD AHMED 

Hafiz Sahib was Hazrat Nanautavi's well-guided son He was born at 
Nanauta in 1279/1862. After his memorizing the Holy Quran, his august 
father sent him to Gulaothi (Dist Buland Shahr) for his primary education in 
Madrasah Manbe al-Ulum, which Hazrat Nanautavi himself had established 
there. Maulana Abd Allah Anbahtavi was a teacher in that madrasah. There- 
after, for further studies, he was sent to Madrasa-e Shahi of Moradabad 
where Hazrat Nanautavi's well-guided disciple, Maulana Ahmed Hasan 
Amrohi used to teach. After having studied different books of religious arts 
and sciences, he came to Deobano and became a pupil of Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind. He read some lessons of Tirmizi Sharif under the instruction of 
Maulana Muhammad Yaqub. Reaching Gangoh he completed the Daura-e 
Hadith in Hazrat Gangohi's circle of teaching and studied Jalalayn and 
Baizavi also there. 

In 1303/1885, he was appointd as a teacher in the Dar ai-Ulum and 
thus he got a chance of teaching different arts and sciences. In 1310/1895 
when Haji Muhammad Abid resigned from vice-chancellorship, two 
incumbents (Haji Fazl Haq Deobandi and Maulana Muhammad Munir 
Nanautavi) succeeded each other but could not run the management for 
more than a year each. As this yearly change was deranging the administra- 
tion, in 1313/1895, Hazrat Gangohi .elected Hafiz Sahib for this post. 
Being a very good administrator, influential and dignified, he very soon 
brought the administration under control and proved exceptionally worthy 
of all the hopes that had been cherished of him at the time of the appoint- 
ment. Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind who was principal, inspite of being his 
teacher, used to give more importance to Hafiz Sahib for being his own 
teacher's son. 

During the Hafiz Sahib's vice-chancellorship the Dar al-Ulum made 
extraordinary progress. At the time he took the reins of administration into 
his hands, the average income was only fi/e to six thousand rupees per 
annum; during his tenure of office this average reached ninety thousand 

1 Arwah-e Salasa, anecdote no 453. Maulana Muhammad Ahsan Nanautavi, pp. 157-160. 



171 

per annum. Similarly the average of students went upto nearly nine 
hundred. The number of books at that time was five thousand; it rose to 
forty thousand. In 1313/1895 the cost of the buildings of the Dar ai-Ulum 
was thirty-six thousand rupees; .during his regime it spiralled to nearly 
four lakhs. 

in short, during the period of his vice-chancellorship, the Dar al-Ulum 
made unprecedented progress, .both internally and externally. Before his 
administration there was no clean and regular set-up of departments and 
offices and though the Dar al-Ulum had essentially developed into a "Dar 
al-Ulum" (university), in respect of its buildings and outward shape and 
form it changed from a madrasah into a university during his regime only. 
Different departments and offices were organized and made systematic, 
and there was an unusual increase in the" gamut of influence as well. In 
short, the Dar al-Ulum kept advancing towards progress from day to day. 
As such, his tenure of vice-chancellorship is considered a very brilliant 
and golden chapter in the history of the Dar al-Ulum. 

The magnificent building of the Dar al-Hadith, which is the first of its 
kind in India, was raised during his administration. The beginning of the 
construction of the new hostel, which is known as Jadid Dar al-lqama, and 
the buildings of the mosque and the library too are the monuments of his 
time. The memory of that great convocation, held (during his regime) in 
1328/1910, in which more than one thousand graduates were awarded the 
"turban of proficiency", is still fresh in the mind of the people. 

In connection with the development of the Dar al-Ulum, Hafiz Sahib 
toured several cities in the country and got fixed many permanent dona- 
tions for the Dar al-Ulum,- his journeys to the former Bhopal, Bhawalpur and 
Hyderabad states particularly will always remain memorable. The amount 
of monthly help from Hyderabad was fixed at Rs 100/-. Hafiz Sahib went 
to Hyderabad and through his influence got it raised to Rs 250/- p.m., in 
the second journey of his it was made Rs.500/-p.m and in the third it 
went upto Rs.1,000/-p.m., which continued till the merger of the state. 

The title of Shams al-Ulama had been awarded to him by the then 
British government, but on account of the liberty-loving tack of the Dar 
al-Ulum he did not approve of being a titled person of the (alien) govern- 
ment and therefore returned the said title after some time. This is also a 
peculiarity of his tenure of office that the governors of the United 
Provinces came to visit the Dar al-Ulum twice At the proposed site of the 
Dar al-Hadith there used to flow a sewer of the town which was not only 
obstructing the construction of the Dar al-Hadith but was also, by its 



172 

proximity, polluting the climate of the Dar al-Ulum. Inspite of the constant 
efforts of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum the local petty officals were not 
willing to remove this sewer By inviting the governor Hafiz Sahib brought 
about a solution of this difficulty and the said sewer was removed from 
the site at government expense. It was Hafiz Sahib's greatest characterstic 
quality that he used to solve the most difficult task of the Dar al-Ulum 
easily. 

While he kept an eye on the minutest particulars of the students and 
kept them under check and control with warning and admonition, he was 
also equally extremely kind and affectionate to them. Patronisingly looking 
after the students' ordinary needs, he used to pay special attention to the 
treatment of sick students. His awe over the teachers and the taught was 
proverbial. His dinner cloth was very wide : with extreme large- 
mindedness he used to bear the burden of the guests of the Dar al-Ulum 
personally. 

His preoccupation with teaching did not cease even during his func- 
tioning as vice-chancellor; he used to teach Mishkat al-Masabih, Jalalayn 
Sharif, Sahih-e Muslim, Ibn Maja, Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani, Risala Mir Zahid, 
etc. very zestfully. His lectures used to be very clear, coherent and 
uncomplicated. He had great mastery over his august father's sciences 
and subjects. 

The Nizam of the Deccan had appointed Hafiz Sahib on the post of 
Chief Mufti in the Hyderabad state. On this highest religious post of the 
Asafyah state he worked from 1341/1922 to 1344/1925. During the course 
of his stay in Hyderabad he had invited the Nizam to pay a visit to the 
Dar al-Ulum and this invitation had been accepted. The programme was 
such that when the Nizam went to Delhi, he would also visit the Dar al- 
Ulum. He was expected to come to Delhi in 1347/1928 So Hafiz Sahib 
went to Hyderabad to remind the Nizam of his promise. At the time he 
was intending to go to Hyderabad he was indisposed; the weakness of 
old age and chronic illness had made him very weak, but not caring for 
his own health in the interest of the Dar al-Ulum, he started for 
Hyderabad. On reaching there he became more ill. At first it was awaited 
that if there was some relief he should meet the Nizam but when the ill- 
ness continued to increase day by day, the adherents and companions of 
the journey decided to take him back to Deoband. So they started from 
Hyderabad with the intention of returning but while the train was still 
within the ourskirts of Hyderabad, Hafiz Sahib breathed his last at the 
Nizamabad railway station and entered the circle of those martyrs who 



173 

die in journey (lit., "He who died in journey is a martyr"). This incident 
occurred on 3rd Jamad al-Ula, A. H. 1347/A. D. 1928. Before death his 
tongue was reciting Allah's name; the fingers had been folded on the 
figure of 29 when the soul left the body. 

The dead body was taken out of the train at the Nizamabad railway 
station and the bier was prepared. Relatives and the Nizam were 
informed telegraphically. In his reply the Nizam asked the bier to be 
taken to Hydereabad. Funeral services were held a number of times in 
Nizamabad and Hyderabad. Next day, on 4th Jamadi al-Ula, at govern- 
ment expense, he was laid to rest in a special graveyard which is known 
as Khitta-e Saulihin ("the Yard of the Pious"). The Nizam, while giving 
condolences, mournfully uttered this effective sentence: "He had come 
to take me, but, alas! he himself remained here". 

In view of the valuable services Hafiz Sahib rendered to Islam and the 
Muslims through the Dar al-Ulam, his demise was considered a stupendous 
loss of the Dar al-Ulam and the Muslims, and throughout the length and 
breadth of India innumerable condolence meetings and concelebrations 
for remitting recompense to his departed soul were held among both 
Deobandi and non-Deobandi groups of Muslims. 

Hafiz Sahib served the Dar al-Ulum for 45 years, the initial 10 years in 
teaching and 35 years in functioning as vice-chancellor. 

6. MAULANA HABIB AL-RAHMAN 

He was the eldest son of Maulana Fazl al-Rahman. From the beginning 
to the end he prosecuted his studies in the Dar al-Ulum. He was an 
erudite scholar and a great litterateur in the Arabic language. His foresight 
and administration is considered proverbial in the history of the Dar al- 
Ulum; his services and dower have played a great role in the progress of 
the institution. 

In 1325/1907, due to Hazrat Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed's 
engagements, as also in connection with the development of the Dar 
al-Ulum, there arose the need of an able and competent administrator 
who might lend a hand to Hafiz Sahib in the administrative affairs and 
schemes of development. In the eyes of the Majlis-e Shura there was 
none more suitable than him for this job. Accordingly, inspite of his 
refusal, he was compelled and entrusted with the post of pro- 
vice-chancellor. It is said that it was a piece of good luck for the Dar 
al-Ulum that it acquired the services of a vigilant administrator and 



174 

sincere man like Maulana Habib a!-Rahman Usmani. He was so much 
interested in the administrative works that major part of the day and night 
used to be spent in these works. He had so organized and streamlined the 
administrative department of the Dar al-Ulum that when Nawab Sadr yar 
Jung Bahadur came to Deoband on behalf of the Asafyah government to 
audit the accounts of the Dar al-Ulum, he was surprised to see that 
vouchers and receipts of even as paltry a sum as one and two annas were 
present in the file in a regular order. Nawab Sadr Yar Jung's statement is 
that there was no paper which was asked for and was not immediately 
presented. The progress during Hafiz Sahib's vice-chancellorship is in fact 
considered to be the result of Maulana Habib al-Rahman's comradeship; 
he always remained his right-hand man, confidant and lieutenant. 

In 1344/1925, when Hafiz Sahib retired due to old age from the post of 
Chief Mufti of the Hyderabad State, Maulana Habib al-Rahman was 
appointed in his place, but due to the appearance of internal dissensions 
in the Dar al-Ulum he had to give up this job very soon. Maulana Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri, Mufti Aziz al-Rahman and Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, 
along with a large group of some other teachers and students, had severed 
their relations with the Dar al-Ulum. This was a very delicate and critical 
occasion but Maulana Habib al-Rahman's resolution and firmness, courage 
and daring, and sagacity and foresight saved the boat of the Dar al-Ulum 
from wobbling. 

Maulana Habib al-Rahman's personality was considered past compare 
in his time in every respect. It is generally believed that had he had so 
much interest in the national politics as he had in the Dar al-Ulum, he 
would have proved to be the greatest political leader of India. It was 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's will that the members of the Jami'at al-Ulama must 
never leave out two men: the first name among these two was his, and as 
such he proved to be the best counsellor of the Jami'at al-Ulama. In a 
session of the Jami'at al-Ulama held at Gaya (Bihar) in 1340/1921, he was 
elected president and his presidential address was not only generally 
appreciated but in the political circles of the country also its political 
significance was looked upon with approval. 

Excessive reading had made him a man of vast knowledge, a polyhistor. 
Hazrat Anwar Shah Kashmiri used to remark;- 

"If there is anyone whose knowledge impresses me, it is Maulana 
Habib al-Rahman". 

He had a special liking for Arabic literature and history and his extensive 



knowledge in these subjects was far-famed at the time. The following 
books are his academic relics : — 

(1) Qasida-e Lamiat at-Mu'ajizat. This panegyric consists of nearly three 
hundred verses in praise of the Holy Prophet (Allah's peace and blessings 
be upon himO, describing one hundred prophetic miracles in a very 
eloquent and meaningful style. Maulana Muhammad Izaz Ali Amrohi (d A. 
H. 1374) has explained these Arabic verses in simple Urdu. 

(2) Isha'at-e Islam —How did islam spread in the world? In response 
to this question he has reproduced nearly five hundred pages 1 those 
historical events which, due to their psychological attraction, became 
conducive to the spread of Islam. 

(3). Ta'limat-e Islam: In this book the Islamic system of government has 
been described and it has been made explicit how much consultation is 
necessary for the leader of the party. In the course of this he has shown 
that if there is complete trust in the person of the leader there is then no 
need of counting the votes of the majority and the minority, but should the 
leader not have achieved such trust of the followers, then there is no other 
go for carrying on the business but to rely upon the majority. 

(4). Rahmat al-lil-A'limin. It is a very valuable work on ihe biography 
of the Holy Prophet (Allah's peace and blessings be upon himO, but it is 
a pity that it is incomplete. However, whatever has been written is an 
addition of a monumental work to the list of prophetic biographies. 

Maulana Habib al-Rahman was of a very frail constitution; his intake of 
food was astonishingly low but inspite of emaciation and weakness he 
possessed unbounded courage. Exactly fourteen months after Hafiz 
Sahib's death, he passed away from this mortal world on the night of 4th 
Rajab, A. H. 1348/A.D. 1929, leaving the Dar al-Ulum as his eulogiser for 
ever and ever. May Allah illuminate his grave! 

7. MAULANA QARI MUHAMMAD TAYYIB 

He is Hazrat Nanautavi's grandson. He was born in 1315/1897. His 
chronogrammatic name is Muzaffar al-Din. He was admitted to the Dar al- 
Ulum at the age of seven; the ceremony of his admission to the school was 
performed in a glorious gathering of distinguished august men. Within the 
short span of two years he committed the entire Quran to memory with 
cantillation and orthoepy. After reading for five years in the Persian and 



ct, 504 pases. Vide the 1933 ed. of Matba-e Qasimi, Deoband. (Translator) 



176 

Mathematics classes, he started studying the Arabic syllabus which he 
completed in 1337/1918 and secured the sanad of graduation. During the 
course of education the teachers, because of his lineage, participated 
in teaching and training him on a high scale and in a special manner. 
The special sanad of Hadith he obtained from the most eminent ulema 
and teachers. The savant of the age, Maulana Muhammad Anwar Shah 
Kashmiri, was his special teacher in the Science of Hadith. In 1350/1931 
he received khilafat from Hazrat Thanvi. 

After graduation he started teaching in the Dar al-Ulum. Due to his 
own knowledge and learning, gcist, and ancestral relation and respecta- 
bility he soon won admiration in the students' circle. In early 1341/1924 
he was appointed pro-vice-chancellor, in which post, till early 1348/ 
1924, he kept taking part in the administrative affairs of the vice- 
chancellor's office, under the supervision of his august father and Maulana 
Habib al-Rahman. In the middle of 1348/1929, after Maulana Habib 
al-Rahman's demise, he was made vice-chancellor. In view of his precious 
experience, competency and ancestral lineage it had been proved that 
the capacity to run the Dar al-Ulum ran in his blood and was bred in his 
bones; accordingly, after becoming vice-chancellor, he very soon won 
popularity and greatness in the country due to his knowledge and learn- 
ing and family respectability and influence, which proved very advantage- 
ous to the fame and glory of the Dar al-Ulum. 

As such, the Dar al-Ulum has made remarkable progress during his 
vice-chancellorship. In 1348/1929, when he took the reins of administra- 
tion of the Dar al-Ulum into his hands, there were only eight administra- 
tive sections; now their number has reached 23. At that time the budget 
of annual income of the Dar al-Ulum was Rs. 50,262; now it has risen to 
Rs. 26,00,000. In 1348/1929, the staff of the employees in the Dar al- 
Ulum consisted of only 45 hands, which number has now gone upto 200. 
The magistral staff then consisted of only 18 teachers; now there are 59. 
The students' strength then was 480 and now it is nearly 2,000. 

Similarly there has beer addition to the buildings also: Dar al-Tafsir, 
Dar al-lfta, Dar al-Quran, Matbakh-e Jadid, Fauqani Dar al-Hadith, Balai 
Masjid, Bab al-Zahir, two-storeyed Jamia-e Tibbia Jadid, Dar al-lqama, 
the magnificent building of the Guest House, the long and wide halls of 
the library, Dar al-lqama Jadid, Afriqi Manzil, addition of three 
auditoriums near the kitchen; all these buildings have been constructed 
during his vice-chancellorship. Moreover, the room of the Chhatta 
Mosque where Hazrat Nanautavi used to teach and inculcate had become 
dilapidated due to ravages of time; so it was also rebuilt. 



177 

In short, every department of the Dar al-Ulum has made unusual prog- 
ress during his tenure of office. The administrative and consultative 
councils of the Dar al-Ulum, in connecion with the acknowledgement of 
his extrordinary services and as an expression of their appreciation, have, 
at different times, passed several resolutions. To keep the candle of the 
Dar al-Ulum alight he is still active in his old age like young men. 

Academically, besides teaching, he has got a natural endowment in 
the art of oratory and lecturing, a gift of the gab. Right from the student 
days his speeches in the public functions are being heard with eager- 
ness. Speaking on even the most important problems for two and three 
hours at a stretch he does not experience any interruption or difficulty. 
He has had special mastery in discoursing on the realities and mysteries 
of the Shari'ah and in making the subjects concise and compact. The 
modern educated class particularly enjoys his academic and philosophi- 
cal style of discourse,- his lectures are specially popular in Muslim 
University, Aligarh, and other universities, and some of his momentous 
lectures have already been published by the former. There is no region in 
the country where the echo of his speeches may not have reached. When 
his fluent and fascinating speech passes through the deep ocean of 
knowledge, the stillness of the waves is worth seeing. 

His presidential addresses in the annual sessions of the Jami'at 
al-Ulama have been highly valued; his academic lectures have created a 
particular circle of influence; and the effects of his elocution have also 
reached the academic circles outside India. In 1363/1934, during his 
journey to Hejaz, the speech he delivered as the leader of a dignified 
delegation of India in the court of Sultan Ibn Sa'ud, impressed the Sultan 
very much. Sultan Ibn Sa'ud honoured him with the award of a royal robe 
of honour and a gift of highly valuable books. 

His journey to Afghanistan in 1358/1939 is an independent history of 
academic services,- he had undertaken this journey as a representative of 
the Dar al-Ulum to forge educational and spiritual relations between the 
Dar al-Ulum and the government of Afghanistan. The academic circles of 
Afghanistan befittingly welcomed him. The government itself did him the 
honour of being his host. The educational and literary associations and 
government and non-government societies of Afghanistan invited him. 
The literary and academic circles there were very much impressed by his 
scholarly speeches. He has similarly toured foreign countries like Burma, 
South Africa, Zanzibar, Kenya, Rhodesia, Reunion, Madagascar, Ethiopia, 
Egypt, England, France, Germany, etc. 



178 



The fact is' that there are many charming facets of his fascinating 
personality: nobility and humanity, personification of modesty, purity of 
heart, knowledge and learning, oratory and art of public speaking, 
sermonizing and inculcation, simplicity and humility, philosophic eloqu- 
ence and succinctness while talking, in fine, his commanding and towering 
personality is an exquisite amalgamation of deeds and character, grandeur 
and elegance. 

Besides the administrative affairs of the Dar al-Ulum, the things he has 
had a natural interest in are education and teaching, missionary work and 
preaching. Due to these accomplishments he commands a pre-eminent 
position in the country. His zest for recreation consists in reading and 
writing books. This diversion of his always continues over and above the 
adminstrative affairs of the Dar al-Ulum and the quantum of teaching work, 
particularly so during the free hours in the course of a journey. When not 
out of station, that is, while residing at Deoband, there is almost daily a 
regular get-together of friends and scholars, between Asr and Maghrib, in 
the male parlour, where the topics of discussion are generally of an 
academic nature and interest. He has affinity with the art of poesy also; 
many of his poems have been published,- the title of the collection of his 
poetical compositions which too has been published is Irfan-e A'rif. 

Like his mastery in the art of elocution and oratory, he is also a 
profound, prolific and talented author; the number of his works is pretty 
large, some of which are named below : — 

■ Al-Tashabbuh fil-lslam, Mashahir-e Ummat, Kaiimat-e Tayyibat, Atyab 
al-Thamar fi Mas'alat al-Qaza wal-Qadar, Science Awr Islam, Ta'limat-e 
Islam Awr Masihi Aqwam, Mas'ala-e Zuban-e Urdu Hindustan Men, Din- 
o Siyasat, Asbab-e Urooj-o Zawal-e Aqwam, Islami Azadi ka Mukammal 
Program, Al-ljtehad wal-Taqlid, Usool-e Da'wat-e Islam, Islami Masawat, 
Tafsir-e Sura-e Fil, Fitri Hukumat, etc. 

8. ALLAMAH SHABBIR AHMED USMANI 1 

He was Maulana Fazl al-Rahman's eldest son. He was born on 10th 
Muharram, A. H. 1305/A. D. 1887, at Bijnor. At the age of seven he started 
reading the Holy Quran. The date of his admission in the Dar al-Ulum is 
10th Rabi al-Sani, A. H. 1319; of graduation, 1325/1907. He was one of the 
well-guided disciples of the Shaikh al-Hind and also owed allegiance to 

1. Maulana Usmani's chancellorship began in 1354/1935 and ended in 1362/1944, 
during this whole period Maulana Muhammad Tayyib was vice-chancellor as usual and, 
thank Allah, he is still functioning on this exalted station 



179 

him. After graduation he was appointed head-teacher in the Madrasa-e 
Fatehpuri at Delhi; from there he was called to the Dar al-Ulum in 1328/ 
1910. Here, for a long time, he taught books to the higher classes. Maulana 
Usmani's teaching of the Sahih-e Muslim was very famous, and he had a 
deep insight into Hazrat Nanautavi's sciences. After rendering teaching 
services in the Dar al-Ulum for a long time, in 1346/1928, due to certain 
differences with the authorities of the Dar al-Ulum, he, along with Maulana 
Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Maulana Mufti Aziz al-Rahman and some other 
gentlemen, went to Jamia-e Islamla, Dabhel (Dist. Surat). 

After Hazrat Shah Sahib's death, he was appointed Shaikh al-Hadith 
there in 1352/1933. In 1354/1935, at Hazrat Thanvi's and other elders' 
instruction he came back to the Dar al-Ulum and while maintaining his 
relation with Jamia-e Islamia, Dabhel, he continued to serve the Dar al- 
Ulum as its chancellor till 1362/1944. 

It will not be inapt here to reproduce that speech of Allamah Usmani 
which he had delivered at the time of his taking the reins of administration 
into his hands. In his speech he had explained, in a very subtle manner, 
the causes of his separation from the Dar al-Ulum in 1346/1928. Since the 
previous bitterness is excellently compensated by this speech, its requisite 
portions are reproduced here Allamah Usmani had stated in a very 
eloquent and pithy manner :— 

"This Dar al-Ulum is the benefactor (lit, patron) of all of us. All of us 
were born here; here we played, here we bounced and bounded, here 
we. learned to read and write, and here we taught; whatever we attained 
and learnt, it is due to this headspring of knowledge and gnosis only. 
This our Dar al-Ulum is indubitably a vast sea, a shoreless ocean of reality 
and divine knowledge. Its grace is current not only in India but wherever 
the sound of "Said Allah and Said the Apostle" is heard, it is also its 
resounding only, even as in the months of May and June the sea 
becomes hot due to the heat of the sun and heat is created in its heart, 
the air lifts up vapours from it and spreads them over the earth in the 
form of clouds, and these big and small pieces of clouds, rising from the 
Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea, burst in far off lands whereby the dead 
earth is revived and dead farms begin to bloom and become verdant. 

"But when there is billowing and agitation in the sea due to its 
boiling, some partial losses are also caused. As such, under such 
circumstances, life and wealth are also often lost. Sometimes huge ships 
too are involved in danger and some of them get drowned. And when 
those vapours, changing into clouds, spread over the earth, sometimes 



thunder and lightning are also produced in them which frighten the 
people and sometimes a bolt of lightning strikes someone. But inspite of 
all these losses those who have an eye upon Allah's mature wisdom under- 
stand that some absolute good too is surely going to appear from these 
losses, and though these losses are painful for the creatures and though 
this ferment and agitation of the sea puts man into distress, some great 
benefit and some provision of life for the creatures is to appear from the 
same losses. In short, the aftermath of all this process happens to be this 
that when the rain has rained down and the dead earth has received that 
much amount of water that it needs, the same rain water some of which is 
used up by the earth, ultimately passing through channels and rivers 
reaches to join its original headspring from which it had been produced 
and from which it had separated. 

"So understand it just like that that in accordance with the creative 
exigencies of the workers of destiny and fate, some time back a commotion 
of sorts, a heat had been created in the heart of the academic sea of the Dar 
al-Ulum, wherefore waves rose up and clashed with each other. During this 
spell of surging and commotion some losses were also caused but some 
waves and drops of this sea, forming into a cloud of mercy, went and rained 
over the land of Gujarat. Well, the mention of (insignificant) people like 
us apart, there is indeed no doubt at all regarding the savant of the time, 
Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri and Hazrat Maulana Mufti Aziz 
al-Rahman that they were clouds of mercy. By the light of the countenance 
of these savants the home of heretic innovations that was Gujarat, is today, 
thank Allah, resplendent with the light of the Quran and the Sunnah. The 
fanatical people of Gujarat used to consider it a great sin to shake hands 
with the Deobandi ulema and if someone did shake hands by mistake, it was 
thought necessary to wash the hands with soap, so much so that even a 
mosque had to be washed if per chance a Deobandi divine happened to 
say his prayer in it. But the same fanatics today— praise be to Allah — , 
as a result of the diffusion of the light of the Quran and the Sunnah in 
that region, pride themselves over doing even a menial service (lit, setting a 
pair of shoes in order for the wearing of any dignified person) to the truthful 
ulema; and now — thank Allah! — the very condition has been reversed. 

"Yearning for the annual function of our madrasah that is held in 
Dabhel, thousands of men await it eagerly throughout the year, counting 
the days on fingers as to when the function would be held and they would 
have the felicity of participating in it. In short, some of those big and small 
clouds which, breaking from their original source, had rained down on the 
land of Gujarat, got used up in the meanwhile, and some of them, passing 



181 

different periods, at last came back and joined their original headspring. 
My returning to the Dar al-Ulum now or the Dar al-Ulum's attracting me is 
of the same nature and relation as a drop has with the sea. So if a drop 
returned to its main spring, what wonder has the drop worked, what is its 
excellence therein? May Allah Most High bestow upon all of us the grace 
to compensate for the previous losses and redress our shortcomings. 

"you may understand the example of our returning to the Dar al-Ulum 
like the example of faith Oman) given in the noble hadith that when the 
snake slithers into its burrow, it shrinks, and faith too likewise would shrink 
in the last era and would return to its original tract, even as the snake 
returns to its hole. The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is a divine trust, a dear 
wealth of the Muslims. It has been raised with the bricks of piety, those 
who laid its foundation-stone were not members of the nobility and the 
affluent class; on the contrary its founders were a few pious souls, faqirs 
and saints. Hence it should be preserved on their principles and pattern 
only and all should in fact join hands to protect it". 

In respect of knowledge and learning, intelligence and acumen, 
statesmanship and reasonableness, Allamah Usmani was being reckoned 
amongst the few outstanding ulema of India. He had had equal mastery 
both in speech and writing (lit, tongue and pen). A high-ranking litterateur 
in Urdu and a master of spell-binding oratory, both his writings and 
speeches used to be unparalleled in respect of eloquence and succinct- 
ness, commonly-intelligible arguments, effective similes, style of expression 
and subtle points of wit and wisdom. Because of his having deep insight 
into the current affairs, his speeches used to be highly appreciated by the 
high and the low. The connoisseurs still cherish the memory of his eloquent, 
expressive and scholarly speeches in grand functions. It was Maulana 
Usmani who had received the honour of writing and reading out in the func- 
tion the last address Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind had delivered on the occasion of 
the founding of the Jamia-e Millia Islamia (Delhi), during his last days 

Mm al-Kalam, Al-Aql wal-Naql, Ijaz al-Quran, Hijab-e Shara'i, and 
Al-Shahab le-rajm al-Khatif al-Murtab, etc. are his monumental works. 
Maulana Usmani's exegetical marginalia on the translation of the Holy 
Quran by Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind are very famous. His valuable book entitled 
Fath al-Mulhim in the science of Hadith is, from the Hanafite point of 
view, the first commentary on the Sahih-e Muslim. This is such a magnum 
opus of his that it has familiarized his knowledge and learning in the whole 
Islamic world. 

In politics Maulana Usmani had from the very beginning joined the 
Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind and earlier he had been an important member of 



182 

the Khilafat Committee. In 1333/1914, during the Balkan war, he had 
participated very ardently in collecting funds for the Turks. Maulana 
Usmani remained a member of the executive council of the Jami'at al- 
Ulama-e Hind for a number of years, and was reckoned amongst the first 
class leaders of the said organization of the ulema. In the end, due to the 
question of one-nation theory, he dissented with the Jami'at al-Ulama and 
joined the Muslim League and, in 1365/1946, he was elected president of 
the Jami'at al-Ulama-e Islam. In 1946, when an election was held for the 
Indian Constituent Assembly, he was elected its member on behalf of the 
Muslim League from Bengal. After the partition of India, he was elected 
as a member of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly in his capacity as a 
representative of East Bengal. To participate in the session of the Pakistan 
Constitutent Assembly Maulana Usmani went to Pakistan before Ramazan, 
A. H. 1366/1947 and then stayed in Karachi foreover. Along with his 
membership of the Pakistan Constitutent Assembly he was also elected as 
the president of the Shara'i Dastur-saz Committee. In Pakistan he rendered 
many religious and national services; his academic and political services 
had a special impression on the highest authority of Pakistan. He enjoyed 
a great position particularly as a religious divine and thinker and along 
with his religious leadership, his political leadership was also 
acknowledged orr all hands. 

Jamia-e Abbasia, Bhawalpur, is an old seminary in Pakistan. Its educa- 
tional and administrative set-up had much deteriorated. So the Education 
Ministry of the Bhawalpur State requested Maulana Usmani to make it 
convenient to go to Bhawalpur and favour the state with his opinion as 
regards improvement and progress of the said seminary. Accordingly he 
went to Bhawalpur but hardly had he started consultations with the 
Ministry of Education there when suddenly, on 21st Safar, A. H. 1369/ 
1949, he, after a few hours' illness, passed away. His bier was taken from 
Bhawalpur to Karachi and his body was laid into the grave prepared near 
his residence on Muhammad AM Road. 

In a condolence meeting held in the Dar al-Ulum at Allamah Usmani's 
demise, Hazrat Maulana Madani said in his speech : "The late Maulana's 
personality was unique,- in knowledge and learning his rank was very high 
and he was one of the top-most ulema. Political differences were indeed 
there between us but they are at their place. The God-given mastery in 
writing and speech was the late Maulana's special feature and he was a 
repository of many other good qualities". 

THE EMINENT MUFTIS OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

It has already been mentioned in the foregone that at the time the 



183 

Dar al-Ulum was established, old religious schools in India had almost 
faded out of existence. After the tumultuous upheaval of 1857, a 
sufficiently large number of ulema was consigned to the rope and the 
gibbet, and some of the ulema, for their 'crime' of participation in the war 
of independence, were sentenced for life and sent to Andaman-Nicobar 
Islands. Some of them, eluding capture and imprisonment by the English, 
gave them the slip and migrated to other countries. The old generation of 
the remaining ulema was gradually coming to an end. Under such circums- 
tances those who could explain propositions were few and far between. 
However the people saw a ray of hope when the Dar al-Ulum came into 
being. The practice of the common run of Muslims with the Dar al-Ulum 
has always been such that whenever any problem arose in the country and 
the Muslims felt any difficulty, they have automatically looked up to the 
Dar al-Ulum. Accordingly, enquirers of propositions began to refer to it 
and hence the work of fetwa-writing, along with the work of teaching, is 
being done from the very inception. First of all Hazrat Maulana Muhammad 
yaqub Nanautavi who was principal in the Dar al-Ulum was rendering this 
service, which he continued from A. H. 1283 till before his death, that is, 
upto A H. 1301. After his demise this work was being taken from different 
teachers, and in this way this work went on till A. H. 1309. But when the 
number of queries reached an extraordinary limit, in A. H. 1310 a regular 
Dar al-lfta was established in the Dar al-Ulum, and Hazrat Maulana Mufti 
Aziz al-Rahman Deobandi was appointed on the post of mufti. The Dar 
al-lfta, besides guiding in religio-legal matters, is also a very forcefu 
means of rapport between the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and the common run 
of Muslims. The fetwas of the Dar al-Ulum have been highly esteemed in 
and outside the country,- besides the masses the law courts in the country 
also honour them and consider them decisive. The total number of fetwas 
issued from the Dar al-lfta from A. H. 1330 to A. H. 1396 is 4,39,336. 

1. MAULANA MUFTI AZIZ AL-RAHMAN 

The year of his birth is A. H. 1275 and the chronogrammatic name given 
him was Zafar al— Din. The name of his august father was Maulana Fazl 
al-Rahman. In the late A. H. 1284 when the class for reading the Holy Qu- 
ran was started in the Dar al-Ulum, he was admitted to this class for 
memorizing the Quran. In Sha'ban, A. H. 1285, he took the test for having 
committed half of the Quran to memory ' and in A. H. 1287 he memorized 
the entire Quran. The teacher of that class then was Hafiz Namdar Khan. In 



1. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, A. H. 1285, p. 14 

2. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, A. H. 1287, p. 13. 



184 

A. H. 1295 he took the examination for Bukharl Sharif, Muslim Sharif and 
Sharh-e Aqa'id and graduated from the Dar al-Ulum. The teachers of the 
Dar al-Ulum then were Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi, Hazrat 
Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Dehlavi, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind and Maulana Abd 
al-Ali (Allah's mercy be on all of them!). In the commencement function 
(Jalsa-e Dastar-bandi) of A. H. 1298, he was awarded the sanad and the 
turban at the hands of Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi. 

After graduation he worked for some time as an assistant teacher in the 
Dar al-Ulum, rendering at the same time the services of fetwa-writing 
under the supervision of the principal, Maulana Muhammad Yaqub. Then 
he was sent to Meerut, where, at Madrasa-e Islamia, Inderkot, he remained 
engaged in teaching for several years. In A. H. 1309 the elders of the Dar 
al-Ulum selected him for the post of the pro-vice-chancellor, and after 
one year he was also appointed as mufti and teacher. It is stated in the 
report for the year A. H. 1333 as follows:— 

"Maulavi Aziz al-Rahman, after graduation, worked as an assistant 
teacher in the Dar al-Ulum and also did the work of fetwa-writing under 
the supervision of Maulana Muhammad Yaqub. During this period there 
arose in him a desire for the mystical path and he vowed allegiance at the 
hands of Hazrat Maulana Rafi al— Din in the Naqshbandiyya order. After 
having completed austere practices (for self-culture) and exertions with 
the unregenerate soul (mujahadat) he received the 'permission' of the 
order. For some years he worked as teacher in Madrasa-e Islamia, situated 
at Inderkot, in Meerut. During that period he entertained a desire to go for 
pilgrimage. Along with hajj the other purpose in this journey was to stay in 
attendance on Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah (may his secret 
be sanctified!). As such, he spent one and a half years in this journey; and 
Hazrat Haji Sahib made him his "Majaz" (a disciple declared as competent 
to receive allegiance from aspirants). He had gone to Mecca in Shawwal, 
A. H. 1305 and returned in Safar, A. H. 1307. In A. H. 1309 he was called 
to Deoband from Meerut and since then he has been continually busy in 
serving the Dar al-Ulum. He is at present the mufti of the madrasah but 
some lessons of Hadith, Tafsir and Fiqh are also assigned to him 1 ". 

Mufti Sahib used to write the answers to very important and vexed 
questions (istafta) off-hand and spontaneously, without referring to books. 
For nearly forty years he rendered this great service of writing fetwas in the 
Dar al-lfta on behalf of the Dar al-Ulum. In this long period he wrote many 

1. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, A H 1333, p 19. 



185 

difficult fetwas which are not merely fetwas bit are of the nature of 
adjudgement in controversial cases, but he used to write the answers 
thereof in a few words only. The post of the Dar al-lfta used to be with 
him even during journeys and he used to write fetwas informally through 
sheer acumen, expertise and consummate ability. The explicit texts of Fiqh 
he mostly remembered by heart. A great peculiarity of his fetwas is that 
they are easily intelligible; the language of the fetwas is easy and fluent, a 
feature which is not to be found in the fetwas of this era. 

Among the religio-legal sciences, fetwa-writing is a very difficult task. 
The knowledgeable alone can appreciate the delicate points that crop up 
in this task due to change of circumstances. Ordinarily, fetwas have been 
written in every period but the consummate expertise possessed by Mufti 
Sahib has been shared by only three men in the Deobandi group: Maulana 
Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, Mufti Sahib himself and Maulana Mufti Kifayat 
Allah Dehelvi. It is regrettable that the record of those fetwas Mufti Sahib 
had written between A. H. 1310 and A. H. 1329 is not extant. A great 
peculiarity of his fetwa-writing was also this that he never overlooked the 
zeitgiest and the demands of the time of which he used to have a 
profound knowledge. If there could be two decidable aspects of a 
proposition (mas'ala), he would on such occasions always adopt the easy 
aspect and issue the fetwa on it only, never adopting that aspect which 
would create difficulties for the masses. Examples of this feature are 
present everywhere in his fetwas. 

The fetwas issued between A. H. 1330 and A. H. 1346 number 37,561. 
But among these also the record of some years has been lost. The afore- 
said number is that of the recorded fetwas only. According to a cursory 
estimate of Maulana Muhammad Tayyib, vice-chancellor, Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband.the number of Mufti Sahib's fetwas comes to the huge figure of 
nearly 1,18,000 1 .This prodigious output and achievement of Mufti Sahib is 
a great and glorious religious service. This characterstic feature of his 
fetwas also commands a great importance that, in and outside India, these 
fetwas were being considered decisive in the worldly dealings, devotions 
and beliefs of the Muslims. 

The fetwas written between A. H. 1330 to A. H. 1346, arranged in 
jurisprudential order, are being published by the Dar al-Ulum under the title 
Fatawa Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. Ten volumes have been published so far ; 
the last volume consists of the Kitab al-Tallaq ("The Book of Divorce"). 

1. Muqaddama-e Fatawa Dar al-Ulum, vol. i, p, 58 



This series of Fatawa will most probably be completed in 12 volumes, 
details of which have been given in the foregone. 

Mufti Sahib was not only a religious divine and mufti but also a gnostic 
and one of the great masters of the esoteric science. The practice of 
accepting allegiance and giving spiritual guidance was also constantly 
current; through his esoteric 'initiation' (talqin) and training thousands of 
the slaves of Allah benefitted and reached their goals. 

"Khatm-e Khwajagan" ("The Seal of the Masters") is one of the 
famous practices of the Naqshbandi order. This was recited every day 
regularly after the Fajr prayer in Mufti Sahib's Mosque (which is known as 
Chhoti Masjid in Deoband). 

Besides knowledge and practice, humility, self-effacement, self- 
suppression and self-obliteration constituted his special tenor, which 
used to appear even in small and minute details. A daily practice of his 
was that after the Asr prayer he would approach the doors of the houses 
near his locality (mohalla) and ask if anyone wanted to get any thing from 
the bazar. From within the houses someone would say: "Muftiji, bring 
chilies worth four paise for me"; a voice would say" Oil is required"; and 
another would say: "We need salt". 

Mufti Sahib then would take money from all, go to the bazar, buy the 
ordered commodity for each — salt for someone, chillies for another, 
coriander for still another — and tying all these things in the different 
corners of his large handkerchief would bring these himself. He never liked 
this burden to be shared by anyone else; sometimes he used to be bent 
by this load but under no circumstance he would tolerate to become light 
by entrusting it to someone else. Then he would personally go to each 
house and entrust the goods to all those who had ordered them. In this 
act of selflessness and service to the people he never imagined that he 
was doing a service or that it was some great action that was being done 
at his hands or that he was accomplishing some great work of selflessness. 

Academic minutiae during lessons were over and above these practical 
'strivings' (mujahadat). Along with fetwa-writing the work of teaching 
was done constantly. He used to teach higher lessons of Fiqh, Hadith 
and Tafsir. He would never adopt an assertive manner by ascribing great 
and important disquisitions, which used to be the product of his own 
acute mind, to himself. On the contrary, he would express it by way of a 
probability and say in the course of his lecture that "in this proposition 
one aspect can be this also". Though it used to be his own disquisitions, 



187 

he would never assert that "in this proposition my opinion and research is 
this". If it is pondered over, this position is so much more sublime and 
more delicate than this academic service and practical selflessness that 
everyone cannot aspire to reach it. One's own mind may present academic 
subtleties and yet this mind may never be brought to the fore; — of self- 
lessness and self-annihilation ('fana') it is the highest state or station which 
can be attained by only that person in whose veins and sinews humility 
and self-effacement may have permeated. 

Mufti Sahib had also resigned from the Dar al-Ulum along with Hazrat 
Anwar Shah Kashmiri. In A. H. 1347 when Shah Sahib, due to illness, came 
to Deoband from Dabhel, he had left fourteen portions of the Bukhari 
Sharif unfinished. At the insistence of the authorities of the Jamia-e 
Islamia, Dabhel, Mufti Sahib went to Dabhel in the middle of Rabi al-Sani, 
A. H. 1347, started the lessons and within the shortest possible time of 
one and a half months completed all the remaining fourteen portions! 

In the beginning of Jamadi al-Sani he returned to Deoband. En route he 
was feeling indisposed. Treatment began when he reached Deoband but 
the condition did not improve. The "promised hour" had come. At last, on 
the night of 17th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1347/A.D. 1928, he expired. Next 
day at 10-00 a. m. Maulana Sayyid Asghar Husain led the funeral service 
and at 11-00 a. m. he was laid to rest in the graveyard of the Dar al-Ulum. 

'May Allah make his grave fragrant and make paradise his resting-place'! 

He was a high-ranking personality amongst the matchless personalities 
possessing knowledge and practice, good morals and habits, gnosis and 
insight, and jurisprudential knowledge and understanding, appointed to 
grace the Dar al-lfta of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

9. HAZRAT MAULANA IZAZ ALI 

He was one of the most distinguished graduates of the Dar al-Ulum. 
After his graduation from it in A. H. 1321, Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind selected 
him for Madrasa-e Naumania, Pureni, District Bhagalpur (Bihar). Accord- 
ingly, he taught in that region for nearly seven years. Then he came to 
Shahjahanpur and established a madrasah under the name 'Afzal 
al-Madaris' in a mosque where he used to teach for the sake of Allah (i.e., 
without charging any fees or taking any remuneration). For nearly three 
years he taught very successfully in this madrasah. In A. H. 1330 he was 
appointed as a teacher in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and in the first year 



he was assigned elementary books of Arabic like 'Jim al-Sigha, Nur al- 
Ezah, etc. In the report for that period it has been stated about this 
Professor of Literature as under: — 

"Maulavi Izaz Ali is one of the middle graduates of the intermediate 
and the latter classes. He has been a teacher at some places. He is a 
young, talented, righteous and pious divine. In presence and character he 
is a relic of his ancestors. He has complete proficiency in different 
sciences; and great expertise particularly in the science of literature. 
Recently he has written a scholium on Himasa and is currently busy in 
margining the Kanz al-Daqa'iq, and earlier he had already written marginal 
notes on Divan-e Mutanabbi. He teaches in the middle classes of the Dar 
al-Ulum. Most of the lessons of the science of literature are handled by 
him. He also exercises the students in writing Arabic articles. He is an 
eloquent lecturer,- the students are very familiar with him". 

In A. H. 1340, when Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed, vice- 
chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was selected for the post of 
the Chief Mufti of the erstwhile Hyderabad State, he, on account of his 
old age, took Maulana Izaz Ali with him. There he stayed one year and 
came back with Hafiz Sahib to Deoband. In the vacancy of the Chief Mufti 
Maulana Aziz al-Rahman he was appointed as Chief Mufti of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, on which post he stayed in the Dar al-Ulum till his demise. 

Religious jurisprudence (Fiqh) and literature were his special fields. 
Initially when he came to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he had been assigned 
elementary books of Arabic, as stated earlier, but at last his teaching 
attained such popularity that he became famous by the title of "Shaikh 
al-Adab wal-Fiqh" (Professor of Literature & Jurisprudence"). In the last 
phase of his life he also taught for several years the second volume of the 
Tirmizi, as also higher books of Tafsir In Maulana Madani's absence he also 
had the chance many times of teaching the Bukhari Sharif also. In fine, he 
had had mastery over the books of all the disciplines — like the sciences 
of Fiqh, Hadith, Literature, Exegesis, etc. Along with teaching he had also 
had a special penchant for training and looking after the students,- a quality 
from which the students benefitted very much and his pupils still 
remember him for this. His punctuality was proverbial and in his punctual 
engagement of his classes he was sui generis,- so much so that some of the 
teachers of the Dar al-Ulum learnt the lesson of punctuality in attending 
their respective classes from this exemplary Professor of Literature 

From the very inception of teachership till his last breath he was 



189 

meticulously punctual in his work. He was a paragon of selflessness and 
humility. He would never feel ashamed of teaching the most elementary 
books along with the highest books; teaching Tirmizi and Bukhari (to 
higher classes), he would gladly teach Mizan al-Sarf, 'Mm al-Sigha, 
Nur al-Ezah, etc. to small children also. The most beloved student in 
his eyes would be one who devoted himself to studies with singleness 
of purpose and the most hated would be one who, engaging in non- 
educational pastimes, showed carelessness in studies, though such a 
student be his own offspring. 

Even as this professor of literature had great mastery in writing Arabic 
prose and poetry, he was equally highly proficient in composing Urdu 
prose and poetry also. He had a special style in Urdu prose. Though his 
hand was not quite legible, the style of writing was such that it looked 
pleasing to the eye. 

In accordance with the standard of the Nafahat al-yemen in the 
Arabic literature, he had compiled a book entitled Nafahat al-Arab (in 
Urdu), comprising historical anecdotes, fables and moral themes. This 
book became very popular in Arabic schools and as such was included 
in the syllabi of the Dar al-Ulum and many other madrasahs. Besides this, 
he has written many useful marginalia on Nur al-Ezah, Sharh-e Niqaya 
and Kanz al-Daqa'iq in Fiqh, and Divan-e Himasa and Divan-e 
Mutanabbi in Arabic literature, which are highly appreciated among the 
teachers as well as the taught. 

His ability in administrative matters too was acknowledged on all 
hands and his administrative know-how was often utilised in the manage- 
ment office also. In short, he was an incomparable teacher, an erudite 
religious divine and a versatile personality. The period of his academic 
services in the Dar al-Ulum extended over 44 years. 

He was entrusted with the post of Ifta twice: first time from A. H. 
1347 to A. H. 1348, and second time from A. H. 1364 to A. H. 1366. 
During the period of his presiding over this post of Ifta, 24,855 fetwas 
were written. He passed away from this mortal world in A. H. 1374. 

3. MAULANA MUFTI RIYAZ AL-DIN 

He was one of the disciples of Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind; he graduated 
from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 1330. He was a resident of Afzalgarh, Dist. 
Bijnor. After Mufti Aziz al-Rahman's resigning, he was entrusted with the 
services of the Dar al-lfta in the late A. H. 1347 on which post he served 
till the early A. H. 1350. During this period of more or less two years 



190 

nearly seven thousand queries (istafta'at) were answered from the Dar 
al-lfta. In Safar, A.H. 1350, he was transferred to the teaching department. 
He was a very virtuous and accommodating (maranjan maranj) man. He 
died on 22nd Zil-hijja, A.H. 1362, and lies buried in the Qasimi graveyard. 

4. MAULANA MUFTI MUHAMMAD SHAF'EE 

He was born in 1314/1896. Hazrat Gangohi proposed the name 
Muhammad Shaf'ee for him. Originally he belonged to Deoband. He 
prosecuted his studies in the Dar al-Ulum and graduated in A.H. 1336 at 
the age of 22 years. Thereafter, in A.H. 1337, he was appointed teacher in 
the primary class in the Dar al-Ulum but covering the stages of teaching 
quickly he soon joined the cadre of the teachers of the higher classes. He 
had had from the very beginning a natural affinity with Fiqh and Literature. 
In 1350/1922 he was appointed to the Mufti's post. In 1368/1949 he went 
away to Pakistan, where, as a member of the Board of Islamic Teachings in 
the Constituent Assembly, he helped in compiling the Islamic constitution. 
In 1951 he established a seminary under the name Dar al-Ulum at Karachi 
which is now an important and great centre of Islamic learning there. 

Mufti Sahib's knowledge was vast and profound and he possessed 
excellent ability in almost all the current scholastic disciplines. He is an 
author of many religious books : a stock of very useful books on Tafsir, 
Hadith, Fiqh and polemics has emanated from his pen. All his big and 
small books total upto nearly two hundred. Hundreds of his pupils and 
disciples are rendering religious services, besides the subcontinent, in 
various foreign countries. Initially he vowed allegiance to Hazrat Shaikh 
al-Hind; after the latter's demise, he resorted to Hazrat Thanvi and 
obtained khilafat from him. Simultaneously with the work of teaching religi- 
ous sciences and writing books on them, throughout his life he remained 
occupied in spiritual beneficence also. He had also had a taste for poetry; 
a collection of his Arabic, Persian and Urdu panegyrics, elegies and a 
number of poems has already been printed and published. In Pakistan he 
held the position of the Chief Mufti. 

Mufti Muhammad Shaf'ee discharged duties of the Dar al-lfta twice ; at 
first from A.H. 1350 to A.H. 1354 and then from A.H. 1359 to. A.H. 1361. 
During his tenure of office nearly 26,000 fetwas were written. 

A detailed account of him has already been given in Chapter IV. 

5. MAULANA MUFTI MUHAMMAD SAHOOL 

His native-place was Pureni, Dist. Bhagalpur (Bihar). Having taken 



191 

primary education at home, he joined Maulana Ashraf A'larrrs teaching 
circle in Bhagalpur. From there he went to Kanpur and studied under 
Hazrat Thanvi and Maulana Muhammad Ishaq Burdwani at Madrasa-e Jam'e 
al-Ulum, and then at Madrasa-e Faiz-e A'm under Maulana Muhammad 
Farouq Chiryakoti. The zest for the acquisition of knowledge then took him 
from Kanpur to Hyderabad; this journey he covered in two months — on 
foot! During his stay in Hyderabad he acquired the knowledge of logic, 
philosophy, astronomy, literature and Principles of Fiqh from Mufti Lutf 
Allah Aligarhi and Maulana Abd al-Wahhab Bihari. Reaching Delhi from 
Hyderabad, he attended lectures of Maulana Nazeer Husain,- in the end he 
took admission in the Dar al-Ulum and completed the study of Hadith 
under the instruction of the Shaikh al-Hind. After graduation he served as a 
teacher in the Dar al-Ulum for seven, eight years, and then as head teacher 
and Shaikh al-Hadith at Madrasa-e Azizia, Bihar Sharif, Madrasa-e A'liya, 
Calcutta; and Madrasa-e A'liya, Sylhet (Assam). In 1920 he was appointed 
as principal in Madrasa-e A'liya Shams al-Huda, Patna. in short, he taught 
for as many as 46 years in the great madrasahs of U.P., Bihar, Bengal and 
Assam. From A.H. 1350 to A.H. 1362 he was a member of the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum. He passed away on 27th Rajab, A.H. 1367/A.D. 
1948; his grave is in Pureni. 

Maulana Muhammad Sahool discharged the duties of the Chief Mufti in 
the Dar al-lfta for nearly three years — from A.H. 1355 to A.H. 1357. During 
his tenure, 15,185 fetwas were dispatched from the Dar al-lfta. 

6. MAULANA MUFTI KIFAYAT ALLAH GANGOHI 

He graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A.H. 1323 and rendered teaching 
services in various madrasahs. In the late A.H. 1356 he was selected for the 
Dar al-lfta of the Dar al-Ulum. Thereafter, in early A.H. 1359, he was trans- 
ferred to the teaching department, in A.H. 1363 he resigned from the Dar 
al-Ulum and went to Meerut, where he remained occupied in teaching. 
During his office, 5,840 fetwas were sent from the Dar al-lfta. 

7. MAULANA MUFTI MUHAMMAD FAROUQ AHMED 

He is the son of the famous divine and saintly person of the Deoband 
group, viz. Hazrat Maulana Siddiq Ahmed Anbahtavi. For a long time he 
rendered services of teaching and fetwa-writing in Jamia-e Abbasia, 
Bhawalpur. In the late A.H. 1362 he was appointed Chief Mufti in the Dar 
al-lfta, where he served in this capacity for more or less one year. In A.H. 
1363, pressure was brought upon Maulana Farouq Ahmed from the 
Ministry of Education of the Bhawalpur State to return to his previous 



192 

position at Bhawalpur. So he went there and was appointed Shaikh al- 
Hadith in the said Jamia-e Abbasia. Then he became principal in 
Madrasa-e Qasim al-Ulum, Faqirwali, Dist. Bhawalpur. In A.H. 1380, due to 
old age and weakness, he retired to his house and home. During his one- 
year tenure as many as 8,427 fetwas were written in the Dar al-Ulum. 

8. MAULANA MUFTI MAHDI HASAN 

His native-place is Shahjahanpur. He was born in A.H. 1301. He 
graduated from Madrasa-e Aminia, Delhi, in A.H. 1326, and was one of the 
distinguished pupils of Hazrat .'Maulana Mufti Kifayat Allah Dehelvi. He had 
also been awarded the "turban of proficiency" in the convocation held at 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in A.H. 1328. After his graduation, Mufti Sahib sent 
him to Madrasa-e Ashrafiya, Rander, Dist. Surat, where he spent a very long 
time in teaching and fetwa-writing. The people of Gujarat were highly 
impressed by his knowledge and learning. Besides having matchless 
expertise in the Hanafite jurisprudence, he had a profound insight in 
Hadith and Asma al-Rijal (the art determining the authenticity of the 
narrators of the prophetic Hadith). In A.H. 1367 he was appointed Chief 
Mufti of the Dar al-lfta at the Dar al-Ulum. Retiring in A.H. 1387 due to his 
long illness, old age and debility, from the Dar al-Ulum, he returned to his 
beloved home-town, Shahjahanpur 1 . 

1 According to the late Mufti Sahib's second son, Sayyid Muhammad Mian 
Shahjahanpuri, who often comes into contact with me at Surat and has been kind 
enough to supply some information to me regarding his august father, the date of Mufti 
Sahib's birth was 2nd May, 1882 (Rajab, AH. 1300). His father's name was Kazim Hasan 
and grandfather's, Fazl Allah- They belonged to a Sayyid family which had come to India 
during the Mughal emperor Shahjahan's time. He memorized the Quran and acquired the 
primary education of Urdu and Persian under the instruction of his father, Sayyid Kazim 
Hasan, and his own real brother, Maulavi Munshi Sayyid Sultan Hasan. In the primary 
stage of learning Arabic he was a student at Madrasa-e A'yn al-'llm at Shahjahanpur and 
for higher studies and graduation he went to Delhi and Deoband. He vowed allegiance 
to Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi at the instance of Hazrat Maulana Abd al-Raheem 
Raipuri under whose guidance he had traversed the mystic path (suluk). Hazrat flaipuri 
asked him to lead the prayers in his mosque at Raipur for fifteen days, then took him to 
Gangoh where also he was assigned the same duty for another fortnight and then was 
asked to vow allegiance to Hazrat Gangohi. 

He was a hafiz of Asma al-Rijal and had a jurisprudential insight in the science of 
Hadith. He was an Imam of his time of the Hanafite tack. Seeing Mufti Sahib's Hanafite 
sevices, Allama Kauthan, Shaikh al-lslam of Turkey during the last phase of the caliphate, 
had said : "On the Day of Judgement I will tell Imam Abu Hanifa that I also served the 
Hanafite tack but when I acquired academic information regarding Mufti Mahdi Hasan, I 
put down my pen for he is wortheir than me of this statement" 

According to Shaikh al-Hadith Maulana Fakhr al Din, Mufti Mahdi Hasan was a genius of 
his time. He had such mastery over the science of Hadith and the art of Asma al-Rijal that if 



193 

During his presiding over the Dar al-lfta, as many as 75,324 fetwas were 
issued from the Dar al-Ulum. Mufti Mahdi Hasan was an abstinent and pi- 
ous man, hospitable and generous, but at the same time he was very 
candid and fearless in speaking the truth. He had also had a taste for the 
art of poetry. His nom de plume was Azad. He was under allegiance to 
Hazrat Gangohi but received permission' and khilafat from Hazrat 
Gangohfs spiritual successor (khalifa), Maulana Shaf'ee al-Din Makki. 

Mufti Mahdi Hasan has been the author and compiler of many important 
books amongst which the Arabic commentary entitled Qala'id al-Azhaar 
on Ma'ani al-Athaar of Tahavi runs into six volumes. Two of these six 
volumes have been published. The first two volumes of Imam Muhammad's 
Kitab al-Hujja which is on Fiqh and is in four volumes has been published 

(foot-note continued from the previous page) 

any man read or recited a hadith or took the name of any narrator, he would fully explain it, 
quoting references with critical appreciation. He had such comprehensive grasp over the 
jurisprudential minutae that he used to answer queries without referring books and would 
quote actual passages and pages. In answering queries he would first adduce his argu- 
ments from the Quran, then from the Hadith and then from the consensus and then would 
write the decreed statement,couching the answer m such a way that it satisfied the querist 
fully. The answer used to have the tone and grade of a ruling. In modern-age propositions 
he would give references from the Hanafite Fiqh and remove complications. Hearing radio 
news from different provinces he would order to begin or not to begin fasting during the 
month of Ramazan. On vexed questions like the taking of loans from banks and cooperative 
societies and of insurance policies he had given permission nearly 35 years ago. He had 
also given the ruling of legitimacy for the profession of photography and those sciences in 
which photography is taught. Sometimes Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib himself would 
approach him personally to get the replies to intricate and involved questions, saying 
"your answers are reasonable and decisive". This is a great compliment indeed 

As a poet — and he was no ordinary poet — he was a disciple of an august and saintly 
elder of his own family, namely, Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmed Mian Bebaak, who, in his 
turn, was a disciple of the renowned Dagh Dehelvi. Mufti Sahib presided over many a 
poetic symposium held at Surat and Deoband, and trained many young poets in the art of 
poesy. Like leaving a number of poet-disciples, he has left behind many qualified muftis 
like Mufti Abd al-Rahman of Madrasa-e Abna, Mufti Aziz al-Rahman Bijnon, and Mufti 
Ahmed Ebrahim Bemaat, who is presently working as Shaikh al-Hadith and Mufti in Dar al- 
Ulum Falah-e Darayn, Tadkeshwar, Dist Surat. 

He has also left behind two sons. The elder son, Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Mian, Mufti of 
Nagpur, is a learned divine, having a deep insight in the Islamic sciences with a modern 
touch, and is especially influential in the modern-educated class of the city. The younger 
son, Sayyid Muhammad Mian, is also a learned man but he is more interested in the current 
politics of the country. 

Mufti Mahdi Hasan served for the edification of the Muslims of Gujarat at Rander for 42 
years. (May his soul rest in peace!) (Translator). 



194 

by the Da'irat al-Ma'arif with his emendation and marginal notes. It is a 
very rare book of which one Ms. was extant in Istanbul. It is one of the 
basic books of the Hanafite Fiqh. Mufti Sahib spent twenty years in the 
recension and marginal notes of this manuscript. His marginal notes on 
Imam Muhammad's Kitab al-Athaar are a valuable academic wealth. He 
had also written the commentary on Nakhbata al-Fikr but it has not been 
published so far. All these books are in the Arabic language. Besides 
these, he wrote more than two dozen treatises in Urdu but they also 
could not be published. 

Mufti Mahdi Hasan died in his native Shahjahanpur, on 28th Rabi 
al-Sani, A.H, 1396, after a long illness. 

9. MULANA MUFTI MAHMUD HASAN GANGOHI 

He was born in the beginning of Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1325, at 
Gangoh. He prosecuted his studies at Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. In A. H. 1351 he completed his study of Hadith in 
the Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur, and there itself, for nearly twenty years, 
he continued to render the services of fetwa-writing and teaching. Then, 
for nearly fourteen years, from A. H. 1371 to A. H. 1384, he graced the 
post of prmcipalship and fetwa-writing in Madrasa-e Jame'e al-Ulum, 
Kanpur, where there was a great impact of his knowledge and learning, 
abstinence and piety and saintliness upon the people. 

In A. H. 1385 he was selected for the post of Mufti in the Dar al-lfta 
of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, on which post he is still working. Besides 
fetwa-writing, he also teaches the second volume of the Sahih-c Bukhari 
to the students. 

He has not produced any independent book but his important fetwas 
have been published in different journals. Nizam, the monthly journal 
from Kanpur is being published under his patronage for a number of 
years. The style of writing in the fetwas is concise. 

Mufti Sahib has received khilafat and 'permission' from Hazrat Shaikh 
al— Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariya. His residence is always resonant 
with the 'remembrance' (zikr) of the 'remembrancers' (zakirin). He 
is very unassuming and hospitable; a man of vast reading, a regular 
'remembrancer', an 'occupied" (shaghil), large-heartd and generous 
august man. One is reminded of the ancient ulema on seeing him. An 
important peculiarity of his is also this that whatever salary he receives 



from the Dar al-Ulum, he not only returns it to the Dar al-Ulum every 
month but also adds something to it from his own pocket; this practice 
of his is current still. 

10. MAULANA MUFTI NIZAM AL-DIN 

He was born in A.H. 1328 at his native-place, Ondra, Dist. Azamgarh. 
He received primary education in the local schools and then studied in 
Madrasa-e Ihya al-Ulum, Mubarakpur (Azamgarh). Thereafter, he read upto 
the intermediate classes in Madrasa-e Azizia, Bihar Sharif, and Madrasa-e 
A'liya, Masjid Fatehpuri, Delhi. In the end he took admission in the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, and completed the Daura-e Hadith in A.H. 1352. 

At first he rendered teaching service in Madrasa-e Jam'e al-Ulum, 
Jatinpur (Azamgarh) and in Gorakhpur, and then was appointed in 
Madrasa-e Dar al-Ulum, Mau Nath Bhanjan, on the post of teacher and 
fetwa-writer. In A.H. 1385, on the call of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he 
came to Deoband and was entrusted with the post of Ifta, which he still 
occupies. He has got a good knack of fetwa-writing,- his answers to the 
queries are detailed. Most of his important fetwas are being published in 
the journal Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

, He has had the honour of vowing allegiance to and receiving khilafat 
from Hazrat Shah Vasi Allah (may his secret be sanctified!). Simplicity 
and dignity are conspicuous in his disposition. 



THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN THE DAR AL-ULUM 

Before describing the curriculum of the Dar al-Ulum it will be apt to 
relate a short history of the syllabi of Arabic sciences so that the academic 
tendencies, right from the first decade of Islam to the present day, may be 
briefly estimated. 

In the prophetic era education began with the Holy Quran. During the 
caliphate of Hazrat Umar special arrangement was made, along with the 
teaching of the Quran, for the teaching and learning, and dissemination 
and publication of the Hadith lore also. As time rolled on and educational 
needs multiplied, as per necessity, disciplines also continued to be ad- 
ded. Till the middle of the second century- hijri, arts and sciences were 
restricted to the Quran, Hadith, Fiqh and the Arabic poetry. Thereafter, till 
the end of the fourth century hijri, which is called the age of invention and 
redaction, the invention of different arts and sciences and their translations 
came into being along with civilisational growth and progress, and as per 
necessity some arts also began to be taught. As such, Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, 
Principles of Fiqh, Grammar and Syntax, Lexicon, Arabic poetry and History 
were considered the subjects for scholastic education of that period. 
Medicine, Astrology, Astronomy and some other Greek sciences can also 
be added to this syllabi. 

Between the fifth and the seventh century hijri the science of Dialectics 
or Scholastic Theology was established through Imam Ghazali and for the 
support of which, besides the afore-said sciences, noetic sciences like 
Logic, Philosophy, etc. also became a necessary ingredient in the 
curriculum of the Islamic schools and universities. 

Though these sciences were current, more or less, in all the Islamic 
lands, nevertheless the impact of national, local and ethnic peculiarities 
was inevitable in different countries. Since Arab families had settled in 
countries like Egypt, Syria, etc. in great numbers, giving predominance to 
Arab leanings in these countries, sciences like Tafsir, Hadith and Asma 
al-Rijal were comparatively paid more heed to. In Andalusia (Spam), litera- 
ture, poetry and history had acquired great ascendency. In Iran, logic 
and philosophy were predominant, and in Khurasan and Transoxiana, 
Fiqh, Principles of Riqh and Tasawwuf were more in the vogue. At the 
same time, however, due to influences of the milieu and demands of the 
environs, the process of change and alteration in the syllabi has often 
taken place in different periods in one and the same country. 



197 

Althoush the Muslims had reached India in the very first century hijri 
and a pretty good increase took place in their number in the beginning of 
the fifth century hijri, that is, during Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi's period, 
when, besides Sind, the area of the Punjab too had been included in the 
Islamic dominions, the period of their real influence begins from the 
beginning of seventh century hijri, that is, from the regime of Sultan Shahab 
al-Din Ghuri (597/1191 - 602/1205). It was that period when in Khurasan, 
Transoxiana, etc., though, along with Tafsir and Hadith, Grammar and 
Syntax, Rhetorics and Literature, Jurisprudence, Logic, Scholastic Theology 
and Tasawwuf were being considered the standard learning, Jurisprudence 
and the Principles of Jurisprudence held higher importance. The Muslims 
that had come to India had mostly come from these very countries, and, 
naturally therefore, the coming of their leanings too was inevitable. As 
such, all these sciences were included and were a part and parcel of the 
syllabi of this era in India. 

Maulana Hakim Sayyid Abd al-Hayy Lakhnavi has fixed the following 
four periods of the old Indian curriculum: — 

FIRST PERIOD 

Its beginning should be taken from the seventh century hijri and its end 
in the tenth at a time when the second period had begun. For more or less 
two hundred years the acquirement of the following disciplines was 
considered the standard of learning: — 

Grammar, Syntax, Literature, Rhetorics, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh, Logic, 
Scholastic Theology, Tasawwuf, Tafsir and Hadith. 

In Grammar, Misbah, Kafia, Lubb al-Albab by Qazi Nasir al-Din, and 
Irshad by Qazi Shahab al-Din Daulatabadi. 

In Fiqh, Hedaya, in Principles of Fiqh, Manar and its commentaries, and 
Usul-e Bezoodi. 

In Tafsir, Mudarik, Baizavi and Kashshaf. 

In Tasawwuf, Awarif, Fusus al-Hikam, and after a long time, Naqd al- 
Nasus and Lama'at had also come into vogue in those madrasahs which 
were attached to hospices. 

In Hadith, Mashariq al-Anwar and Misbah al-Sunnah (i.e., the text of 
the Mishkat al-Masabih). 



198 

In Literature, Maqamat-e Hariri used to be committed to memory. It 
appears from Hazrat Nizam aJ— Din Awlia's discourses (malfuzat) that he 
had read the Maqamat under the instruction of Shams al-Din Khwarazmi 
and had memorized forty maqamas. 

In Logic, Sharh-e Shamsiah. 

In Scholastic Theology, Sharh-e Saha'if, and at some places, Tamhid-e 
Abu Shaleoor Salimi. 

It appears from the particulars of the ulema of this class that Fiqh and 
Usul-e Fiqh were considered the highest criterion of learning and merit in 
their period. In Hadith the study of Mashariq al-Anwar alone was con- 
sidered sufficient, and for more understanding and expertise in Hadith 
the Masabih was the ultimate. 

The peculiarities that are seen in the curriculim of this period were 
the result of the effective taste of the conquerors of India. The people 
who laid the throne of Islamic state in India had come from Ghazni and 
Ghur. These were those places where proficiency in Fiqh and Usool-e 
Fiqh was considered a diploma of distinction; the rank of jurisprudential 
traditions in these countries was very high. 

SECOND PERIOD 

In the late ninth century hijri, Shaikh Abd Allah and Shaikh Aziz Allah, 
in order to elevate the previous standard somewhat, introduced Qazi 
'Adad's books, Matal'e and Mawaqif, and Sukaki's Miftah al-Ulum in the 
syllabi. As regards the particulars of the afore-said august men, Badauni 
has stated: — 

"Both these respectable men came to India (Hindustan) at the time of 
the devastation of Multan. They brought rational sciences into vogue in 
that land; earlier than this, in logic and scholastic theology nothing but 
Sharh-e Shamsiah and Sharh-e Saha'if was current" 1 . 

In this period Mir Sayyid Sharif's disciples brought Sharh-e Matal'e 
and Sharh-e Mawaqif into vogue and Tafta Zani's disciples con- 
ventionalized Mutawwal, Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani, Takveeh and Sharh-e 
'Aqa'id-e Nasafi. 

1. Muntakhab al-Tawarikh-e Badauni, p.86. 



Moreover, in this period Sharh-e Waqaya and Sharh-c Jami were also 
introduced in the syllabus. 

In the end of this period Shaikh Abd al-Haq Muhaddith Dehelvi, having 
studied the science of Hadith under the instruction of the ulema of the 
two holy cities (Mecca and Madina), tried to encourage and bring into 
limelight the study of the science of Hadith. After him his son, Shaikh Nur 
al-Haq, also tried to spread the study of Hadith but did not meet with 



If the above-mentioned books of this period, i.e., Matal'e and Mawaqif, 
and their commentaries — Mutawwal, Mukhtasar, Talweeh, Sharh-e 
'Aqa'id-e Nasfi, Sharh-e Waqaya, Sharh-e Jami — are added to the list 
of the books given in the First Period, the list of the syllabus of the second 
period can be easily prepared. 

It appears from the chronicles of the eminent ulema of this period that 
even as Sadra and Shams-e Bazigha are held to be the ultimate books in 
our own time, Sukaki's Miftah al-Ulum and Qazi 'Adad's Matal'e and 
Mawaqif were considered the ultimate books in their period. Badauni, 
while writing the chronicles of the ulema of this era, has hinted at this here 
and there. 

THIRD PERIOD 

The people's aspirations had increased due to the change that took 
place in the syllabus of the second period and now they were wishing to 
raise the standard of proficiency still further.Mir Fath Allah came to India 
from Shiraz. Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomed him by awarding him the 
title of 'Adad al-Mulk. He made some new additions to the previous syl- 
labi which the ulema readily accepted. In his Ma'athir al-Karam, Mir 
Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami writes:— 

"He (Mir Fath Allah Shirazi) brought the works of the latter ulema of the 
Vilayat (Persia) like Muhaqqiq Dawwani, Mir Sadr al— Din, Mir Ghiyas al— Din 
Mansoor, and Mirza Jan Mir, to India and introudced them into the circle 
of study, and a large crowd of attendants derived benefit from the Mir's 
assembly; and from that time the rational sciences got a new currency". 1 

Hazrat Shah Wali Allah who was the last but the most illustrious divine of 
this era has given his syllabus in his Al-Juz al-Latif in the following order: — 

1. Ma'athir al-Karam, p. 238. 



200 

Syntax : Kafia, Sharh-e Jami. 

Logic : Sharh-e Shamsiah, Sharh-e Matal'e. 

Philosophy : Sharh-e Hedayat al-Hikmah. 

Scholastic Theology: Sharh-e 'Aqa'id-e Nasafi with Hashhia-e 
Khiyali, Sharh-e Mawaqif. 

Fiqh : Sharh-e Waqaya, Hedaya (Complete). 

Usool-e Fiqh : Husami and something of Tauzih-Talvih. 

Rhetorics : Mukhtasar and Mutawwal. 

Astronomy & Arithmetic : some brief treatises. 

Medicine : Mu'ajjaz al-Qanoon. 

Hadith : Mishkat al-Masabih, Shama'il-e Tirmizi, and some portion of 
the Sahih-e Bukhari. 

Tafsir (Exegesis) : Mudarik and Baizavi. 

Tasawwuf & Suluk : 'Awarif and Rasa'il-e Naqshbandiyya, Sharh-e 
Rubayyat-e Jami, Muqaddama-e Sharh-e Lama'at, Muqaddama-e Naqd 
al-Nasus. 

After having studied this syllabus, Hazrat Shah Sahib went to the holy 
cities (Mecca and Madina) and, sojourning there for fourteen months, he 
completed the study of the science of Hadith under the instruction of 
Shaikh Abu Tahir Kurdi. On returning to India he disseminated it so assidu- 
ously that the effects thereof are still extant. Hazrat Shah Wali Allah and his 
able sons and descendants, by their effort and endeavour, made the 
teaching and imparting of the Sihah Sitta an integral part of the syllabus. 

Shah Sahib had structured a new course of study also. But in those 
days the centre of gravity of knowledge had shifted from Delhi to 
Lucknow. Moreover, the new relation that had developed with Iran during 
the period of Humayun and Akbar had gradually produced a new change 
in the academic taste in India. Through the influence of the Iranian nobles 
and ulema of the Mughal Court, Logic and Philosophy, which were ab 
initio considered the highest criterion of learning in Iran, were gaining 
superiority, slowly but steadily, over other sciences; and hence Shah 
Sahib's restructuring of the course could not gain general popularity. 

FOURTH PERIOD 

The fourth period began from the twelfth century hijri. Its founder was 
Mulla Nizam al-Din Sahalvi, who was contemporary of Hazrat Shah Wali 
Allah. The curriculum known as "Dars-e Nizami", which is current today 
in all the Arabic schools, is a relic from him. Adding something more to 
the syllabi of the third period, Mulia Nizam al-Din prepared the following 
syllabus : — 



Conjugation (Sarf) : Mizan, Munsha'ab, Sarf-e Mir, Panj Ganj, Zubda, 
Fusul-e Akbari, Shafiah 

Syntax (Nahv) : Nahv-e Mir, Sharh-e Mi'ata Amil, Hedayat al-Nahv, 
Kafia, Sharh-e Jami. 

Logic : Sughra, Kubra, Aisaghoji, Tehzib, Sharh-e Tehzib, Qutbi, Mir 
Qutbi, Sallam al-Ulum. 

Philosophy: Mebazi, Sadra, Shams-e Bazigha. 

Arithmetic & Astronomy : Khulasat al-Hisab, Tehrir-e Uqlidas 
(Discourse I), Tashrih al-Aflaak, Risala-e 
Qaushjia, Sharh-e Chaghmini (Chapter I). 

Rhetorics : Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani, Mutawwal (upto Ma Ana Qalat). 

Fiqh : Sharh-e Waqaya (Awwalin), Hedaya (Akhirin). 

Usool-e Fiqh : Nur al-Anwar, Tauzih-Talvih, Musallim al-Suboot. 

Scholastic Theology : Sharh-e 'Aqa'id-e Nasafi, Sharh-e 'Aqa'id-e 
Jalali, Mir Zahid, Sharh-e Mawaqif 

Tafsir: Jalalayn Sharif, Baizavi (Sura-e Baqrah). 

Hadith : Mishkat al-Masabih. 

The great peculiarity of this syllabus is that more attention has been 
paid in it to the creation of depth of insight and power of reading in the 
student, and although immediately after the completion of this course 
proficiency is not acquired in any particular subject, this much ability is 
surely created that, through one's own independent reading and labour, 
one may acquire proficiency in any subject of one's liking. The standard 
of Hadith and Tafsir in this course too is not much high, and of literature 
there is included no book at all. 

In the middle of the thirteenth century hijri there were three centres 
of thought of education in India: Delhi, Lucknow and Khairabad. Though 
the syllabi of the three were somewhat common, the points of view of all 
the three were different. More attention was being paid to Hadith and 
Tafsir in Delhi. Hazrat Shah Wali Allah's family was assiduously busy in the 
dissemination and teaching of the Book and the sunnah, and the noetics 
were of a secondary position. In Lucknow the old seventh-century-hijri 
tenor was dominant over the ulema of Farangimahah Fiqh and Principles 
of Fiqh had had more importance in their centre. In Tafsir, Jalalayn 
and Baizavi, and in Hadith, Mishkat al-Masabih alone, were considered 



202 

sufficient. The academic subjet at the Khairabad centre was virtually 
restricted to logic and philosophy; these subjects were taught with such 
care and assuduity that the teaching of all other sciences had almost 
become eclipsed before them. 

THE CURRICULUM OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

In the second half of the thirteenth century hijri the educational 
centrality of Delhi and Khairabad had come to an end; however, some 
light of knowledge was still lingering in Lucknow. Although the centrality 
of these places had ended, the distinctive peculiarities of all these 
three centres were extant, more or less, in all the Arabic schools of 
India. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has not only preserved the greatness of 
these sciences but has also played an important role in developing 
them. The peculiarities of all these three places have been gathered in 
the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum, and the syllabus thus prepared with 
their amalgamation has been in force generally for more or less, a 
century in all the Arabic schools in the country. At some places other 
modern syllabi are also current. Amongst such seminaries the position of 
Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow, is most conspicuous, but this type of 
syllabus is not very common. 

Inspite of the afore-said comprehensiveness of the syllabus of 
the Dar al-Ulum, even as changes and alterations have taken place in the 
syllabi in every period as per the demands of the age, similar elimination 
and addition has been done, in accordance with the Zeitgeist, from time 
to time, in the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum also, in which, along with the 
religious sciences, contemporary sciences and economic necessities too, 
on the whole, have been paid attention to, endeavouring to make it more 
and more useful. 

The present syllabus consists of four stages: Primary, Middle, High, 
Mastery (Post-graduate stage! 

The post-graduate class is not compulsory; if the student wants to 
■acquire mastery in any subject or topic, he can take admission in the 
post-graduate class and continue his education. 

The curriculum of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, as detailed below, 
consists of the following arts and sciences and books: — 



THE EIGHT-YEAR COURSE OF THE ARABIC CLASSES 



Conjugation — Grammer : Arabic Primer; Mizan al-Sarf and Munsha'ab 



(Sarf) 
Syntax (Nahv) : 

Arabic Literature : 



Logic : 

Chirography = 
(Khush-navisi) 

Cantillation : 
(Tajvid) 



(complete); Panj Ganj (complete). 

Memorizing of Nahv-e Mir (compl.); Sharh-e 

Mi'ata A'mil (compl). 

Rauzat al-Adab (omitting Bab al-Makateeb); 

Insha-e Arabi (Prose); 

Arabi ka Mu'allim (Parts I & II). 

Taiseer al-Mantiq. 

Correct writing and Dictation. 



Exercise in cantillation in the first quarter of 
the Para-e Amm and Traditional Invocations. 



SECOND YEAR 



Subject 



Jurisprudence : Nur al-Ezah (compl.); Qaduri (upto Kitab al-Hajj). 

(Fiqh) 

Syntax : Hedayat al-Nahv (compl.); Al-Nahv al-Wazeh 

(Elementary Part I). 

Conjugation : 'llm al-Sigha (upto Khasiyyat); Fusool-e Akbari 

(from Khasiyyat). 

Arabic Literature ; Nafahat al-Adab (compl.); Tamrin-e Arabi. 

Logic : Mirqat and Tehzib. 

Cantillation : Exercise in the last one-third of the Para-e Amm 

with memorising. Jamal al-Quran (compl.). 

Chirography : Correct writing and Dictation. 



Quranic Exegesis : 
((Tafsir) 

Jurisprudence : 

Syntax = 

Arabic Literature : 
Logic : 



Tarjumat al-Quran (Sura-e Baqrah). 



Qaduri (from Kitab al-Buyu till the end). 



Ibn Aqeel (upto 300 pages), Sharh-e Jami 

(Verb and Particle). 



Nafahat al-Arab (Prose). 



Sharh-e Tehzib (upto Zabita); Qutbi 
(Tasdiqaat). 

Hadith : Mishkat al-Athaar. 

Contemporary Subjects : (A) (1) Tarikh-e Hind (from the regime of 
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi till A.D. 1947. 

(2) Tarikh-e Islam (Khulafa-e Rashidin, Bani 
Umayya, Bani Abbas; Tarikh-e Saltanat-e 
Turki) 

(3) Municipalities (Elementary Civics). 

(B) (1) Geography of the Arab Peninsula and 
other Islamic countries. 
(2) World Geography (Regionwise). 



FOURTH YEAR 



Subject 



Quranic Exegesis : 
Jurisprudence : 



Tarjumat al-Quran (from Sura-e Aal-e Imran upto 
Sura-e Mariam). 



Kanz al-Daqa'iq (upto Kitab al-Nikah); 
Sharh-e Waqaya, vol. ii (upto Kitab al-'ltaq). 



Principles of 
Jurisprudence 



Usool al-Shashi (compl). 



Logic : 
Philosophy : 
Hadith : 



Books 

Mukhtasar al-Ma'ani (upto the end of the 
second subject); Talkhis al-Miftah (only the third 
subject). 

Sallam al-Ulum (upto the end of Tasawwurat). 

Hadya-e Sa'eed (First half). 

Alfiyat al-Hadith. 



(Contemporary) Modern (A) (1) General Science (Elementary Chemistry, 
Sciences: Physics, Zoology, Botany — all theoretical); 

Principles of Hygiene. 

(B) (1) Some Essential Chapters of 
the Constitution of India. 

(2) Elementary Economics. 

(3) The Theories and Biographies of 
Some Modern Philosophers. 



FIFTH YEAR 



Jurisprudence : 

Arabic Literature : 

Logic : . 

Principles of 
Jurisprudence : 

Beliefs CAqa'id) 

Rhetorics : 



Hedaya : First Quarter, 

Second Quarter. 

Maqamat-e Hariri (10 Maqalas). 

Mulla Hasan (upto Jins). 

Nur al-Anwar (upto Qiyas) 
'Aqidat al-Tahavi (compl.) 
Al-Balaghat al-Wazeha. 



Subject 



Tafsir : 

Usool-e Tafsir ; 
Usool-e Fiqh : 
Philosophy : 
Arabic Literature : 



Two Hours Daily. 



Jalalayn Sharif (compl.) 

Al-Fawz al-Kabir (compl). 
Husami (compl). 
Mebazi (compl.). 



Divan-e Mutanabbi (upto the end of 

the rhyme Dal); Tamrin-e Arabi (Arabic 

Exercises); 

Insha-e Muhadatha (Colloquial Prose); 

Cantillation or Chirosraphy. 



SEVENTH YEAR 



Subject 



Fiqh: 

'Aqa'id wa Kalam : 

Tafsir: 

Hadith : 
Usool-e Hadith : 

Fara'iz : 

Optional Subjects ; 
Usool-e Tafsir : 
Usool-e Hadith ; 



Hedaya (last portion): Daily Two Hours. 
Sharh-e 'Aqa'id-e Nasafi (compl. ). 



Baizavi (one and a quarter portion 
of Sura-e Baqrah). 



Mishkat Sharif (compl). 



Sharh-e Nakhbat al-Fikr (compl.) 
(Two Hours Daily) 



Siraji (compl). 



Talkhis al-ltqan. 
Muqaddama-e Ibn Salah. 



Subject Books 

Kalam : Masamarah. 

Logic : Hamd Allah. 

Literature : Divan-e Himasa (Bab al-Aclab wal-Himasa) 

Al-Nathr al-Jadid. 

EIGHTH YEAR 
DAURA-E HADITH 

Subject Books 

Hadith : Bukhari Sharif (compl.).; 

Muslim Sharif (compl.). 
Tirmizi Sharif (compl.).; 
Abu Da'ud Sharif (compl.) 
Nasa'i Sharif, 
Ibn Maja Sharif, 
Tahavi Sharif 
Shama'il-e Tirmizi Sharif. 
Mu'attaayn (The Two Mu'attas). 

POST-GRADUATE CLASSES 

Completion (Mastery) in Tafsir 



Tafsir-e Mudarik : Para I 5 
Tafsir-e Mudarik: Para 6 — 10 
Tafsir-e Mazhari : Para 11 — 15 



Subject 



Books 

Tafsir-e Mazhari : Para 16- 

Tafsir-e Baizavi : Para 21 - 

Tafsir-e Baizavi : Para 26- 
Talkhis al-ltqan. 



Mastery in Theology 



Hikmat-e Shariyah = 
(Religious Philosophy) 

Munazira : 
(Polemics) 

Fiqh: 

Usool-e Fiqh : 

Usool-e Hadith : 

Hadith & Fiqh: 



Tafsir-e Ibn Kathir (Sura-e Baqrah & Aal-e 
Imran). 

Hujjat Allahil Baligha 

Rasheediyah. 

Al-lshbah wal-Naza'ir (upto subject I). 

Tauzih Talwih. 

Muqaddama-e Ibn Salah. 

Muqaddama-e Fath al-Bari, Be< 

al-Mujtahid; Tadrib al-Ravi 



Mastery in Literature 



Subject 



Divan-e Hassan bin Thabit 

Sab'a Mu'allaqa (upto three poems). 



Asalib aUnsha. 
Jara'id wa Rasa'il 



Mastery in Literature (contd.) 



Subject 



History of 

Literature : Tarikh al-Adab al-Arabi. 

Insha (Belles-Letters) : Maqalat-e Arabi. 

General Reading : Hayati by Ahmed Amin; Al-Ayyam by Dr. Taha 

Husain, "Ibraat by Manfaluti; 'Abqariyaat by 
Mahmud 'Iqaar. 



Mastery in Noetics 



Subject 



Books 



Rational Sciences : 



Qazi Mubarak (upto Ummahat al-Matalib). 

Hamd Allah (upto Shartiyaat). 

Sadra (upto the discussion on physical forms), 

Shams-e Bazigha (upta the discussion on 
Makan— p. 40). 

Sharh-e 'Aqaid-e Jalali (upto the 
discussion on Asian —p. 72). 

Musallim al-Thubut (4 chapters). 



General Reading 



Muqaddama-e Ibn Khaldun. 
Risala-e Hameediya. 



210 

After the successful completion of this 8-year course of the Arabic 
classes the student becomes eligible for receiving the graduate degree 
(Sanad-e Faraghat) of the Dar al-Ulum. 

PRIMARY CLASSES 

According to the rules of the Dar al-Ulum, the completion of the 
following primary course is necessary for reaching the said "Arabic 
Classes" r — 

The Quran Class: (1) First of all it is necessasary to be able to read 
at least the Holy Quran. Before the reading of the Quran generally the 
primer which is known as Qa'ida-e Baghdadi is taught. The acquiring of 
the ability to read Quran takes more or less two years. 

The estimate of this period is for those small children who may have 
been started to read at the age of five years and may have average 
intelligence; otherwise intelligent children can complete the reading of 
the Quran even in less time. 

The period of committing the Holy Quran to memory is more or less 
three years. 

(2) After completing the Quran the learning of Urdu and Persian is 
also necessary, but the Department of Cantillation is also there for those 
children who wish to be trained in Cantillation and Orthoepy after 
having memorized the Quran. 

The Cantillation Class: In the course of this class, along with the 
practice of cantillation and orthoepy, the following books are also 
taught :- 

Jamal al-Quran, Ma'rifat al-Waqoof, Fawa'id-e Makkia, Shatibia, 
Rai'yya, Tayyiba. 

This is a 2-year course. It has been made compulsory for every 
student of the Arabic class that, along with other lessons, he should 
take admission for one period in this department and should practise to 
read at least the Para-e Amm with cantillation. 

Urdu Diniyaat (Theology in Urdu):— (3) Next to the Holy Quran class 
is the department of Urdu Diniyaat in which, besides the teaching of 
Theology in the Urdu language. Arithmetic and other subjects are also 
taught. The couse of this department is spread over four years. 



211 

The Persian Class— (4) 'Next to the Urdu Diniyaat department is the 
Department of Persian in which primary books of Persian Prose and Poetry, 
Arithmetic, Geography, Hindi and Arabic Grammar are included in the 
course. This department also consists of four classes. 

Over and above the primary classes the classes for practice and teach- 
ing are as follows : — 

Modern Sciences: — (1) One department is for modern sciences, in 
which English language and contemporary sciences are taught. The course 
of this department is of one year. 

Practice of Fetwa-writing (Ifta) : — There is a department for the 
practice of fetwa-writing also for those who may have graduated in the 
Daura-e Hadith. The period of training of this too is one year. 

Jamia-e Tibbia : — (2) An educational department of the Dar al-Ulum 
is Jamia-e Tibbia also in which graduates of the Daura-e Hadith can take 
admission. Its course of study extends over four years and its syllabus 
consists of books of the Unani system of medicine as well as books of 
allopathy. 

Department of Chirography or Calligraphy: — (3) Graduates of the 
Daura-e Hadith can take admission in this department also. The period of 
practice here is one year. This department also renders the service of 
correcting and improving the handwriting of the students of the Arabic 
classes. 

THE REMOVAL OF A DOUBT 

On seeing this syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum the question arises : 'Why 
were not the modern sciences which had already reached India at the 
time this syllabus was compiled included in it'? The reason for this non- 
inclusion, according to Hazrat Nanautavi, was that these subjects were 
being taught in the government schools that had been established in the 
country at various places and everyone could take advantage of these. 
On the contrary, the old sciences were in a state of abandonment and 
there was not even an inferior arrangement for teaching these. Moreover, 
in this syllabus itself attention had been paid to the creation of so much 
ability in the student that he might acquire knowledge of other sciences 
through self-study. This question had also cropped up at the inception 
of the Dar al-Ulum itself; on the occasion of the convocation of A.H.1290 
Hazrat Nanautavi threw full light on this question. He says:— 



"For the education of all the rational and traditional sciences and to 
acquire competency therein, this madrasah and the madrasah at 
Saharanpur are, no doubt, an excellent provision; and if it please Allah, 
the alumni here, provided they complete the curriculum, can easily and 
quickly acquire the remaining ancient and modern sciences by dint of the 
power of their ability. The reason therefore is that in these madrasahs, 
the greatest objective, besides the religious education, is the attainment 
of the power of ability. We did not rest content with only the religious 
sciences but as per the old system, have also provided subjects that 
develop intelligence, an excellent result of which in the former times was 
that great savants and polymaths possessing prodigious abilities were 
produced in legions amongst the followers of Islam. Hence we under- 
stand with certainty that though the students here may not have 
succeeded with some of the modern arts and sciences, this ability of 
theirs may prove sufficient like a perfect teacher for their education. In 
other schools, though, due to the teaching of some modern subjects, the 
students thereof may have acquired some new acquaintance of those 
subjects which the students here may be wanting in, the latter, in fact, in 
the eyes of the just, would be considered, by virtue of their ability, 
superior to the former in these subjects also. 

"Notwithstanding all this, even if some loss is conceivable supposedly 
due to lack of practice in some of the modern subjects, then due to 
want of ability and absence of the knowledge of religious sciences the 
students of those schools ought to be considered inferior to the students 
of this Madrasah. 

"Now we also point out this thing so that it may be known why in 
respect of acquirement (of knowledge) this special method was prop- 
osed and why the modern subjects were not included. The main reason, 
inter alia, for this is that whether training be special or general that as- 
pect should be borne in mind from which crack may have developed in 
their accomplishment. Accordingly, it is manifest upon men of intelli- 
gence that nowadays education in modern subjects is making rapid prog- 
ress due to the outnumbering government-run-schools. Indeed the old 
sciences must never have declined so much as they did now. Under such 
circumstances the people looked upon the founding of schools for mod- 
ern sciences as an exercise in futility. Hence it was considered necessary 
to spend money for the traditional sciences, as also for those disciplines 
which certainly develop ability for the conventional (religious) as well as 
the modern sciences. 

"Secondly, the acquisition of numerous sciences at one and the same 



213 

time proves detrimental to ability in respect of all the sciences. Of course, 
after acquiring the knowledge of intelligence-developing subjects, which 
have been especially prescribed for the acquisiton of ability, if the old 
and new arts (subjects) too are acquired, the span of time required for 
their acquirement will, of course, remain equal. The objective will be 
achieved well enough through its antecedence and subsequence, as also 
the ability of each science; and hence the reason-developing sciences 
were also introduced, along with the traditional sciences, in the 
curriculum. Hereafter, if the students of this Madrasah, joining government 
schools, acquire knowledge of the modern subjects, this thing would more 
shore up their accomplishment" 1 . 

On another occasion, replying to the objection that modern sciences 
have not been included in the curriculum of the Dar al-Ulum, he says : — 

"There is no arrangement here at all for the teaching of the worldly 
sciences. The answer (to this objection) firstly is that there ought to be a 
treatment of the disease. To take medicine for a disease which is not there 
is useless. The crack in the wall should be filled in ; it is necessary to fill 
the kiln. What is it but foolishness to be anxious about the brick that has 
not fallen down ? Of what earthly use are the government schools ? If the 
profane sciences are not taught there, what else is done"? 2 

METHOD OF TEACHING 

The method of teaching of the Dar al-Ulum can be divided into three 
grades : — 

Primary — Intermediate — High. 

The aim before the teachers in the primary grades consists in creating 
in the students the ability to comprehend the contents of a book. Hence 
in these grades more stress is laid on the comprehension of the book. 

In the middle or intermediate classes, along with the comprehension 
of the book, such topics are also brought on the tapis besides the text- 
book under study which may be essential for broadening the students' 
minds and for elevating their mental standard. 

In the higher classes complete stress is laid on the teaching and 
understanding of the subject under study, but at the same time the 
comprehension of the book is not overlooked. 

"I.Rudad, A. H. 1290, pp. 15 & 16. 
S. Rudad A H. 129S, p. 13. 



214 

The method of teaching in the Dar al-Ulum is this that the student first 
reads the textual passage. Now it is the duty of the teacher to lecture so 
comprehensively on the read out passage technically that light may be 
thrown on every aspect and question of the concerned passage. The 
teacher tries to gather in all the necessary informations regarding the topic 
in his discussion, and he, applying his lecture to the passage, may satisfy 
the student. The students are quite free and unrestricted during the lesson. 
The/ are considered entitled to it that as long as they may not understand 
the lesson fully and may not hear satisfactory answers to all the objections 
that may crop up in their minds regarding the problems under study, they 
may not aliow the teacher to proceed further. The result of this method is 
that, on the one hand, the student attends the lecture fully prepared and, 
on the other, the teacher also finds himself constrained to teach with full 
preparation and attention. 

As a rule, in the lessons of the text-books the teachers' attention is 
concentrated on this matter that the ability to understand the book may be 
created in the students and they may know the method of understanding 
the author's motive. 

In the Science of Hadith, besides the Mishkat al-Masabih, the follow- 
ing books are included in the course : — 

Sahih-e Bukhari, Sahih-e Muslim, Jama'e Tirmizi, Sunan-e Abi Da'ud, 
Sunan-e Nasa'i, Sunan-e Ibn Maja, Mu'atta-e Imam Malik, Mu'atta-e 
Imam Muhammad, Sharh-e Ma'ani al-Athaar-e Tahavi, Shama'il-e Tirmizi 

Amongst the above-mentioned books the first four are completed 
wholly and their topics are thoroughly discussed. It is not necessary to 
read the remaining books wholly. In the few lessons of these books the 
teachers deliver such lectures whereby the purpose of the book is known. 
Since the greater part of hadiths in the former and the latter books is 
common, there arises no need of separate discussion of the latter. 

In the lecture on Hadith discussion as regards adaptation (jarah 
wa ta'dil, lit., objection and adjustment) of the narrators of Hadith is, 
wherever necessary, only brief. Instead of this more attention is paid to the 
technique of Hadith so that more and more power of deduction of proposi- 
tions and the method of educing may be developed in the students and they 
may fully understand the method of eduction of the Imams of Fiqh. However, 
if the Imams of the practical methods of religion (mazahib) have at any time 
needed to pay special attention to any authority or narrator, it becomes 
ineluctable to bring it under discussion during the course of the lesson. 



215 

But the arguments of the four Imams, their principles of the deduction 
of propositions and the answers on behalf of the Hanafite to the arguments 
of the three Imams are brought home to the students in such a sober and 
academic manner that nothing is detracted from the weightiness and glory 
of any one of the four Imams. Rather, the arguments and proofs of the 
three Imams are presented before the students with great broad- 
mindedness. Since most of the books of Hadith and Tafsir that are 
included in the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum have been compiled by the 
Shafi'ite and Malekite Imams, their arguments inevitably come before the 
students,- hence it becomes necessary for the teachers that they establish 
the Hanafite tack to be preferable in the light of arguments and evidences 
in such a way that the casuistic greatness of the three Imams may remain 
intact, admitting no distinction. 

The zestful students of higher classes, in accordance with the style of 
the predecessors, consider it necessary to jot down the teacher's lecture. 
As such, Hazrat Gangohi's and Hazrat Shaikh al-Hind's lectures on Tirmizi, 
entitled Nafh al-Shazzi and Al-Wird al-Shazzi, and Hazrat Sayyid Anwar 
Shah Kashmiri's lecture on the Sahih-e Bukhari, entitled Al-Arf al-Shazzi 
and Fayz al-Bari (which is in four bulky volumes) are the result of the 
same taste for jotting down. These are only a few examples of such jotted 
lectures which have been published; otherwise those that are still awaiting 
publication are too many to.be counted. These gem-scraps of the 
academic commodity are abundantly available with the graduates of the 
Dar al-Ulum. 

■ The teacher's medium of experssion while lecturing and teaching is 
Urdu — the language which is spoken and understood throughout India. 
However, it is tried to explain to those students who do not understand 
Urdu, in other languages until they become able to understand Urdu. 

The importance the mother tongue commands in the teaching of arts 
and sciences could be realised in the present system of education in 
India after a long time. This is an undeniable and incontrovertible fact 
that the ease with which academic matters are understood through the 
mother-tongue and are retained in memory is not possible in any other 
tongue. But the dominance of the English paramountcy had so much 
come home to and dominated the minds of the nation that it could not 
get a clue to this reality for a long time. Amongst the Indian universities 
the first to realise the importance of mother-tongue for education were 
Jamia-e Osmania, Hyderabad, Deccan, and Jamia-e Millia, Delhi. They 
also put this thought into practice and achieved remarkable success at 



216 

both the places, and thus presented an example to be followed by other 
universities; and now this demand has been generally accepted by the 
universities in India that the mother-tongue should be made the medium 
of education. 

In this connection, anyhow, the Dar al-Ulum bears the palm; the educa- 
tional experts of the twentieth century at last were constrained to arrive at 
the same conclusion which had been understood in the Dar al-Ulum a 
hundred years ago! 1 . 

1. This is an educational aspect of this problem but, besides this, there is a linguistic 
aspect to it also, and it is this that by being the medium of instruction at the Dar 
al-Ulum the Urdu language itself has achieved a great advantage, which the circles 
engaged in developing and propagating Urdu have not so far chanced to notice- 
Nevertheless, the results and gains of this cannot be denied. That great advantage is this 
that since the Dar al-Ulum is a central educational institution of the Muslims in the 
Islamic world, students flock to it not only from the different linguistic states of India 
but also from various foreign countries for acquiring education; and they learn the Urdu 
language sufficiently well during their stay here. Accordingly, it is an event of a 
few years ago that a gentleman who had made a tour of various foreign countries had 
happened to visit the Dar al-Ulum. His statement was that 

"when I reached Bukhara, which is a famous place in Central Asia, I ran there across 
a man, who, considering me to be an Indian, spoke to me in a sympathetic tone m 
Urdu. I wondered very much how he, being so far away from India, must have learnt 
such chaste Urdu 7 On my asking him, he told me : 'This is due to the educational 
grace of the Dar al-Ulum (Deoband), and not only I but also the entire educational 
circle here generally understands and speaks Urdu'. Despite my being a Hindu, that man, 
with great affability and love, lodged me as his guest and threw in my honour a grand 
welcome-party, a peculiarity of which I will never forget that because of my sake who- 
ever delivered a speech in it, spoke in Urdu only". 

In short, the Dar al-Ulum, in this manner, through its students, has widened the circle 
of Urdu to almost all the Asiatic countries. 

A similar incident had happened with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru during his visit to 
Russia. The address presented to Pandit Nehru at the Tashkent aerodrome by the citizens 
was in Urdu and was read out by an Uzbek. Pandit Nehru also replied the address in 
Urdu which, as the newspaper reported, the audience understood, applauding several 
times with clapping during the course of the reply. 

Al-Jami'at Daily , June 18, 1955. For details, vide Prof. Humayun Kabir Dar al-Ulum 
Deoband Men by Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi. 

Besides this there are more than sixty book-depots in Deoband which keep publish- 
ing religious books in Urdu day in and day out. 



EDUCATIONAL FEATURES OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

As much as the word 'education' is simple and brief, to the same 
extent it is important, affecting the deepest recesses of the soul. Education 
is not merely the name of pictures of letters, phonetory lines, dialects and 
big and small books. On the contrary it is the name of such an intellectual, 
mental and academical training through which the latent faculties and 
talent of man are developed to be adorned and organized and human 
sentiments and feelings are civilized and polished by bringing them under 
an excellent and lofty ideal, so that useful fruits and consequences thereof 
may be brought into play for mankind. It is a very difficult task to teach 
man to use his talents correctly but it is as much necessary as it is difficult. 

In other words, if education is limited to merely knowing the unknown 
things, then it is not something extraordinary, but if it is employed for 
action, then its difficulties are increased manifold. Although every nation 
of the world apprecaites the value of knowledge, the Muslims' view of 
knowledge is quite different from that of the other nations'. The non- 
Muslims acquire knowledge so that through it they may gain power and 
greatness, progress and superiority in the world. Knowledge for the most 
part is considered the means of acquiring wealth but it is a peculiarity of 
the Muslims that instead of a means they have considered knowledge an 
end; they have never considered it a means of livelihood. The Muslims 
have always acquired knowledge for the sake of knowledge; they never 
acquired it in order to earn their livelihood through it. According to the 
Muslims the acquisition of knowledge is a duty, by discharging which a 
Muslim, besides worldly benefit, also gains absolution in the afterlife. The 
statement of the Sovereign of the Universe (Allah's peace and blessings be 
upon himO is :- 

"It is an obligation upon every Muslim man and Muslim woman to 
acquire knowledge". 

This obligatoriness has been made necessary for action only, and it is 
incumbent upon every person as per need. It is an acknowledged fact of 
history that no nation in the world could become exalted until its powers 
of knowledge and action did not awaken. Education alone is the means 
through which spiritual and moral, civilisational and cultural progress can 
be made, which is the raison d'etre for the creation of humanity. In view 
of such progress it is essential that every seeker of knowledge is provided 
an opportunity to develop his talents in the best possible manner. In other 
words, it is the primary duty of society that it provide such facilities 
whereby every student 'may display his best talents. In fact, nations are 



218 

made through knowledge and are deteriorated through ignorance. On this 
account it is necessary that every person should have equal opportunities 
for the acquirement of knowledge. Emancipating knowledge from the 
monoply of the particular stratas of society, Islam has done such a great 
obligation upon humanity that it is difficult to assess it. 

The history of every developed nation is a witness to the fact that the 
secret of its progress and advancement is hidden in its commonalty's 
being educated, and this is not easy until there is arrangement for free 
eduation. In the present system of education the heaviness of expenses 
has deprived the majority of the advantages of education. After an experi- 
ence of hundreds of years the educational experts of the twentieth century 
have at last arrived at the conclusion that the education of the common 
people ought to be free, and as long as this system is not adopted, it is 
difficult for education to be universal. 

OUR OLD SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 

In our old system of education this principle was always put into 
practice. Accordingly, in the mode of the education that had been 
adopted in these schools, the educational expenses were charged to the 
institutions rather than to the students. In this system of education fees 
were not chargeable, and not only this but text-books also had to be 
provided for the students gratis. Then not only this that the education was 
free and no rent was charged from the students for the boarding house 
but destitute and poor students were also given cash stipends by the 
institutions for food, clothes and other necessities. It is that speciality of 
the Arabic schools the example of which is not found in any other educa- 
tional system of the world. 

Besides this, in the Arabic schools never such a restriction was laid on 
the acquirement of knowledge whereby the doors of teaching and learning 
might have been closed for certain individuals of the community. On the 
contrary, every man who had any zest for the acquisition of knowledge 
could acquire knowlege in them without any let or hindrance. Our schools 
have always been free from the restriction of age and avocation and never 
has been allowed in them the discrimination of race and colour, wealthi- 
ness and poverty, the high and the low. On this account the ways of 
acquiring the highest possible education have remained unceremoniously 
open for every man, no matter to whichever ethnic group he belongs and 
howevermuch a man of slender means he may be. In the educational 
history of the Muslims innumerable such scholars and men of accomplish- 
ments will be met who ancestrally belonged to small and high occupations. 
The principle of keeping eduction more and more exempt from restrictions 
and conditions has always been observed in the religious schools. 



219 

The world has learnt the lifting of restrictions on education of the mean 
occupations from Islam only. The thing for which Europe is being credited 
today of bearing away the palm is in fact a reflection of the Arabic schools 
only; yet the world has still to learn from these schools the philosophy of 
lifting the restriction of age-limit. Accordingly, the foundation thereof has 
been laid in the form of "Adult Education" 1 . Now the time does not seem 
to be far off when this curse will be removed from the universities of the 
world. 

FREE EDUCATION 

The same traditions of our old system of education are the distinguish- 
ing feature of the Dar al-Ulum. Here also fees are not charged from the 
students. Food, clothes and cash stipends are given by the Dar al-Ulum to 
all resourceless and needy students, and text-books and accommodation 
are provided free of charge to every affording and non-affording student. 
The result of this is that the education of the Dar al-Ulum has not been a 
speciality, a preserve of the well-heeled only but even the most 
impoverished man can get his children adorned with education through it; 
its grace is universal and, in proportion to capability, full. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is the first and the pioneer educational 
institution in India, established on the principle of free education and has 
been running this free system of education with enviable success for more 
than a century. 

EDUCATIONAL AUTONOMY 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is also the first educational institution 
which presented the concept of "Autonomous System of Education" during 
the British regime in India and assiduously endeavoured to maintain 
intellectual liberty of the nation in an atmosphere of political slavery. 
Though this was a very difficult work, the Dar al-Ulum, by practising it, 
made it easy. Inspite of the offer of the British Government the Dar al-Ulum 
never accepted this aid. Hence it has remained free from many such restri- 
ctions which necessarily come in with the government grand-in-aid. It is 
being said by certain people that when the government was willing to give 
valuable financial aid to the Dar al-ulum, it was not proper on its part 
to decline and abstain from accepting it; howevermuch generosity the 

1. In this connection the city of Denver in the II. S. A. has achieved great fame. It is said 
that adult education in Europe and America has begun from this school, which had been 
founded in 1916. 



community may show, it cannot compete with the substantial help of the 
government. These people most probably failed to notice this point that 
it is necessary to keep the Arabic scnools free from the influence of the 
state, for though it be a sovernmen: of the Muslims, unless it be a 
government of the purely Islamic style, its politics cannot be candid and 
unalloyed, whereas such education is required for the Arabic schools that 
may be absolutely free from all sorts of un-lslamic influence and extrane- 
ous practice. Hence the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, never accepted any aid 
from the government in power; its entire resource and capital consists in 
reliance on Allah. The Dar al-Ulum has heen busy in the service of the 
religion depending only on the Muslim masses, and notwithstanding the 
swift and severe vicissitudes of day and night it is maintaining itself and 
going on with its old dignity and traditions. 

Today, unfortunately for our community, the purpose of education has 
came down to this that bagging through it some good and lucrative 
service substantial livelihood may be earned. As though the very intent 
and denotation of education has been altogether changed, and now, 
instead of "knowledge for the sake of knowledge", it too has become a 
means like many other means of earning livelihood, although it is a natural 
demand of the dignity of knowledge that its ideal be sublime. No doubt 
the profane arts and sciences are acquired so that worldly progress 
may be achieved through them, but if this ideal is restrained only to one's 
own personal gain and one's own advantage is kept in view, this is sheer 
selfishness. To expend the invaluable wealth of knowledge for only one's 
own ends is not to recognise the greatness of knowledge. The purpose of 
acquiring secular arts and sciences should also be this that through them 
the resources of the whole community (or nation) may be developed and 
they may become the cause of not only one's jwn rise and progress but 
also for the advancement of the country and tfu community. 

The aim and ideal cherished by the students of Arabic schools in 
acquiring knowledge is to seek Allah's pleasure and to serve His creatures 
in the best possible manner. The pupils considc their teachers to be 
teachers and fully observe the old limits and ran^s of teachership and 
pupillage. They pay the same respect to their teachers which they pay to 
their parents; every student considers service to teachers conducive to 
increase in knowledge and prosperity! 

The following golden incident of the Islamic history is worth remem- 
bering that when Madrasa-e Nizamia was established in Baghdad, and 
high salaries and stipends were fixed for the teachers and the taught and 
all sorts of equipments for comfort were provided by the government, the 



221 

ulema of Bukhara held on this occasion an assembly of mourning for "the 
decline of knowledge" and expressed sorrow over it that now knowledge 
would be acquired not for the sake of knowledge but for status and 
wealth. It is obvious that if this noble purpose of knowledge is not there 
before a man, why would he, instead of the contemporary (modern) 
sciences, set his face towards the Dar al-Ulum the value of the degree 
(sanad) of which, in the sight of the government, is not more than that of 
an old almanac ? 

Once a lieutenant-governor of the United Provinces (U.P.), Sir James 
Muston, while inspecting the Dar al-Ulum, had asked a student from a 
place far off from Deoband ■.— 

"What is the purpose of your coming here from such a distant place" ? 
Spontaneously the student replied :— 

"I have come to read here for this that after returning I may render 
religious service to the people of my native place". 

It can be estimated from the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum that it is far 
higher than the standard of the government examinations of "Maulavi Fazil" 
etc. of "the Oriental Languages". On this account, had the Dar al-Ulum so 
wished, it could have easily got its sanad recognised by the government 
equivalent to that of "Maulavi Fazil" but instead of making its sanad a 
"passport" to service in the government departments, it considered it 
more apposite that it should try to create in its students such academic 
ability and merit that the moment the people see its alumnus and its sanad 
they may believe that it is a thing of value and that whichever task of reli- 
gion this man takes upon himself, he will be able to discharge it with 
competence and elegance. 

Special attention has been paid to this thing in the curriculum of the 
Dar al-Ulum that through it the student, along with the preservation of the 
spiritual and moral values of Islam, may also acquire ability and expertise 
in the Islamic arts and sciences so that after going out from here he 
may be enabled to bear the responsibilities of sincere leadership of the 
community and may play an important role in the effort for the Islamic call 
and preaching. It is tried in the Dar al-Ulum to convince students that the 
purpose of their education is not at all the acquirement of degree or pre- 
paration for government services and offices. On the contrary, it is a purely 
religious education, and the political and geographical conditions of India 
demand that such a party that may always be actively busy in elevating the 
Word of Allah and the revival of the Sunnah should be present amongst 



922 

the mushms. Thank Allah that the Dar al-Ulum is successful in this educa- 
tional purpose : from this institution have come out thousands of such 
ulema, preachers, authors and leaders who have never avoided this 
purpose of the Dar al-Ulum. 

The prophetic Hadith is a commentary and exegesis of the Book of 
Allah and the second most important source of the Islamic law. The Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, has rendered service to many religious and secular 
sciences but the teaching of Hadith has been the most conspicuous 
among them all. The teaching of Hadith in the Dar al-Ulum has been 
comprehensive in tradition (riwayat) and reasoning (darayat) and all the 
principles of the Islamic law. Here it is tried that the commentary of the 
hadith and such details of topics related to it may come before the 
students that in their future life they may not have to face any difficulty in 
the conjunction and reconciliation (Jama' wa tatbiq) and preference and 
interpretation (tarjih wa tawil) of the prophetic hadiths. In this respect 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in the teaching of Hadith, commands a singu- 
lar dignity. This is the reason that the Dar al-Hadith of the Dar al-Ulum is 
held in high esteem and respect by all the religious schools. 

On account of the extensiveness of its educational system, maturity in 
conformance to the Sunnah, and consummate firmness in arts and sci- 
ences, the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, enjoys the position of a singular institu- 
tion. In the teaching of Hadith particularly it commands an individual style, 
which special feature of it makes it distinguished over all other educational 
institutions. In its Dar al-Hadith gather every year three to four hundred 
students who flock to it from different parts of the world merely for the 
study of Hadith. Amongst these students of Hadith there is a large number 
of such people also who are graduates of other institutions and come here 
only to benefit from the special higher education of the Dar al-Ulum. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, leads all the seminaries of India, Pakistan, 
Bangla Desh, Burma, Afghanistan and other countries and many madrasahs 
imitate it in the method of education and internal organisation. 

The Dar al-Ulum has been religiously kept aloof and independent from 
state help and government interference. The system of education and train- 
ing that the British government had started in India in its regime not only 
did not have any compatibility with the Islamic ideal and belief but was 
also very harmful for the Muslims; had it been accepted, then our present 
generation not only would have been deprived of Islam but also, 
unsurprisinlgy, would have renegated from and revolted against Islam. The 
elders of the Dar al-Ulum sensed this danger in time and, despite political 



223 

slavery, revivified the old system of education to maintain intellectual 
liberty in order that the students completing this course of study could 
begin the world as a true believer. 

TIME— TA8LE 

As it is senerally the practice in the Arabic schools, in the Dar al-Ulum 
too the time-table is divided into two parts: the first part consists of four 
hours and the second of two. In the summer season from 6-00 a.m. to 
10-00 a.m. and after the Zuhr prayer, from 3-30 p.m. to 5-30 p.m., and in 
the winter season, from 8-00 a.m. to 12-00 noon and after Zuhr prayer, 
from 2-00 p.m. to 4-00 p.m. Each period in the Dar al-Ulum is of full sixty 
minutes. With change in season the hours of periods also change gradually; 
i.e., from 6-00 to 6-15 and from 2-00 to 2-15; similarly, from 8-00 to 7-45 
and from 3-30 to 3-15. 

Usually, after admission in the month of Shawwal, lessons begin in the 
beginning of the month of Zi-q'ada and continue till the end of Rajab. The 
annual examination is held in the month of Sha'ban and continues for 
nearly three weeks. The annual vacation begins from the last week of 
Sha'ban and continues up to the first week of Shawwal. Admissions begin 
from the second week. Friday is the weekly holiday. 

RULES OF ADMISSION 

The portal of the Dar al-Ulum Deoband is open for every student who 
wants to acquire knowledge of the religious sciences, provided he agrees 
with the objectives and the educational ideal of the Dar al-Ulum and 
applies for admission with the firm resolve of abiding by the rules and 
regulations of the Dar al-Ulum and provided his lifestyle be in consonance 
with the Islamic values. With these conditions he can be admitted to that 
class for which he may have ability and capacity. 

Admission generally begins from the second week of Shawwal and 
ends by the end of the third week, but the admission of fresh students is 
closed a little earlier. 

At the time of admission a fresh student is admittted to a class for 
which he is considered fit by virtue of his ability; admission cannot be 
given on the basis of the sanad of any other educational institution. How- 
ever those students who pass the Persian classes and join the Arabic class 
are exempted from the test for admission. 



224 

Admission in the Quran class and Persian class is done through appli- 
cation and in the Arabic class through a printed application-form. There 
are two kinds of the admission-form : old and new. By old are meant 
those students who may have studied in the Dar a|-Ulum itself in the previ- 
ous year and the newly-arrived students are called "new" (i.e., fresh). 

By filling the admission-form the student makes a promise that he shall 
keep himself engaged in studies with eagerness and singleness of 
purpose, and shall fully abide by the rules-in-force of the Dar al-Ulum, 
and in his personal appearance, deportment and etiquette, and reading 
and writing, etc. shall follow the student-like demeanour and lifestyle. 

There is no restriction of age-limit for admission; however, young 
children from outside who cannot stay alone in the hostel are not 
admitted. There is also no such restriction on account of any profession 
wherefore the doors of teaching and learning may be closed upon some 
individuals or sections of the community; on the contrary, every man 
who cherishes any zest for learning can learn and acquire knowledge 
without any hindrance. The Arabic madrasahs have always been free 
from the restriction of age-limit and profession, never allowing any 
discrimination on account of colour and race, riches and poverty, and 
high and low class. Hence the ways of acquiring the highest possible 
education with convenience have always remained open to every man 
belonging to any race, of howsoevermuch small means he may be. In 
the educational history of the Muslims will be found innumerable such 
scholars and accomplished men who ancestrally belonged to different 
high and low professions. Such men who have been ignored in the world 
on account of their lowly professions acquired education in these Arabic 
madrasahs and accomplished such wonderful exploits in the academic 
and political fields that every student of history is aware of them. The cre- 
dit of antecedence and pioneering for the thing that is being considered 
today a gift of Europe belongs in reality to our Arabic schools. 

EDUCATIONAL CLASSES 

Details of teaching classes have already been given with the 
curriculum and hence it is not necessary to repeat them here. 

EXAMINATIONS 

It is not easy to say that the system of examination was generally 
current in the Arabic madrasahs; nevertheless it appears from the particu- 
lars of some madrasahs that the students were examined in them annually. 
As such it is stated in the history of Bijapur entitled Bustan al-Salatin, 



225 

in connection with the chronicles of the seminaries, that "the examination 
of the students used to be held at the end of the month of Zil-hajja" 1 . An 
explicit statement about the annual examination in the same book at 
another place is that "the annual examination was held every year" 2 . 

But this system had been abandoned just a short time before the 
establishment of the Dar al-Ulum, and this system of holding quarterly, six- 
monthly and annual examinations, which is a good means of assessing the 
student's ability, labour and toil, was not in vogue. When a student finished 
a book under the instruction of a teacher, a higher book used to be begun 
without holding a test for the previous book. It is evident that in this there 
was no opportunity to assess and assay the student's ability, and very often 
even an undeserving student also used to go on crossing the stages of pro- 
gress. Perceiving this defect, the Dar al-Ulum put an end to this system 
and made the quarterly, half-yearly and annual examinations compulsory. 

The rules that are in force in the Dar al-Ulum in connection with exami- 
nation are also sufficiently stiff. There is no rule of private examination 
here. 

Amongst the madrasahs of India most probably it was a speciality of 
Bijapur only that an annual examination used to be held there, otherwise 
no mention of annual examination is met with in the history of other religi- 
ous schools; and this much is absolutely certain that in the immediate past 
of the establishment of the Dar al-Ulum the custom of annual examination 
was not at all there in India. 

RULES OF EXAMINATIONS 

Examination which is the criterion of assessing the students' educa- 
tional ability and the teachers' labour and assiduity and on which promo- 
tion to higher classes depends is a very necessary thing. But even as the 
Dar al-Ulum has been absolutely kept aloof from the influence of the 
government, similarly any kind of external interference in the examination 
has also not been liked. The curriculum is of its own proposition and 
examinations too it conducts under its own supervision. 

The examinations here are of two kinds. One is examination for admis- 
sion. It is held for those students who come from some other seminary 
to be admitted to the Dar al-Ulum. Usually it is held in the month of 
Shawwal. Special strictness is used in this examination and very often 

1 & 2. Musalmano ka Nizam-e Talim wa Tarbiat, vol i, p. 341 



226 

more than half of the candidates taking this examination have to return 
because of their failure. The other examination is held for studies. This is 
heid thrice in the academic year. The quarterly examination is held in the 
month of Safar al-Muzaffar, the six-monthly in Jamadi al-Ula and the 
annual begins in the last week of Rajab and ends in the second ten days 
of the month of Sha'ban. 

Extreme precaution is taken and strictest invigilation is done in the 
examinations. All the examinations of the first and the second years and of 
some books of the third year are conducted catechetically, through viva 
voce; and of higher classes there is written examination. The question- 
papers are printed with utmost precaution and under extreme secrecy. 

In the examination four hours are given for answering the paper. Seats 
are fixed and special care is taken that the candidates may not talk with 
each other; in case of disobeying this rule the guilty candidates are 
expelled from the examination. 

The hypothetical marks of the examination are 50. The detail of secur- 
ing classes in the examination is as under:— 

■ To be placed in the lowest class a successful candidate must obtain 
30 to 36 marks, for the intermediate class 37 to 43, and for the highest 
class 44 to 50. 

It should be known on this occasion that prior to the Dar al-Ulum all 
the educational centres that were there in India were by and large of the 
na.ture of private institutions and it was a common factor in all of them that 
there was neither classification in them nor muster-rolls nor were the 
students compelled to choose a subsidiary book and subject with the 
principal book and subject. There was absolute freedom; one would read 
whatever one liked and read as long as one wished. There was no fixed 
duration for education nor any particular mode of examination. It is the Dar 
al-Ulum only that takes precedence of all others in executing classification, 
duration of education, maintenance of muster-roll, holding of examina- 
tions, relevance of subjects and ottier such matters, and it is from here 
only that these things gradually became customary in the Arabic schools. 

EDUCATIONAL STIPENDS 

Most of the students prosecuting their studies in the Arabic schools are 
poor and indigent. The financial condition of their guardians is not such 
that they may afford to spend money for the education and training of 
their young children and adorn them with education and culture. 



227 

The history of every progressive nation is a witness to the fact that the 
secret of its progress lies hidden in the edcuation of its masses and this 
is not possible unless there is an arrangement for free education. Accord- 
ingly, after an experience of hundreds of years the greatest educationists 
of the twentieth century have at last arrived at the conclusion that the 
education of the masses ought to be free; and as long as this method is 
not adopted, it is difficult for education to become universal. The 
greatest drawback of modern education is this that it has become a 
preserve of those people only who can afford their expenses, as if there 
is no place for the poor in the acquisition of the modern education. 

But in our old system of education educational expenses have been 
made the liability of the educational institutions rather than of the 
students. In this system of education no fees are charged for education. 
And not only this, text-books are provided gratis for the students; rather, 
the indigent and poor'students are given even cash stipends by the institu- 
tions for food, clothes and other necessities. In the Dar al-Ulum this matter 
has been paid special attention to ab initio that the burden of meeting the 
expenses of the boarding and lodging, clothing, medical treatment and 
other inevitable needs should be borne by the Dar al-Ulum rather than by 
the students, save those who may afford to be self-sufficient. 

But in the issuing of stipends due regard to it is inescapable that dis- 
inclination in matters educational and the eleemosynary or parasitic habit 
may not develop in the students, and that they remain all absorbed in 
educational works. Hence all the stipends are issued for one year only, to 
be renewed next year. Whenever the student fails in the examination, the 
stipend is stopped and is not reissued as long as he does not obtain, in 
accordance with the rule of the issue of stipend, success in the examina- 
tion in the medium class. However, accommodation for stay in the hostel 
and text-books from the library for the relevant year are given temporarily 
without charge to every student, deserving or undeserving. 

The following conditions are necessary for obtaining a stipend :— 

(A) The student may have studied books like Al-Nahv al-Wazeh, 
Sharh-e Tehzib, etc. (which are being taught in the second year). 

(B) He may have obtained out of 50 at least 37 marks, which is the 
medium class of success. 

(C) -He may be asking for aid because of poverty. 



The stipend is of two kinds : food— and — cash. 

For the provision of food there is the Kitchen, from which each student, 
at each meal, is siven two tandoori (i.e., Tannuri; a kind of bread which is 
baked inside the oven) breads the (dry) flour of which weishs 250 grams. 
Dal dish is given at lunch-time and meat-dish in the evening 1 . 

Besides meals, cash stipends are also given in different quantities, upto 
fifty rupees per month. 

In the terminology of the Dar al-Ulum, both these kinds of stipends are 
called "imdad" ("aid"). Those students whom "aid" is issued, are also 
given four pairs of clothes, two pairs of shoes in one year and a quilt also 
in the winter season. 

A monthly stipend is fixed for lighting in the rooms and for the washing 
of clothes. Physicians are appointed for the treatment of sick students. 
Medicines are provided gratis to the students and they are also supplied 
regimen (medically prescribed diet). 

Besides these matters, arrangement of light in the passages of the Dar 
al-Ulum, water-taps in the hostels, and tepid water in the mosque of the 
Dar al-Ulum in the winter season, is done necessarily. 

All the- students admitted in the Dar al-Ulum are given text-books on 
loan from the library for one year without charge. Whether or not a student 
gets financial aid, he is net charged rent for the hostel-room. 

PRIZE-DISTRIBUTION 

In order to induce and tempt students to educational activities and 
create a competitive spirit among them, students are considered worthy of 
getting prizes on their success in the annual examination. A student securing 
the highest number of marks is awarded a special prize. Textual and non- 
textual books are given as prize, in accordance with the student's ability. 

Like some other things, the custom of prize-distribution has also been 
there in the Dar al-Ulum from the very beginning. In the function that is 
held every year under the name of prize-distribution, besides the loca 
residents, people from outside are also invited to participate. The purpose 

1. If the student so wishes, he can also take cash price in lieu of meal 



229 

of this gathering is that the Muslims in general and the contributors in 
particular may estimate the educational results of that adolescent genera- 
tion they had entrusted to the Dar al-Ulum; as also this that they may see 
with their own eyes the scene of the utility of that money the community 
has donated to the Dar al-Ulum. 

TESTIMONIAL, SANAD (DEGREE) & "TURBAN" 

The students who, after completing the course of the Dar al-Ulum, 
obtain success in the annual examinations are awarded sanads on their 
graduation. The title of each studied book is necessarily mentioned in the 
sanad but the book in the examination of which the candidate may have 
obtained less than 30 marks is not entered in the sanad. 

There are separate sanads for the class of Persian, the class of cantiila- 
tion and the department of Tibb- The students who drop out in the 
middle, before completing the entire course, are also given testimonia 
for the books the examination of which they may have passed. The sanad 
of "A'lim" is given to one who passes the fourth class and that of "Fazil" 
to one who completes the course of the eighth class. 

Besides the names of books the examination which the candidate has 
already taken and passed, his academic and intellectual capacity and 
good ability are also mentioned in the sanad; and it is also testified that 
he has studied in the Dar al-Ulum, is skilled in arts and sciences, and has 
had the right to teach and issue fetwas. Over and above this, opinion is 
also expressed regarding his morals and behaviour. The sanad is a 
printed one, and is adorned with the signatures of the vice-chancellor 
and the teachers and the seal of the Dar al-Ulum. 

Besides the usual award of a sanad according to the practice of the 
old institutions, a turban is also wrapped, in a public function and at the 
hands of their own teachers, around the head of those students who may 
have achieved distinctive qualifications in arts and sciences. In the Arabic 
schools the technical term for this turban is "turban of proficiency". 

THE MUSLIMS' AVOIDANCE OF THE ENGLISH EDUCATION 

This blame has gained notoriety against the ulema of India, particularly 
against the -ulema of Deoband, that, by issuing a fetwa against the 
acquirement of the English education, they prevented the Muslims from 
acquiring it, wherefore the Muslims lagged behind other communities in 



230 

in the field of worldly progress. But this blame is baseless, because the 
ulema were against only that curriculum which might lead the Muslims 
towards atheism and irreligion. This danger was being felt in Aligarh itself. 
Accordingly, to obviate it, an independent Department of Theology was 
established there, and when Maulana Muhammad Qasim's son-in-law, 
Maulana Abd Allah Ansari, was invited to head it, the Dar al-Ulum 
promptly accepted this invitation. Maulana Abd Allah Ansari graced this 
post till the end of his life and after him, his son, Maulana Ahmed Mian 
Ansari, was appointed on this post. He was also a graduate of the Dar al- 
Ulum. It is, therefore, obvious that in case of opposition to the English 
system of education, this thing was not possible. 

As regards those students who, after graduating from the Arabic 
schools, wished to enter government schools, Hazrat Maulana Nanautavi, in 
his speech delivered in a function of prize-distribution held in 1290/1873, 
had encouraged such students in the following words : — 

"If the students of this madrasah join government schools to acquire 
the modern sciences, this acquirement would more shore up their 
accomplishment" 1 . 

Replying to the objection of certain people as to why modern sciences 
were not included in the syllabus of the Dar al-Ulum, he said — 

"If this thought is a stumbling block that there is no arrangement here at all 
for the profane sciences, its answer firstly is that there ought to be treatment 
of. the disease. To take medicine for a disease which is not there is futile. 
The crack in the wall should be filled up; it is necessary to fill the kiln. What 
is it but silliness to be anxious about the brick that has not yet fallen down? 
What are the government schools for ? If the profane sciences are not taught 
there; what else is done there ? Had these schools been less in number than 
what are required, then it would not have mattered. But it is common 
knowledge that through the government's attention, towns and cities apart, 
schools have been opened even in villages. To make arrangement for the 
schools of secular sciences in their presence and be negligent towards 
the religious sciences is not the work of the longsighted wisdom" 2 . 

In fact our ancestors did not feel any hesitation in adopting the arts 
and sciences of other nations even at that time when the flag of their 
greatness and power was flying over half the world. The Muslims in the 

1 Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum, AH. 1290, p.16 . 

2 Rudad, A. H. 1292, p 13. 



past had not only adopted the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato and other 
Greek philosophers but had also become masters of the medical treasures 
of Hippocrates and Galen. Researches on Euclid and Ptolemy had become 
an intersting pastime of their lives. The Indian Arithmetic too had been 
cast in the Arabic mould. In this very way foundations were laid in the 
Arabic language of a new literature, history, philosophy and knowledge, 
medicine, arithmetic, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, physics and other 
arts and sciences, which are a proud wealth of culture and civilisation of 
the world today. The Muslims adopted these sciences in such a way that 
instead of being felt strange they look Islamic sciences. In the acquirement 
of arts and sciences Muslims have always been very large-minded. Every 
student of history knows that the Muslims have not only learnt the arts and 
sciences of Greece and India but have also developed and enlarged 
them 1 . 

It is an atrocious misunderstanding in respect of the ulema; English 
education was never called impermissible and illegitimate. The ulema were 
opposed rather to that culture only which was correlated with the English 
education and which alone was being considered the singular means of 
advancement. It will be apposite here to see by pondering over this blame 
in the light of historical facts what its reality is. Exactly at the time which 
coincided with the beginning of the late Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan's educa- 
tional movement, a matchless divine of the time, Maulana Abd al-Hayy 
Lakhnavi, who belonged to the old educational centre of Hanafite jurispru- 
dence at Farangimahal, Lucknow, had issued the following fetwa regarding 
the English education : — 

"To study the English language or learn to write English is prohibited if 
it be for the sake of resemblance, but if the purpose be this that we may be 
able to read letters written in English or know the contents of their books, 
then it matters little. It says in the Mishkat Sharif that the Holy Prophet 
(Allah's peace and blessings be upon him!) ordered Hazrat Zaid bin Thabith 
to learn the Jews' script (Hebrew) and he learnt it in a few days" 2 . 

In Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi's Fatawa, in reply to a query 
regarding the learning and teaching of the English language, is written — 

"It is correct to learn the English language, provided one does not 
commit a sin and there may be no impairment in religion 3 . 

1. Rudad, A. H. 1292, p. 13 

£ Majmua-e Fatawa by Maulana Abd al-Hayy, vol. ni, p. 20 

3. Fatawa Rasheediya, vol. i, p. 64. 



232 

In the early period of the East India Company Hazrat Shah Abd al- 
Aziz Dehelvi's fetwa too was to the same effect that "to learn the English 
language is permissible". In short the respected ulema never opposed 
the English language in itself at any time. On the contrary, for the earning 
of livelihood and the acquirement of knowledge and information they 
explicitly issued a fetwa of its legitimacy, even as it is clearly evident 
from Hazrat Zaid bin Thabith's example in the prophetic era. However 
that form alone was declared impremissible through which, due to diffe- 
rent reasons, the student's belief and faith were affected and which 
became the means of adopting u.n-lslamic culture, un-lslamic morals and 
anti-Islamic beliefs. 

The reality in fact is this that there were serveral reasons for the 
Muslims' aviodance of the English language. The foremost reason was this 
that, on the one hand, there was intense bitterness in the Muslims' hearts 
against the aggressive English who had deprived them of rulership and 
empire; they (the Muslims) used to look at every thing of the English with 
aversion. The presence of inimical sentiments in the Muslims' hearts 
regarding the Englishmen's culture, Civilisation and sciences w.as but 
natural. The Muslims had seen the lamp of the Mughal empire snuffed out 
before their own eyes; they had seen with their own eyes the spectalce 
of the royal family writhing in dust- and blood; they had seen thousands 
of Muslims being put to the sword on very ordinary, flimsy suspicions. 
Thousands of Muslim families had been reduced to utter poverty (lit., were 
starving for want of even stale bread); and thousands of respectable 
families were wandering about aimlessly in a state of utter destitution and 
helplessness. They had seen the plunder and devastation of all those 
things which they considered the ultimate product of morality and human 
culture and without which their life had become prosaic, and their glory 
and honour had gone. They could not at all bear to give English education 
to their young children nor to have anything to do with the English. In that 
period the grave consequences of the mutiny and its reaction could not 
be psychologically overlooked. The struggle between Islam and Christianity 
that had been going on for centuries in" Europe and the Middle East had 
now, according to their thinking, reached India also. Hence this thing had 
become indelible in the Muslims' heart and mind that to tolerate Chris- 
tianity and the Christian state would be detrimental to Islam and the 
Muslims. So they decided to completely boycott this new culture and 
civilisation and began to consider everything that was related to the 
English a portent of danger for Islam and the Muslims. It is evident that 
this kind of their thinking was a natural reaction of the circumstances, and 
for which. they should be considered excusable. 



233 

On the other hand, the English too considered the Muslims their real 
political rival. Although in the war of independence of 1857 the individu- 
als of both the Hindu and- the Muslim communities had participated and 
both the communities, as per their capacity, had taken part in this war, in 
the eyes of the English the Musalman aione was their real opponent. 
Hence the English, after gaining control, and considering him to be the 
real rebel, made him more and more a target of their oppression and 
grinding tyranny. The policy of depriving Muslims of every high place in 
the country and easy circumstances was adopted. The idea of the English 
was to make the Muslims educationally low and useless so that the vision 
of sovereignty and exaltation might get out of their heads. This wound 
had been inflicted so deep that it was not going to be healed in a few 
days. 

At the same time the padres in India were not only allowed to preach 
Christianity but had also had the backing of the officials. The teachers in 
the schools and colleges used to be largely padres, and lessons of the 
Bible were compulsory. The ulema alone were not opposed to this thing 
but even the commonest Muslim, under such circumstances, was not 
prepared to send his children to the schools. 

Maulana Fazl Hap Khairabadi who had been sentenced for life and 
transported to Andaman-Nicobar Islands for the guilt of issuing a fetwa 
of jihad of 1857, writes =— 

"The English prepared a scheme to christianize all the Indian inhabi- 
tants. It was their belief that the Indians would not be able to find any 
helper and cooperator, and, therefore, save submit and obey, they would 
not have the nerve to defy them. The English had thoroughly realised that 
the rulers' variance from the ruled on the basis of religion would be a 
great stumbling block in the way of domination and possession. Hence 
they began to indulge in all sorts of wiles and chicanery with complete 
diligence and assiduity, in their wilful attempt to obliterate religion and 
the sense of nationhood. To teach small children and the ignorant and to 
inculcate their language and religion, they established schools in towns 
and villages and made an all out effort to wipe out the old sciences and 
academic attainments"'. 

Formerly the government used to be an institution, mainly concerned 
with administration of the country, army, police, revenue and finances. 

1. Al-Saurat al-Hindia, pp. 356—7, 



234 

Most of the walks of life were out of its circle of activity and samut. The 
people of the country used to be free in their educational system, culture 
and civilisation, morals and social life, as a result of which it was not 
necessary that with the chan3e of sovereignty change might come in 
education and culture also. But the frame of the British system of govern- 
ment was different from this; its circle of operation circumscribed the 
whole life of the country and the nation and its jurisdiction covered all 
the walks of life. English culture and English education had become 
correlative and these alone were considered the means of advancement 
and civility. The ulema were against this thing only. 

In the Muslims' avoidance of the modern education there was indeed 
some interference of the will and intention of English politics so that the 
Muslims might not remain able to rule, and, secondly, the Muslims 
themselves, for fear of irreligion, hesitated in admitting their children to 
schools. 

These were the causes that obstructed the Muslims' going to schools 
and colleges. Accordingly, when the padres' activities copied down due' 
to their own continuous failures and the teaching of the Bible was 
excluded from the school course, and at the same time, as time passed 
on, the Muslims' aversion against the English and English education 
gradually naturally subsided in the Muslims' hearts, they began to incline 
towards English education. 

This is the reality of that blame which kept the Muslims away from the 
English education. In fact aversion to English education was the result of 
the Muslims' national sense of honour and psychological reaction, and 
the. ulema too were included among them. However, the ulema recog- 
nised the spirit of the age and with full insight and foresight never 
avoided issuing fetwa for the legitimacy of taking English education. 



CHAPTER VII 

ADMINISTRATION 

MAJLIS-E SHURA 

The administration of the Dar al-Ulum ab initio has been bdsed on the 
consultative principle of "and whose affairs are a matter of counsel" 
(XLII : 38). For this there is an authorized high council which had been 
formed along with the establishment of the Dar al-Ulum itself. This 
council is known as Majlis— e Shura. The responsibility of the Majlis-e 
Shura is to look after and guide all the affairs of the Dar al-Ulum. 

It will not be out of place here to show that seeing the ordinary 
condition and lack of equipments with which the Dar al-Ulum had 
started the contingency of the administration of the Dar al-Ulum on the 
principle of consultation seems to be surprising. The people in India at 
that time were ordinarily not conversant and familiar with the democratic 
system. The Dar al-Ulum set up the Majlis-e Shura in the Islamic style 
and, running this system successfully, established an excellent example 
before the community. The corollary of this mode of thinking was that the 
democractic method was extensively established in the making of 
arrangements. As regards the qualities required of the counsellors, Hazrat 
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi (may his grave be illuminated!) has 
given the following guidance in the third article of the Constitution 
compiled by himself:— 

"The counsellors of the madrasah should always bear in mind that the 
madrasah should acquire well-being and excellence, and no one should 
be self-partial. God forbid! if things come to such a pass that the 
counsellors consider opposition to their own opinion and their subscrib- 
ing to the opinions of others unpalatable, then the foundation of this 
madrasah will become shaky. 

"In short, a counsel in season from the bottom of ones heart and, in 
its context, the excellence of the madrasah must always be kept in mind. 
There should be no opinionatedness. Hence it is necessary that the 
counsellors should on no account be hesitant in expressing their opinion 
and the audience always listen to them with good faith; that is, it should 
be borne in mind that if others' opinion is convincing though it be 
contrary to the opinion of some of them, they would accept it with heart 
and soul. And moreover, it is also necessary for the same' reason that the 
vice-chancellor, in matters requiring consultation, must consult the 
counsellors, whether they be the regular counsellors of the madrasah or 



236 

any intelligent, knowledgeable visitor who may be a well-wisher of the 
madrasahs. Over and above this, for the same reason, it is also necessary 
that if, by chance, due to some reason, the vice-chancellor may not have 
chanced to consult a counsellor but may have taken counsel from a 
proper quorum of the counsellors, the one not consulted should not feel 
displeased as to why he was not consulted. Indeed, if the vice- 
chancellor may not have consulted anyone, the counsellor can take 
exception to it". 

These arz those excellent principles of the democratic system than 
which no other procedure can be better. The way of constructive criti- 
cism was opened through this proposal which is so necessary for the 
progress of any institution. 

The Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, on the one hand, represents 
the contributors — it commands the status of a legal agent of the 
contributors — and, on the other, issues its decisions with majority of 
votes regarding the income and expenditure of the Dar al-Ulum and its 
Important administrative affairs. The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has a constitu- 
tion and all the procedures of the Dar al-Ulum and all necessary deci- 
sions are decided in the light of this constitution. 

The Majlis-e Shura makes administrative rules and regulations. All the 
endowments and properties of the Dar al-Ulum are under its trusteeship 
and supervision, and the same council is responsible for the preservation 
of the tack of the Dar al-Ulum and for the appointment and the dismissal 
of the employees. The session of the Majlis-e Shura is necessary at least 
twice a year. 

THE ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF THE MAJLIS-E SHURA 

This Majlis, initially, that is, at the time of its establishment, consisted 
of the following seven members : — 

(1) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi. (2) Hazrat Haji Abid 
Husain. (3) Hazrat Maulana Mehtab Ali. (4) Hazrat Maulana Zulfiqar Ali. 
(5) Hazrat Maulana Fazl al-Rahman. (6) Haji Sayyid Fazl Haq. (7) Shaikh 
Nihal Ahmed. 

There have been additions to the aforesaid number. At present there 
are 18 members of the majlis. The members of the Majlis-e Shura are 
selected from amongst the distinguished and influential ulema of the 



country. According to the constitution, at least eleven members of the 
Majlis ought to be religious divines; the remaining ten members can be 
such laic persons who may have insight and expertise in administrative and 
educational matters. The vice-chancellor and the principal are ex-officio 
members of the Majlis-e Shura. To form the quorum at least one-third 
number of the members should be present for the meeting. 

The names of the members of the current Majlis-e Shura are as under — 

1. Hazrat Maulana Al-Haj Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Vice-chancellor, Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. 

2. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Fakhar al-Hasan, Principal, Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. 

3. Hazrat Maulana Mufti Atiq al-Rahman Usmani, Nadvat al-Musannafin 
Delhi. 

4. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Minnat Allah Rahmani, Khanqah-e Rahmani, 
Monghyr, Bihar. 

5. Hazrat Maulana Manzoor Ahmed Naumani, Daftar Al-Furqan, Lucknow. 

6. Hazrat Maulana Qazi Zayn al-A'bidin Sajjad, Qazi Manzil, Meerut. 

7. Hazrat Maulana Sa'eed Ahmed Akbarabadi. 

8. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Mian Nadvi, Dar al-Ulum Nadvat 
al-Ulama, Lucknow. 

9. Hazrat Maulana Abd al-Qadir, Malegaon, Dist. Nasik. 

10. Hazrat Maulana Dr. Mustafa Hasan Alavi, Maulavi Ganj, Lucknow. 

11. Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Fazl Allah, Iqbal Manzil, Diggi Road, 
Aligarh. 

12. Hazrat Maulana Marghoob al-Rahman, Bijnor. 

13. Hazrat Maulana Hakim Muhammad Zaman, Kolotola Street, Caicutta. 

14. Hazrat Maulana Hamid al-Ansan Ghazi, Bombay. 

15. Hazrat Maulana Mufti Abu Sa'ud, Arabic College, Sabil al-Rishad, 
Bangalore. 

16. Hazrat Maulana Hakim Ifham Allah, Anona House, Civil Lines, 
Aligarh. 

17. Hazrat Maulana Abd al-Halim, Madrasah Zia al-Ulum, Mam Kaian, 
Jaunpur. 

18. Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Sa'eed Buzurg, Simlak, Dabhel, Dist. Surat. 



THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

A council called "Majlis-e A'mila" (Executive Council) has been in 
existence since 1345/1927, under the Majlis-e Shura. The number of its 
members is 9. Its meeting is held every third month. The function of this 
council is to give cooperation and help in the works of the Majlis-e Shura 
and to put the administrative affairs of the Dar al-Ulum into practice, in 
accordance with the authorities delegated to it by the Majlis-e Shura. 

An important feature of the Majlis-e Shura and the Majlis-e A'mila of 
the Dar al-Ulum is this that though there is provision of the rule of 
majority of votes for a decision, their decisions, instead of majority of 
votes, are usually taken by consensus of opinion. The incidents of not 
having consensus of opinion are so very few that they should be 
considered as good as nil. 



CHAPTER VIII 



DEPARTMENTS 



The vast educational and official organization of the Dar al-Ulum is 
divided into 23 departments. Every department which commands the 
position of a separate institution is headed by a manager who, remaining 
within the circle of his limits and jurisdiction, discharges, under the 
supervision of the management of the Dar al-Ulum, his entrusted functions. 
These departments, as regards their speciality, are divided into three parts: 
Educational Departments, Financial Departments, and Administrative 
Departments. 

(A) Education, Dar al-lfta, Ma'arif al-Quran, Jamia-e Tibbia, Tabligh, 
Craft & Industry, Calligraphy, Physical Exercise, and Publications are 
academic and educational departments. 

(B) Accounts, Organization & Development, and Endowments are 
financial departments. 

The Accounts Department is concerned with income and expenditure,- 
Organization & Development and Endowments are the departments of 
income. 

(O Departments concerning administration are the following : — 

ihtemam (Management), Record Office, Library, Reading Room, Kitchen, 
Buildings, Centenary Celebration, Electric Arrangements, Sanitation, Light, 
Water-supply, External Affairs, Hostels, Press. 

THE EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT 

By virtue of its being an educational institution the basic view-point of 
the Dar al-Ulum and its fundamental objective is teaching and educaton. 
Hence the inception of this department should be considered to have 
coincided with the establishment of the Dar al-Ulum itself, as has been 
said earlier. This department had begun with only one teacher and one 
student. But every step of the Dar al-Ulum, compared to the previous one, 
has moved forward, and now this department has been sub-divided into 
the following departments : — 

(1 ) The Arabic Department which is for the 8-year course of Arabic. 

(2) The Persian Department: Persian literature, Mathematics, History, 



240 
Geography and Hindi are taught in this department. 

(3) The Department of Cantillation and Orthoepy — in this department, 
besides the complete education in cantillation and orthoepy, all the 
students of the Arabic classes are cornpulsocily exercised in reading the 
Para-e Amm with cantillation. 

(4) The Department of the Holy Quran : As is evident from its name, this 
department teaches small children to read and memorise the Holy Quran. 

(5) The Department of Urdu Theology: In this department, besides the 
teaching of Theology in the Urdu language, History, Geography, Arithmetic, 
Hindi etc. are also taught. 

(6) Jamia-e Tibbia ■ It is for medical education in the Unani System. 

(7) The Department of Ifta : It is meant for creating the ability of fetwa- 
writing. 

(8) The Department of Calligraphy: This department, along with 
chirography, also exercises in the art of copying (kitabet). 

(9) The Department of Craft & Industry: it is for training students in 
light crafts. 

There are one hundred and sixty teachers in these departments. The 
strength of students every year is more or less one and a half to one and 
three quarter thousand. 

Mastery in speech and writing, oratory, practice of the style of expre- 
ssion and advancement in academic informations in the students are an 
important means of Islamic Tabligh (preaching) and the dissemination of 
the message of truth and sincerity. Hence like teaching and lecturing and 
instructing and learning, writing and speech have also been made the most 
important part for exercise. Besides this, in view of the atmosphere of the 
period and its demands, it is necessary that the students may have a 
special knack of organising assemblies and gatherings so that they may 
prove capable of presenting their duties of religious call and guidance 
methodically before the present-day world. In this connection there have 
been established a number of students' societies. There are usually four 
sections of such societies ; 

(1) Section for speeches in Arabic, Urdu and other languages. 



241 

(2) Section for writing in Arabic, Urdu and other languages. 

(3) Section for Debates. 

(4) Section for reading. 

But this system has been restricted to such limit only that it may not 
cause any difference in the real objective of education. Assemblies of 
students are held in the night of every Thursday in which, besides religi- 
ous and reformative problems, students take part in an academic and dis- 
quisitional manner, in national, historical, political and social discussions, 
and do exercise in speech-making and writirag, and publish hand-written 
monthly journals. These journals are in Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Gujarati, 
English, Bengali, Tamil and some other languages. They put these journals 
in glass frames and hang them on the walls All the articles and disserta- 
tions in them are written by the students, and, in respect of decoration, 
are sufficiently graceful and good-looking. 

Besides the teachers in the Educational Department, 9 clerks also work 
in this department to do the clerical work concerning education. The 
Educational Department is managed by the Education Council. 

DAR AL-IFTA 

At the time the Dar al-Ulum was established the teaching institutions 
of the old ulema had become desolate and their masnads (seats) vacant. 
The.ulema were few and far between, and matters had come to such a 
pass that one who would show a p-oposition (mas'ala) was seldom to 
be met with. Hence, as soon as the Dar al-Ulum came into existence, the 
people's attention was diverted towards it, and a long chain of legal 
queries (fetwa-seeking) from all over the country was established. As it 
happens ordinarily in the incipience of every work, instead of the 
establishment of a separate department for it, this work was initially 
entrusted to the learned teachers. As such, Maulana Muhammad Yaqub, 
over and above his functioning as principal, used to oischarge the duties 
of fetwa-writing also. But .when the number of legal queries increased 
extraordinarily, a separate department under the name of Dar al-lfta was 
started in 1310/1892, and Maulana Aziz al-Rahman Usmani was selected 
for this important service. The lauded Maulana , besides being a match- 
less divine of the time and a great jurisprudent, also commanded a 
distinct position in abstinence and piety, and was considered a holy 
saint. From that time to date such learned gentlemen who have had more 
profound insight in jurisprudence are being appointed on this post. 



242 

Among the fetwas that are sought from the Dar al-Ulum, there are, 
besides ordinary propositions of everyday use, important, complex and 
ponderable propositions, decisions of panchayats (councils of village 
elders usually consisting of five or more members), court-appeals, and 
fetwas of various, divergent rulings. It is a duty of the Dar al-lfta to show 
legal propositions to the querists with complete disquisition and sound- 
ness. Besides the common people, even ulema often refer to it for many 
propositions. Despite this importance and delicacy, the work of the Dar 
al-lfta has always been looked upon with satisfaction and esteem among 
the common as well as the high-ranking Muslims. The fetwas issued from 
the Dar al-lfta from A.H. 1329 to A.H. 1396 number 4,39,336. 

So far ten volumes of these fetwas, entitled Fatawa Dar al-Ulum, have 
been published and many more are still being arranged. No fees are 
charged for the fetwas. 

The building of the Dar al-lfta consisting of three large rooms is 
situated on the upper floor on the. eastern side of. the mosque. It was 
built in 1368/1949. 

MAJLIS-E MA'ARIF AL-QURAN 

One department bears this name and its work is to publish disquisi- 
tional books on the Quranic sciences. 

JAMIA-E 7IBBIA 

There is a famous proverb of the Arabic language that ."sciences are 
only two, one concerning the soul and purification of morals and the 
other of human body pertaining to health and disease". It is evident that 
both these sciences are important in themselves. And then ordinarily too 
the science of medicine is a respectable means of livelihood and a 
beneficial human service. Like the religious arts and sciences there is a 
permanent provision for the medical education. 

Two functions concern this department : teaching of medical books to 
the students and medical treatment of sick students. In this department 
which runs under the name Jamia-e Tibbia six able teachers teach the 
medical science. Its course is of four years duration. For medical treat- 
ment it has a clinic where students and non-students all are treated 
gratis. 







DAR AL-IFTA 




. 



JAMIA-E TIBBIA 



DEPARTMENT OF PREACHING 

In 1342/1934 when the organised movements of Shuddhi and Sanghtan 
were started in the country, this department of preaching was established 
to save the Muslims from apostasy. Accordingly, with the untiring efforts of 
this department, besides millions of Muslims' security from apostasy, great 
help was obtained at that time in awakening the religious ardour and the 
Islamic spirit in the Muslims. The preachers acquainted the Muslims with 
the Islamic teachings and today there is no corner of India, Pakistan and 
Bangla Desh where the preachers of the Dar al-Ulum may not have reached 
to speak out the Word of Truth. The statement of the famous and esteemed 
daily of Lahore has been quoted earlier that "as far :as the protection of 
religion, repudiation of the antagonists and reformation of the Muslims are 
concerned, the part of the teachers and preachers of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, far exceeds that of the whole of India" 1 . 

In short, even as there is no comparable example of the Dar al-Ulum in 
India in the history of the education of religious sciences, similarly, in the 
extensiveness and abundance of preaching services also it is sui generis in 
the history of this century. As such, wherever such functions are held in 
the country, in the main the preachers of the Dar al-Ulum are particularly 
invited to attend them. The Department of Preaching arranges to send the 
preachers to different parts of the country on the invitation of the inhabi- 
tants thereof. The preachers, in such functions and gatherings, deliver 
lectures and sermons on different religious topics. 

DEPARTMENT OF CALLIGRAPHY 

Callisraphy, that is, chirography, is in fact a branch of art and craft. In 
the Dar al-Ulum it is divided into two grades and hence it is considered a 
separate department. The first grade is for those students who may wish to 
chanse a bad hand and defects of writing into a beautiful hand. In the 
second grade the art of chirography is regularly taught. 

In our old system of education correct handwriting commanded a spe- 
cial importance. "The handwriting is half the knowledge" is a famous 
dictum, in which handwriting has been interpreted to be equal to half the 
knowledge. Along with readins and study the practice of a good hand 
was also considered very necessary. The educated apart, even kings used 
to acquire skill and expertise in this. As such, in India itself, Sultan Nasir 
al-Dm Mahmud and Awrangzeb Alamgir were most accomplished 

1. Siyasat, daily, Lahore, June 27, 1923. 



244 

calligraphists. But for some time now as many old concepts are gradually 
vanishing, indifference towards excellence and beauty of handwriting is 
also increasing day by day, particularly in the Arabic madrasahs it has 
almost become extinct. 

In view of the importance of this necessity, both the Nasta'liq and the 
Naskh scripts are taught and improved in the Dar al-Ulum, and the 
students have to take an examination annually to pass in the practice of 
handwriting. 

CRAFT & INDUSTRY 

It has become much more necessary for the teaching institutions in 
this period to solve the problem of the students' economic future and 
livelihood. In this connection the Dar al-Ulum has started many arts and 
■crafts for earning one's living. Besides Tibb, training of copy-writing, 
book-binding and such other light skills has also been arranged. 

Considering the present-day demands the need of starting arts and 
crafts in the Dar al-Ulum was being felt for a long time so that the 
graduates of the Dar al-Ulum, equipped with external independence from 
making arts and crafts the means of their livelihood, might render service 
to religion with freedom and contentedness. But at the same time it has 
also been taken into consideration that the skills that may be taught here 
should be such that may in themselves be seemly for the students and 
the ulema, and along with physical movements mental and intellectual 
thought and training may also be involved in learning them. Moreover, 
they may also fulfil on the whole the day to day human needs, and may 
also have in them the utmost utilitarian aspect. 

Along with the correct type of religious educatoin such an 
atmosphere has been created in the Dar al-Ulum whereby a strong 
Islamic character may be created in the students. And since the "prob- 
lem of bread" too in this age has become very important, it is necessary 
that along with education the students may also be taught such skills 
which may open up for them the ways of earning their livelihood so that 
they may neither be washed away like rubbish in the tide of time nor be- 
come worthless in the eyes of the people like those who make religion a 
means of livelihood; on the contrary, maintaining their moral weight, they 
may serve religion and be of use to the community. 

Accordingly, from 1365/1946 the training in arts and crafts has been 
started with the work of book-binding. In this department book-binding, 



tailoring and manufacturing of hold-alls, suit-cases, etc. — such light skills 
are taught. It is hoped that in future this department, due to its utility, 
will become a respectable means for the students' economic future 

PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 

From this division the monthly Urdu interpreter of the Dar al- 
Ulum, "Dar al-Ulum", Deoband, and the fortnightly newspaper in Arabic, 
"Al-Da'i" are published. The academical and religious articles of both 
these journals are popular in and outside the country. Through these jour- 
nals the stand of the Dar al-Ulum is presented and the articles and dis- 
courses of author-ulema are published m them. Besides these, through this 
Publications Division books published by the Dar al-Ulum are publicised. 

PHYSICAL EXERCISE DIVISION 

In this division there is arrangement for teaching different types of 
physical exercise. 

THE ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT 

Due to its speciality this department is very important. Its formation 
had taken place in the very next year of the establishment of the Dar al- 
Ulum. With regard to financial give and take every department of the Dar 
al-Ulum is connected with this department. One of its functions is to keep 
details department-wise and item-wise of every kind of income and 
expenditure. The most paltry sum and the most ordinary thing is not 
entered without receipt; similarly, no expenditure is made without a vou- 
cher. Through this very department the treasury of the Dar al-Ulum remains 
under the charge of the vice-chancellor. The entries of accounts, accord- 
ing to the current methods of accounting, are kept very neat and clear, and 
for auditing its door remains open to every man. Despite this, by-way of 
scrupulous care, the annual accounts are audited by registered auditors. 
The distribution of the students' stipends is also connected with this 
department. To audit the expenses done through other departments is also 
included in the functions of this department. 

The excellence of accounts of this department is generally appreciated. 
Once the famous businessman of Kanpur, Hafiz Muhammad Halim wrote in 
his inspection report that : — 

"the account of the Madrasah is very satisfactory, the entry of income 
and expenditure is done regularly, and a great good point is that the con- 
tribution of a contributor is spent in accordance with his intention". 



THE DEPARTMENT OF ORGANISATION & PROGRESS 

The work of this department is to collect finance for the Dar al-Ulum. 
A number of 'envoys' have been appointed to realise donations. The 
different parts of the country have been assigned to them. These envoys 
tour every nook and corner of the country and, more or less, from every- 
where they receive financial and moral help. This department is in exist- 
ence since A. H. 1355. The collection of cereals for the students is also 
done by the same department. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENDOWMENTS 

The mode of endowments had begun with the construction of the 
buildings of the Dar al-Ulum. From time to time the charitable continued 
to endow their small properties for the Dar al-Ulum. However, any such 
property through which enough of the expenses of the Dar al-Ulum may 
be met with is not there in the endowments of the Dar al-Ulum. These 
endowed properties are situated in different parts of India. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT 

Constitutionally, the department of management is the central point of 
the Dar al-Ulum. The management of all the departments and divisions, 
their supervision and the auditing of their expenses appertain to this 
department. The resolutions and decisions of the Majlis-e Shura and the 
Executive Council are enforced through this very department. Besides the 
internal supervision of the departments, it is through the same department 
that external relations with the country are maintained. Hence this depart- 
ment commands a special importance. For the important post of the 
management this principle has always been kept in view that such 
personalities may be selected for it who, besides having knowledge and 
learning, integrity and piety, and special capabilities in administrative 
affairs, may also command special influence and dignity in the country. 

The building of the management is situated above the main gate and 
had been constructed in A. H. 1315. 

RECORD OFFICE 

In its capacity as an office the Record Office has been interpreted as 
'the soul of administration" in the report of the Dar al-Ulum. The entire 
historical record (lit., wealth) of the Dar al-Ulum is safe in this office. 





%32 
it 1 


x- 1 1 

i 



i'iI" 



RECORD OFFICE 



LIBRARY (1st Floor) 

PERSIAN CLASS DAR AL-SANA'E 

(Left side) (Right side) 



247 

The Record Office is situatea in a two-storeyed room, adjacent to the 
management office The papers and documents of all the departments and 
divisions of the Dar al-Ulum are preserved in this very office. A particular 
colour has been fixed for the papers of each department. The papers of 
each department can be easily recognised by their different colours. 

LIBRARY 

In order to evolve a high standard of education that was envisioned by 
the elders of the Dar al-Ulum and to acquit themselves of the important 
responsibilites concerning the student's study, research and the writing 
and compilation of books, it was necessary to have a first class library, 
without which a high standard of teaching, learning and research cannot 
be maintained. With this object in view, efforts had been started with the 
establishment of the Dar al-Ulum itself. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was established in 1283/1866 This is the 
first-ever national and educational institution which, instead of depending 
upon the government, laid the basis of its expenses on public contribu- 
tions and gifts. The greatest need of the students is the supply of books 
without which the completion of education is impossible As such, 
simultaneously with the collection of public contributions the authorities* 
of the Dar al-Ulum had also started the process of supplying books. It was 
that time when the printing press had just been introduced in India. Books 
were scarce and were highly-priced. So initially this mode was adopted 
that books were borrowed for a short period from tfte scholar-gentlemen^ 
of the iocality and the vicinity These included textual as well as non- 
textual books, for, for the teachers' and the students' advancement in 
Knowledge and general information the collection- of the general non- 
textual books also is as important as that of the textual books. Accordingly, 
the Dar al-Ulum made an appeal to the country and the country 
responded to it whole-heartedly and books started coming. The people 
who possessed collections of manuscripts or published books gave books 
and those who did not have books but wanted to help the library, helped 
with cash to buy and collect books. And, thank Allah, this mode has been 
current for the last one hundred and fourteen years. In the library there is 
a great number of those books which the Sultan of Turkey Rashad Khan, 
the Nizam of the Deccan, Sultan Ibn Sa'ud of Arabia, Gamal Abdel Nasir, 
president of Arab Republic, and the kingdom of Afghanistan have donated 
to it. The majority of books in the library are those only which the Dar al- 
Ulum has recevied in the form of donation. 

In short, in this way a prodigious stock of books has been collected in 



248 

the library of the Dar al-Ulum to which additions are made day by day. The 
academic treasures of many learned families of India have been transferred 
to the library of the Dar al-Ulum. The number of books is more than a lakh 
out of which more than fifty thousand are non-textual and the remaining 
consist of text-books. This number is over and above those books which 
are being received from the sympathisers of the Dar al-Ulum every year, 
in thousands, on the occasion of the function of prize-distribution, under 
the head of prizes to successful students. In fine, in respect of quantity 
and quality, very few libraries in India can compare with the library of 
the Dar al-Ulum. Due to the novelty and abundance of books this library 
commands a distinct position amongst the libraries of India and the 
literati of India and foreign countries are always taking advantage 
of it. 

Besides published books in the library of the Dar al-Ulum, there are 
many manuscripts also, some of which are fairly scarce and some excep- 
tionally unique. If some are praiseworthy from the point of view of the art 
of calligraphy, some are worthy of attention on account of the antiquity of 
writing. Some of the books are in the. hand of the original authors and 
some are nonpareil in respect of illumination and artistry. Some of these 
have adorned royal libraries and hence have historical value and some are 
those which have been copied from the author's original manuscript or 
'have been in the hands of famous ulema There are a few such books also 
about which it can be asserted that another copy of them is not extant at 
present in any library of the world. As such, different libraries of the world 
have taken micro-films of many manuscripts of the library of the Dar 
al-Ulum. In fine, this library. is reckoned amongst the outstanding libraries 
of India. 

The library of the Dar al-ulum is divided into two sections : one is 
meant for text-books and the other contains non-textual books. Both the 
sections are managed separately. The average of issuing and returning text- 
books and their commentaries and scholia is fifteen thousand per annum. 

Language and subject have been taken into consideration in the 
arrangement and classification of books. That is, all the books belonging to 
one subject and topic have been put under that subject. Similarly, books 
have been again classified subject-wise and language-wise. The hall of 
Arabic is the bigget; then come Urdu books and a little less than them are 
the books of Persian. The books of all these three languages are in plenty. 
In respect of arrangement and classification, these books have been 
divided under 99 heads. The. details thereof are as follows: — 



249 

1- Holy Quran 

2. Cantillation (Tajvid) 

3 Principles of Exegesis (Usool-e Tafsir) 

4. Exegesis (Tafsir) 

5 Commentaries & Scholia of Exegesis. (Shuruh wa Hawashi-e Tafsir) 

6 Commandments of the Quran (Ahkam al-Quran). 

7. Alien Words in the Quran (Gharib al-Quran) 

8. Vowel Points in the Quran (I'rab al-Quran). 

9. The Abrogating and the Abrogated (Al-Nasikh.wal-Mansukh). 

10. The Causes of Revelation (Asbab al-Nazool). 

11. Accessories of the Quran (Mutalliqat al-Quran). 

12. The Derivation of the Verses (Istakhraj al-Aayat). 

13. The Topics of the Quran (Mazamin al-Quran). 

14. Translations of the Quran (Urdu). 

15. Translations of the Quran (Persian). 

16. Principles of Hadith (Usool-e Hadith): 

17. Hadith-e Sihah Sitta with Commentaries & Scholia. 

18. Masanid wa Sunan (Collections of Hadith). 

19. Other Collections of Hadith. 

20. The Fabricated (Hadiths) (Mauzuaat). 

21. Foreisn Words in Hadith (Gharib al-Hadith). 
22 The Derivation of Hadith (Istakhraj al-Hadith). 

23. The Art of Determining the Authenticity of the Narrators of Hadith 
(Asma al-Rijaal). 

24. Principles of the Hanafite Jurisprudence (Usool-e Fiqh-e Hanafi) 

25. Principles of the Shafi'ite Fiqh 
26- Principles of the Malekite Fiqh 
27. Principles of the Hanbalite Fiqh 



250 

28. Principles of Fiqh of the Ahl-e Hadith. 

29. The Hanafite Fiqh. 

30 Fatawa Hanafi (The Hanafite Fetwas). 

31. The Malekite Fiqh 

32. The Shafi'ite Fiqh. 

33. The Hanbalite Fiqh. 

34. The Externalists' Fiqh (Fiqh-e Ahl-e Zahir). 

35. The Fiqh of the Followers of Hadith (Fiqh-e Ahl-e Hadith). 
36 The Duties (Fara'iz). 

37. The Science of Beliefs & Scholastic Theology Cllm-e Aqa'id wa 
Kalam). 

38. The Religio-legal Wisdom (Hikmat-e Shari'yyah). 

39. The Science of Sufism (Prose) Cllm-e Tasawwuf in Prose). 
40 The Science of Sufism (Poetry) Cllm-e Tasawwuf in Poetry). 

41. The Science of Sufism (Epistles) Cllm-e Tasawwuf— Maktubaat) 

42. The Science of Sufism (Ana) Cllm-e Tasawwuf— Malfuzaat) 

43. Remembrance Formulae, Daily Offices & Theurgy (Awrad, Waza'if & 
Amaliyaat). 

44. Sermons & Morality (Mawa'iz wa Akhlaq). 

45. Arabic Literature (Prose). 

46. Arabic Literature (Poetry). 

47. Rhetorics Cllm-e Ma'ani) 

48. Syntax ("Mm al-IMahv). 

49. Conjugation Cllm al-Sarf) 

50. General History 

51. History of Civilisation & Culture 

52. History of Sciences and Religions 



251 

53. The Prophets Biography (Sirat al-Nabi) 

54. Biographies of the Companions. 

55. Biographies of Jurisconsults, Traditionists & Other Ulema 

56. Memoirs of the Ulema of Deoband 

57. Biographies of Eminent Saints. 

58. Memoirs of Poets 

59. Encyclopedia (Da'irat al-Ma"arif) 

60. Travel Books 

61. Particulars of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband 

62. Genealogies (Ansaab) 

63. Catalogue of Books (Fihras al-Kutub) 

64. Collectanea 

65. Miscellaneous 

66. The Sciences of Geology ("llm-e Tabaqat al-Ard) 

67. The Science of Chemistry ('Mm al-Kimiya) 

68. The Science of Agriculture Clm al-Zira'at) 

69. The Science of Phonology & Animals 

70. Curricular Books of Kuwait & Egypt 

71. Politics 

72. Philosophy 

73. Logic 

74. Astronomy 

75. Economics 

76. Newspapers & Journals 

77. Sociology & General Knowledge 

78. Geography 

79. Medicine (Tibb) 

■y 

80. Interpretation of Dreams 



252 

81. Books of the Scripturaries (Kutub-e Ahle-Kitab). 

82. Books of Hindu Scriptures or Religious Code. 

83. Principles of Polemics. 

84. Books of Different Religions. 

85. Refutation of Christianity. 

86. Books of Christianity. 

87. Refutation of Qadianism. 

88. Books of the Qadiani Sect or Religion. 

89. Refutation of Innovation 

90. Books of the Innovators 

91. Refutation of the Schismatics (Radd-e Rawafiz) 
92 Books of the Shia Sect- 

93. Refutation of Naturalism 

94. Refutation of Khaksarism (Allamah Mashriqi's Movement) 

95. Books on Khaksarism 

96. Refutation of the Mahdavi Sect 
■97. Books of the Mahdavi Sect 

98. Books of the Baha'i Sect 

99. Refutation of the Baha'i Sect 

Detailed catalogues of all the non-textual books are present in which 
the title of the book, number, subject, language, authors name, press, year' 
of publication — and if it is a manuscript, then the copyist's name and 
the year of copying — are written; and in the last column of the catalogue 
are mentioned the numbers of the pages of the book. 

Besides this, the modern card system is used for taking out a book and 
these ..cards have been prepared in alphabetical order, according to the 
current system in the libraries. 

In the library of the Dai al-Ulum, besides books of Arabic, Persian and 







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A SCENE OF DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND CAMPUS. 





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DAR-E JADID 



253 

Urdu, books in different languages like English, Roman, Greek, Turkish, 
Indonesian, Sanskrit, Hindi, Tamil, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Marahti, 
Kannad, Pushtu and Punjabi, more or less, on different subjects, are also 
present. 

Over and above the published books, as has been shown above, a 
sufficient stock of manuscripts is also present. A descriptive catalogue of 
these manuscripts is being published. Two volumes of it have already 
been printed. The first volume consists of manuscripts only on Tafsir, 
Hadith, Fiqh, Beliefs and Scholastic Theology. The second volume gives an 
introduction to the manuscripts of Sufism, history, rhetorics, Arabic litera- 
ture, lexicon, philosophy, logic, astronomy, conjugation and syntax, 
polemics, medicine (Tibb), miscellaneous, Persian literature and Urdu 
literature. 

Research scholars often visit the library of the Dar al-Ulum to derive 
benefit from its rare and unique academic stock. In the past few years 
many research scholars from England, Germany, America and Japan, 
besides those from India, have been benefitting in their research work 
from the library of the Dar al-Ulum. All possible facility is provided by the 
Dar al-Ulum to such people. 

The library building is situated in the south-eastern corner of the Dar 
ul-Ulum. This magnificent building consists of eight big and small rooms 
and three wide halls. The present building of the library was begun in 
1325/1908. Incipiently there was only one hall and one room; thereafter 
additions were made to it from time to time, and now this building 
sprawls over a large area. 

Besides books, reasonable arrangement has been made in the library 
for reading newspapers and journals also. Files of old issues of newspap- 
ers and journals have been bound like books and preserved in the library 
in sufficient numbers. 

In A. H. 1396 (i. e., 1976) the number of readers in the library of the 
Dar al-Ulum was 25,360. 

THE KITCHEN DIVISION 

Before the establishment of the kitchen the arrangement for providing 
board to the outside students was this that the board of some students 
was the responsibility of the townspeople. The charitable among them 
used to feed one or two students each. And some students were given 
board-money wherewith they used to make their own arrangement. This 



254 

second mode was very bothersome to the students, harmful to their 
engrossment in studies. To remove this difficulty, instead of giving cash 
stipend for board, a kitchen was established in 1328/1910. In the first year 
food for only 25 to 30 scholars was being prepared; gradually this number 
has now reached one thousand. The kitchen had begun with only one 
cook; now it has a staff of 28 individuals. 

The system of the distribution of food is that every scholar has round, 
aluminium tickets, separate for morning and evening. With the words 
'morning' and 'evening' clearly engraved on them, these tickets have also 
been made distinctive or distinguishable by different colours. Numbers are 
engraved on the tickets and of each number there are two tickets for 
morning and evening. The number of the ticket of each scholar is the same 
which is mentioned against his name in the register of food-receiving 
scholars. In this way the scholars get their food very easily. 

Every scholar gets at a time two tannuri (oven-baked) breads, the dry 
flour of each weighing 250 grams. Meat is cooked for the dinner and dal 
(pulse) is given for lunch. Biryani is given once a week. There is provision 
for buying food also from the kitchen in which, besides the afore-said two 
dishes, two more kinds of food dishes are also available. Medically 
prescribed food is also prepared for sick students. The kitchen building, 
which is divided into several parts, is situated in the southern corner of 
the compound of the Dar al-Ulum. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION 

The mode of constructing buildings in the Dar al-Ulum has always been 
this that the charitable were paying attention towards constructional needs 
from time to time and buildings were being constructed in proportion to 
income. It never happened that a building might have been completed 
before inauguration, as is usually the mode that first the building is 
constructed according to the plan and then the work of teaching is 
started. Contrary to this, as and when need arose and sincere slaves of Al- 
lah showed readiness for its construction, the buildings were gradually 
erected. Generally the process of constructions continues every year. The 
total value of the sums spent on constructions in the Dar al-Ulum till A. H. 
1382 is Rs. 1,100,891. 

THE HOSTEL DIVISION 

The hostel comprises eight wide compounds and 210 rooms which 
accommodate more or less one thousand students. The allotment of rooms 



255 

to students, moral supervision over them and the settlement of their 
quarrels are the concern of the Dar al-lqama and these works are dis- 
charged through the teachers. Respect for law, obedience to the elders, 
mutual love, sincerity and tolerance are the special features of the ethos 
of the students of the Dar al-Ulum. Seeing the firm and consummate 
discipline of the students, Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan, vice-chancellor 
of Muslim University, Aligarh, said once : "The thing that impressed 
me most in the Dar al-Ulum is the students' discipline. Would that such 
discipline be the lot of Aligarh also"! 

Nevertheless, in such an assemblage of individuals of different 
natures, the occurrence of some disagreeable incidents is but natural to 
which no assemblage in the world can be an exception. Then, at that, in 
the educational institutions it is a gathering of young men whose life is in 
the stage of "youth is a kind of madness", on account of which some- 
times grievance and indignation are created due to ordinary things and 
the occurrence of mad acts becomes inevitable. Confronted with such an 
occasion it is the duty of the Dar al-lqama to take immediate steps and in 
the light of the parties' statements and evidences issue a religio-lega 
judgement. 

THE DIVISION FOR THE CENTENARY CELEBRATION 

The purpose of this division is to establish and maintain rapport with 
the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum. A record of the religious, educational, 
social, political and other services which the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum 
are rendering in other fields is prepared through this division. This divi- 
sion has prepared such maps and graphs from which the performance of 
the Dar al-Ulum can be known at a glance. Preparations are afoot on a 
gigantic scale for the centenary celebration and the expected huge 
gathering of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, through this division. Maulana 
Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi is the head of this division. 

THE SANITARY DIVISION 

Public health is to a great extent dependent on sanitation; hence very 
great care is taken in the Dar al-Ulum in this regard and more or less ten 
to twelve sweepers and two water-carriers are pemanently on the staff 
for this work. 

THE ELECTRICAL DIVISION (LIGHT & WATER) 

There is arrangement of electric light in the Dar al-Ulum. Electric fans 
have been installed in class-rooms, offices and the mosque, and electric 



bulbs on the pathways. There are some fixed class-rooms for the students' 
study and reading at night for which light is provided during fixed hours. 

For potable water there are several wells and in the hostel compounds 
boring pipes and taps have been provided. There has been fixed an 
electric motor to fill the fountain (hauz) of the mosque and there is also a 
tube-well for irrigation. 

THE EXTERNAL AFFAIRS DIVISION 

. Necessary steps are taken in connection with the passport, visa, etc. for 
the foreign students and railway concession is provided for the common 
students in this division. 

GRADUAL ADDITIONS TO THE DEPARTMENTS & DIVISIONS 

The Dar al-Ulum had started firstly with the education department 
and the management office. The obligation of the latter was to supply 
finances and look after the administrative affairs. Gradually, as per need, 
departments were being added. The accounts department for maintaining 
accounts of income and expenditure and when a sufficient number of 
books had been collected the library department were added After the 
excess of legal queries the department of Dar al-lfta was opened. For 
security the department of watchmen was .started. For the students' 
medical treatment and their economic convenience in the future the 
department of Tibb came into being. To convey religious information and 
propositions (masa'il) the department of preaching was established. To 
publicise the tack of the Dar al-Ulum various monthlies were issued. For 
the boarding facility of the students the kitchen division was opened. For 
the construction of new buildings and the repairs of the old ones the 
department of building and construction was established. Similarly, gradu- 
ally, the department of endowments for the protection of the endowed 
property of the Dar al-Ulum, the department of copy-writing for improving 
the students' handwriting and their economic need, the sanitation division 
for cleanliness; the Record Office for the preservation and arrangement of 
documents; the department of organisation and development for supply- 
ing finances from the country, the Daral-lqama for making arrangements for 
the students staying in the hostels, the electrical division for light and 
water, the House of Craft for creating industrial inclination among the 
students, the division of external affairs for regulating of the affairs the 
foreign students; the department of Old Boys Association for organising 
the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum,- the Majlis-e Ma'arif al-Quran for 
academic life which has so far published many books on Islamic and 
historical topics, have been established. All these different departments 
and divisions have come into being at different times. 



THE BUILDINGS OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

The buildings of the Dar al-Ulum, in the north-west of Deoband, are 
surrounded on all the four sides by a long wall. There being left no more 
space within the compound of the Dar al-Ulum, some recent buildings 
have been built outside the compound also. The total area of all these 
buildings comes to 92,000 sq. feet. The details about these buildings of 
the Dar al-Ulum have already been given in Chapter II under the yearly 
annals, but since they have been mentioned there separately, it will not be 
inapt to outline them all here collectively so that the respectable readers 
may get some idea of the spaciousness, greatness and shape of the build- 
ings of the Dar al-Ulum, although buildings are not a necessary adjunct of a 
teaching institution. In the good old days teachers used to teach sitting in 
mosques and under the shade of trees; but those interested in an institu- 
tion naturally wish to know its plan as well as the lay of the land. Nav- 
darah, Dar al-Hadith, Dar al-Tafsir, library, management office, Dar al-lfta, 
the long chain of Dar-e Jadid, Bab al-Zahir, Guest House, Jamia-e Tibbia, 
and the Kitchen,- these are the main buildings of the Dar al-Ulum. 

Besides being the starting point of the buildings of the Dar al-Ulum, 
the Dar al-Hadith, by reason of its loftiness, extensiveness and grandeur, 
commands a distinctive position among all the buildings of the Dar al- 
Ulum. It was firstly begun under the name Nav-darah in 1293/1876. The 
two-storeyed building of the Nav-darah faces the east; its ground floor 
contains three halls, each 36 by 25 sq. ft., and in front of which there is a 
long 9-doored verandah. On the upper storey there is a wide hall the area 
of which is 68 by 35 sq. ft. The lessons of Daura-e Hadith are given here 
and hence it is known as Fauqani^Dar al-Hadith. Its upper storey was 
constructed in 1352/1933. 

Behind the back of the Nav-darah, towards the west, is the grand and 
monumental building of the Dar al-Hadith. Bearing the name of Dar al- 
Hadith, it is the first building of its kind on the land of the subcontinent. 
The length of the hall of the Dar al-Hadith is 68 ft. and its width is 35 ft. 
There are thirteen rooms around it which are used as class-rooms The Nav- 
darah faces east and the Dar al-Hadith, west. In this direction there is a 
verandah of stone pillars. In front of the Dar al-Hadith there is a wide 
ground on which has been laid out a garden. This building was completed 
in 1349/1930. 

Above the Dar al-Hadith is the hall of the Dar al-Tafsir which is 30 by 



258 

30 sq.ft. Its dome is visible from miles and it looks as if a crown has been 
laid on the head of the Dar al-Ulum. This building was constructed in 
1358/1939. 

There is a quadrangular courtyard in front of the Nav-darah; it is known 
as lhata-e Maulsari (the Maulsari Compound). The famous historical well of 
the Dar al-Ulum is situated in this very compound. The office of the Preach- 
ing Department is also here. Around the courtyard of the Nav-darah there 
are some class-rooms and students' lodgings also. At the end of the 
courtyard, towards the east, there is a gate which is known as Bab-e 
Qasim. The building of the Dar al-!htemam is situated above this gate. 
Administratively the Dar al-lhtemam is the central point — the core — of 
the Dar al-Ulum. The sessions of the Majlis-e Shura and the Executive 
Council are held here only. This building had been built in 1315/1897. Its 
chronogram is "Ja-e 'Ajeeb-o Ghareeb" (A.H. 1315). 

To the east of the Dar al-lhtemam is the office of the management and 
to the latter's north is the office of the "Dar al-Ulum" magazine, and the 
office of the Dar al-lqama (Hostel) is also here. In the south is the Record 
Office, in which records of the Dar al-Ulum of more than a century have 
been preserved. This two-storeyed building was built in 1355/1936. 

Towards the east of the Record Office, that is, exactly opposite the 
office of the management, to the south is the Accounts Office. This build- 
ing was built in 1317/1899. This office is responsible for all the income 
and expenditure of the Dar al-Ulum. The treasury of the Dar al-Ulum is kept 
iri a strong room of the same building. Between the Accounts Office and 
the Office of the Management there is an expansive courtyard the gate of 
which opens on the road. In the lower storey of both these offices are 
located the office of the Electrical Division and the Department of 
Construction, and the office of the External Affairs is situated above them, 
and nearby is the office of the Majlis-e Ma'arif al-Quran accommodated in 
a spacious hall. 

Towards the north-east of the office of management is the beautiful and 
attractive two-storeyed mosque of the Dar al-Ulum the facade, pillars and 
minarets of which have been built with almond-coloured stones containing 
lovely and exquisite anastatic ball-flowers. This mosque was constructed 
in 1327/1909 and it is a masterpiece of the fine art of stone-carving. At the 
end of the courtyard of the mosque is the cistern of water. The area of the 
mosque proper is 42 by 33 sq.ft., the courtyard is 50 feet wide and 118 
feet long. To the north and south of the mosque are hostel-rooms of the 
students. 



259 

In the eastern direction of the courtyard of the mosque, just above the 
fountain of water, is situated the building of the Dar al-lfta. This large and 
spacious building consists of three halls in front of which there is a veran- 
dah. This is the largest Dar al-lfta in the continent of Asia from which 
hundreds of thousands of Muslims in and outside India acquire guidance 
in religio-legal (shara'i) matters through correspondence. It was built in 
1367/1948. The post office is just near the Dar al-lfta and is known as "Dar 
al-Ulum Post Office". 

There are 107 rooms of the New Hostel around the ground of the Dar 
al-Hadith 1 . In front of these rooms there are long verandahs of high arches. 
The area of each room of the hostel is 19 by 18 ft. and the area of this 
whole compound is 500 by 361 sq. ft. Its construction began in 1338/1919 
and was completed in 1364/1945. Now rooms have been built on its first 
floor. On each room of the hostel the name of the donor with whose 
money it has been built has been inscribed on a marble slab. There are 
two roads in the compound of the hostel crossing each other and dividing 
the compound into four plots. These plots have been laid with gardens. 

To the north, south and west of the hostel there are three large gates. 
The western gate is known as Bab al-Zahir, which is a memorial of the 
journey to Afghanistan of Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, vice- 
chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and the monetary gift of the ex- 
king of Afghanistan, Muhammad Zahir Shah. It was built in 1359/1940. Its 
area is 54 by 42 sq. ft. There are three auditoriums of chirography in it. 
Facing the Bal al-Zahir there is a concrete road which the Municipal Board 
of Deoband has named Dar al-Ulum Road. This road connects the Dar al- 
Ulum with the railway station. 

At some distance from the Dar al-Hadith, in the south-east, there are 
five auditoriums of the Dar al-Quran, built in 1368/1949. The area of each 
one of them is 25 by 21 sq.ft. 

The Kitchen building, which is near the Dar al-Quran, consists of several 
parts. Office, godown of raw materials, godown of fuel, halls for cooking, 
hall for distribution of food; the collective name of all these buildinds is 
Kitchen in which food for one thousand students is cooked daily for both 
the times. Near the Kitchen, on the first floor of the Dar-e Jadid, two new 
auditoriums have been built. 

1. Besides the New Hostel, there are lodgings for students separately at different places 
The total number of rooms of the hostel is 210 in which 177 students can be acco- 
mmodated. It is necessary to point out here that because of lack of sufficient rooms in 
the campus of the Dar al-Ulum for accommodating the boarders, many students have to 
live in rented houses and mosques in the town 



260 

While entering the campus of the university through the eastern gate, 
comes the office of the Electrical Division in the lower storey on the left 
side. The Accounts Office which has been mentioned in the foregone is 
just above this office. A passage parallel to this electrical office goes to 
the compound of the library. Here on the ground floor, besides the Dar 
al-Sana'e, there is also the office of Awqaf, and on the upper floor there 
is the long building of the library. The library building consists of three 
large halls and eight rooms. There is here a stock of more than 100,000 
books details of which have been mentioned in Chapter VIII. The 
construction of the library building began in 1325/1907; its third hall has 
been constructed recently, i.e., in A.H. 1396. 

This library is the very soul of the Dar al-Ulum and a matchless 
wealth of the generosity of the Muslims of the subcontinent. There is 
such a large stock of text-books here that it may be hardly present 
elsewhere. 

On the lower storey of the library itself is located, in the south, the 
office of Organisation and Progress. This department provides finances for 
the Dar al-Ulum. There is a blooming garden in its courtyard. The upper 
storey belongs 'to the library. 

Behind this Office of Organisation and Progress is the Chhatta Mosque. 
It is the same old mosque in the courtyard of which, under the pomegra- 
nate tree, the Dar al-Ulum had been inaugurated in 1283/1866. The area 
of this mosque is 84 by 40 sq.ft. 

' If you enter the Dar al-Ulum through its eastern gate, outside the 
compound of the Dar al-Ulum, just opposite the Mosque of the Dar al- 
Ulum, to the east of the public thoroughfare, you will see a palatial two- 
storeyed building. This is the Guest House of the Dar al-Ulum which was 
built in 1377/1958. On the lower storey there are residential quarters for 
teachers and above them is the spacious building of the Guest House, 
consisting of several rooms and a number of verandahs. Its area is 115 by 
80 sq.ft. Beside the Guest House, to the east, there is another dignified 
two-storeyed building, having six houses,- the office of the Centenary 
Celebrations is located in one of these houses. 

The buildings of the Jamia-e Tibbia of the Dar al-Ulum are situated to 
the north of the Dar al-Talaba (Hostel) and Bab al-Zahir, at some distance 
from them. There are several halls and verandahs in the Jamia-e Tibbia, 
and two general wards for indoor patients. 




BAB AL-ZAHIR 
WESTER GATE 




kr 



GUEST HOUSE 



261 

Behind the back of the Jamia-e Tibbia is the building of the Afnqui 
Manzil, which is still under construction; when completed, it will be one 
of the excellent buildings of the Dar al-Ulum. 

A new hostel has been built for students behind the Kitchen also. As 
regards the buildings of the Dar al-Ulum it should be particularly kept in 
mind that these buildings have not been constructed simultaneously 
according to a preplanned map, as it is evident from the years of their 
construction. On the contrary, as the Dar al-Ulum progressed the buildings 
too came up as per requirements; this process still continues and, God 
willing, it is expected to continue in the future also. 

There is hope of success through the effort of the generous and 
certainty of success in the work through Divine Grace! 



262 
NAMES OF RESPECTABLE VISITORS 

1. Muhammad Abd al-Vahid, Munsif, Rohtak. 

2. Sayyid Muhammad Husain, Minister, Patiala State. 

3. Sayyid Muhammad Shah Muhaddith Rampuri. 

4. P. C. Pasgot, Joint Magistrate, Saharanpur. 

5. R. P. Dewhurst, Judge, Saharanpur. 

6. J. D. La Touche, Lt. Governor, U. P. 

7. Nawab Ahmed Hasan Khan, Ra'ees-e Hasanpur. 

8. Muhammad Niyazud-Din Khan, Extra Commissioner, Punjab. 

9. Maulana Fateh Muhammad Lakhnavi. 

10. Sayyid Muhammad Ibrahim, Engineer, Lucknow. 

11. Maulana Anwarullah Khan, Hyderabad. 

12. Masih al-Mulk Hakim Muhammad Ajmal Khan, Delhi. 

13. Commissioner, Meerut Division. 

14. Amir Hasan, Deputy Collector,-Saharanpur. 

15. Sayyid Zamirud-Din, Chief Secretary, Bhopal State. 

16. Maulana Shaukat Ali. 

17. Maulana Abd al-Bari Farangimahli, Lucknow. 

18: Nawab Latif Yar Jung Bahadur, Hyderabad, Deccan 

19. Nawab Muhammad Is'mail Khan, Meerut & Qazi Masud Hasan 
Gangohi, Meerut. 

20. Sulaiman Yusuf Mullan, Durban, South Africa. 

21. Zia al-lslam, First Class Magistrate, Kandhla. 

22. Muhammad Isma'il & Muhamma Idris, Calcutta. 

23. Dr. Prof. Julius Germanus Abd al-Karim, Budapest University, Hungray. 

24. Muhammad yusuf al-Zaman Farouqi, Munsif, Deoband. 



25. Fazl llahi, Mayor, Calcutta. 

26. Abd al-Wahhab al-Najjar, Muhammad Ahmed Al-Adwi . & 
Muhammad Ibrahim. 

27. Sayyid Muhi al-Din, Principal, Osmama College, Awrangabad, 
Deccan. 

28. Prof. Guy Wint, Oxford University, England. 

29. M. I. Shah Kiochen, President, Chinese Muslim Mission to Jama-e 
Azhar, Egypt. 

30. Mahmud Ali Khan, Shimla, Bhopal State. 

31. Nawab Bahadur yar Jung, Hyderabad. 

32. Fateh al-Din, Adviser, Punjab Government. 

33. Dr. Shafa'at Ahmed Khan. 

34. Nawab Sadr Yar Jung Maulana Habib al-Rahman Khan Shirwani. 

35. Abd al-Rasheed, B. A., LL. B., Secretary, Municipal Committee, 
Ludhiana. 

.36. Bishwanath Mukerjee, Divisional Accountant, Agricultural Dept., U. P. 

37. Muhammad Mohsin, Income-Tax Inspector, Delhi. 

38. Muhammad Osman K Woo, Delegate; Chinese Federation. 

39. Dr. Ahmed Jalal al-Din, Lahore. 

40. J. D. Shukla, I. C. S., Collector, Saharanpur. 

41. Gang^ Singh, Principal, Missionary College, Amritsar. 

42. District Magistrate, Saharanpur. 

43. Prof. Mrs. Kulsum Sayani, Editor, Rehbar, Bombay. 

44. Sardar Najeeb Allah Khan, Ambassador, Afghanistan 

45. M. A. Amin, Deputy Director, All India Raido, New Delhi. 

46. Muhammad Abd al-Fattah. 

47. Ali Amir Mu'izz. 

48. Shaikh Muhammad Mustansirullah, Lucknow. 



264 

49. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Education Minister, Govt, of India. 

50. L. S. Bisht, IPS., Saharanpur. 

51. Abd al-Lateef, Minister of Justice & Health, Govt, of Burma. 

52. Anwar al-Sadat, Minister, Govt, of Esypt (present President of 

Egypt). 

53. Ali Asghar Hekmat, Ambassador of Iran for India. 

54. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, President of the Republic of India. 

55. Muhammad Zahir Shah, Ex-king of Afghanistan. 
56 H. M. Husain, Secunderabad. 

57. Niyaz Berkes, Turkey. 

58. Shaikh S'ad, Shaikh Ali & Shaikh Husain Hejazi. 

59. C. L. Mathur, Staff Reporter, Hindustan Times, Delhi. 

60. Salejee, 140, Queen Street, Durban, South Africa. 

61. Dr. P. Hardey, University of London, Ensland. 

62. J. D. Anderson, University of London, England. 

63. Prof. Humayun Kabir, Minister, Govt, of India. 

64. Muhammad Yusuf Francis, Trinidad, West Indes. 

65. Basudev Singh, Registrar, Board of Indian Medicine, U. P., Lucknow. 

66. Jagdish Sahai, Justice, Allahabad. 

67. Savitri Shiyam, M. L. C; Shiv Rajvati Nehru, M. L. C. ; Sa'eed al-Hasan, 
M. L. C. & Ishaq Sanbhali, M. L. C. 

68. Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, Aleppo University, Syria. 

69. Abd al-Sattar Amin, Embassy, United Arab Republic. 

70. Al-Shankavi, Embassy, United Arab Republic. 

71. Ajit Prasad Jain, Governor, Kerala. 

72. Ibrahim Khalil, Afghanistan. 

73. Darbari Lai Sharma, U. P. Legislative Council, Lucknow. 



74. K. Laxman Shastri, Member, Classical Language Development 
Committee, Andhra Pradesh. 

75. Shaikh Muhammd Abdullah, Chief Minister, Jammu & Kashmir. 
H. A. Hameed, America. 

77. Omar Abu Reesha, Ambassador, Syria. 

78. Anas Yusuf Yasin, Ambassador, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 

79. Isa Siraj al— Din, Ambassador, Egypt. 
Muhammad Farouq, Kashmir. 
B. Gopala Reddi, Governor, U. P. 
Gilbert A. James, Indian Revenue Service, Dehra Dun. 
Mahadeo Prasad, Govt. Chief Whip, Govt, of India. 
Ramchandra Wukal, MP. 



William R. Roff, Prof, of History, Columbia University, New York; 
U. S. A. 

86. J. P. S. Uberoi, Professor of Sociology, Delhi University. 

87. Nazim-e Amumi-e Rabeta-e A'.lami, Mecca. 

88. Dr. Muhammad Ishaq, University of Dacca, (Bangla Desh). 

89. Akbar Ali Khan, Governor, U. P. 

90. Christian W. Trounj, Germany. 

91. Abd al-Khaliq, Deputy Secretary, Law Dept., Govt, of Jammu & 
Kashmir. 

92. Dr. Muhammad Yugel, Civil Engineer, Istanbul. ■ 

93. Shehbaz Husain, Taraqqi-e Urdu Board, Education Dept., Govt, of 
India. 

94. Wafad-e Rabeta-e Ulama-e Iraq, Baghdad. 

95. Shaikh Muhammad al-Hakim, Mufti of Aleppo, Syria. 

96. Tan Sri Haji Abd al-Khaliq, High Commissioner, Malaysia. 

97. Abd al-Haleem Mahmud, Shaikh ol-Azhar, Cairo. 



266 

98. Ali Ubayd Muhammad Ghazali,U. A. E. 

99. Muhammad Al-Faham, Ex-Shaikh al-Azhar, Cairo. 

100. Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim Rifa'i, Ex-Minister, Kuwait. 

101. Abd al-Mui'zz Abd al-Sattar, Qatar. 

102. Manzoor A'lam Quraishi, Indian Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. 

103. Husam al-Din. 

104. FJasudev Singh, Speaker, Uttar Pradesh Assembly. 

105. Fakhr al-Din Ahmed, President, Republic of India. 

106. Fatahi Abd al-Hameed, Tanzim-e Azadi-e Falasteen, Delhi. 

107. Mahendra Pratap Singh. 

108. Hakim Abd al-Hameed, Hamdard Dawakhana, Delhi. 

109. Maqbool Abd al-Kafi, Mecca. 

110. Two Inspections in Verse by Haji Zia al— Islam Zia, First Class 
Magistrate, Kandhla & Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Editor, Zamindar, 
Lahore. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY 

OBSERVATIONS & IMPRESSIONS OF DIGNIFIED VISITORS 

.Even as the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has achieved universal fame, glory 
and popularity on account of its academic, educational, cultural and poli- 
tical services, it has also been the focal point and centre of the attentions 
and visits of the famous luminaries of the world and political leaders, 
particularly the responsible men of the Government of India. 

After reading the chronicles of the Dar al-Ulum from the pen of its own 
chronicler, it will be more interesting to read the views of scholar-critics, 
who, after inspecting the Dar al-Ulum personally, have thrown light upon 
its centrality, world-wide benefaction and religious services; its teachers' 
academical maturity, sincerity, altruism, good morals and simple Islamic 
life; its students' zest for education and high character,- its functionaries' 
dutifulness, labour and integrity; the excellence of its accounts, its obliga- 
tory cleanliness, abundance of books, and other necessary details of 
important matters. Most of these critics are famous personalities and 
distinguished ulema of the Islamic world. Amongst these visitors are 
included, besides the Muslims of India and outside world, all sorts of 
.people of different denominations and different thoughts: there are critics 
of old and new educational matters as well as expert auditors,- officers 
as well as men of substance,- merchants as well as scholars; editors of 
journals as well as lawyers,- the intelligentsia as well as leaders of the 
nation,- engineers as well as physicians and doctors; Muslims as well as 
non-Muslims,- Hindus, Sikhs and Europeans as well as Arabs, Chinese and 
Africans. In short, people of different countries, different nations and 
different angles of vision are amongst those who have inspected the Dar 
al-Ulum, and each one of them has acknowledged the importance of the 
Dar al-Ulum according to his own view-point, and has freely expressed his 
views and impressions. 

Besides Urdu, most of these inspection reports are in Arabic, Persian, 
Turkish, English, Hindi, Chinese and several other languages. While the 
reports in English are being reproduced here verbatim, the reports in other 
languages have been so translated as to give a fair idea to the reader of 
the views, style and manner of thinking of the visitors of different periods. 

It can be estimated from these inspection reports as to what the 



268 

judicious of the world think about the Dar al-Ulum. These reports have 
been inscribed in several bulky volumes and have often been published in 
the annual reports of the Dar al-Ulum also. To reproduce them all would 
cause unpleasant prolixity and hence it is considered apt to give here a 
selection of excerpts only. And here they are : — 

(1)"l came to Madrasa-e Deoband by chance. This is an extremely 
good madrasah. It will not be enough howevermuch are praised the build- 
ing of the madrasah and its cleanliness and methods of teaching and the 
teachers' engrossment and the students' effort in the Arabic and Persian 
classes etc. that I have witnessed. The office is extremely well-arranged 
and well-kept. All kinds of books of Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh, Usui, etc. which 
cannot be easily had are available in this madrasah and can be very 
quickly taken out (of the shelves). At night I have seen that the students, 
due to their own sincere eagerness, busy themselves in studies soon after 
duskfall. I saw the Islamic madrasahs in the Punjab, Delhi and Purab (east- 
ern U. P.), but this exquisite method in which every thing has been exce- 
llently taken care of was not to be seen there. May Allah Most High bestow 
progress from day to day in its superiority, blessings and dissemination"! 

Muhammad Abd al-Vahid, 

Munsif, Rohtak. 

4th Muharram, A. H. 1306'. 

(2)"Today I saw the Madrasa-e Islamia, Deoband. I was very much 
pleased to know that now there are three hundred students in the 
madrasah. The building of the madrasah is strong and good-looking. 
Cleanliness is very good. Today the students were busy in taking the 
written examination. This is the 29th year of the starting of this madrasah. 
Allah always blesses a thing which is done with sincerity of purpose and 
sound determination. This existence of the madrasah is the result of the 
soundess of intention, determination and preseverance of its renowned 
ulema, Maulavi Muhammad Qasim (Allah's mercy be on him!), Maulavi 
Muhammad Yaqub and their companions. In my opinion, if there is any 
method for the survival of the ancient method of education, it is this only. 
The people who are desirous of finding gainful employment through the 
present-day education and are concerned only with their religion and the 
method of education of their elders can no doubt derive many benefits 
from this madrasah; and in the present times when there are countless 
madrasahs and schools for the acquirement of education concerning liveli- 
hood, the existence of this particular type of institution and such zestful 
students both are great boons. It is my sincere invocation that Allah Most 
Glorious may keep all the sects of Muslims flourishing and successful. And 

1. It Is regrettable that the record of such reports before A. H. 1306 is not available. 



may Allah Most High bless those matters whereby the survival and revival 
of the religion of Islam and special affairs of the customs of the followers 
of Islam are possible and conceivable"! 

Sayyid Muhammad Husam, 

Minister, Patiala State, 

5th Sha'ban, A.H. 1311. 

(3) "I inspected this Madrasa-e A'liya of Deoband. According to me, it 
is better than and superior to most of the Islamic madrasahs. In its build- 
ing, durability and the comfort of its teachers and ulema have been more 
contemplated. Its ulema and students were found to be orthodox, posses- 
sors of laudable morals and men of accomplishments- The educationa 
syllabus is such that the student thereof will not remain incompetent in any 
one of the well-known current sciences. It also became apparent from 
marking the conditions that to have regard for conforming to the Sunnah in 
word and deed is the objective. But I do say this much that from the 
books of Persian that may be taught, rational topics and sufistic subtleties 
and such topics that may be considered harmful in the interest of children 
and young men should be expurgated". 

Sayyid Muhammad Shah Ibn Sayyid Hasan Shah 

Muhaddith Rampuri, 

20th Shawwal, A.H. 1314. 

(4) "I have had much unusual pleasure in visiting the Arabic School at 
Deoband. It is difficult for any one who passes through the gateway into 
the open courtyard, with its shrubs and flowers and its spacious cloisters 
thronged with busy students, not to believe that he has left the dirty little 
town of Deoband a thousand miles away. As regards construction the 
place seems to me an ideal college building for India. I do not profess to 
be able to form an independent judgement as to the character of its 
teaching, but the presence of the students from such places as Surat, 
Kabul and Balkh is sufficient evidence of the reputation of the college. The 
institution seems to me thoroughly calculated to meet one of the great 
needs of the day. I have much pleasure in adding my name to the list of its 
subscribers". 

Sd. P. C. Paggot, 
Joint Magistrate, 

Saharanpur. 

April 6, 1897. 



270 

(5) "\ visited the Arabic Madrasah at Deoband on the 29th and was 
very greatly pleased at what I saw. The institution occupies a unique 
position as it attracts Ha,,dfee Sunni Muslims not only from all parts of 
Jndia but from distant Bukhara and even countries from Arabia itself. 
Although the primary objective of the institution is the teaching of Islamic 
theology I was glad to find that Arabic literature is also cultivated, and 
that many of the students are able to compose with facility in the 
language. Several of them have even committed to memory substantial 
portions of the Makamat of Hariri. Personally I am not at all in sympathy 
with those who would recommend modifications which would make the 
school lose its distinctive character by introducing other practical sub- 
jects into the curriculum. The school by attempting any such compromise 
will only forfeit the special features which now give it its pre-eminent 
position. Parents or students who desire a modern scientific education on 
occidental lines can obtain it in countless places without coming to 
Deoband. I think that the aim of the management should be to maintain 
the distinctive character of the madrasah as an institution in which undi- 
vided and special attention is concentrated on Arabic theology, logic, 
language and literature. It is satisfactory to find many old alumni of the 
school devoting themselves singleheartedly to the work of teaching" 

R". P. Dewhurst, 

Judge, Saharanpur. 

March 29, 1902. 

(6) "I today paid a visit to the Arabic School That the school is 

held in high estimation by the Musalman Community is proved by the 
large concourse of students from all parts of India who attend the 
school, and I was assured that the student who has passed through the 
course of study in this school fails not to secure a respectable position 
in life, while the school is held to confer a satisfactory guarantee of an 
elevated moral training. 

"I wish every success to this independent and earnest effort to 
mprove the Musalman Community". 

Sd. J. D. La Touche, 

Lieut. Governor, U.P , 

6th January, 1905 

(7) "Today, on 3rd Rajab, A.H. 1325, I happened to visit the 
madrasah. Since an Islamic madrasah 'at Hasanpur, Dist. Moradabad, is 
under my management, I, with a view to its improvement, went through 
the registers and accounts of this madrasah with close attention, and 



271 

audited them. I was very much pleased to see the overall condition of the 
madrasah. There is no matter in which there may be any kind of lapse. The 
whole management is proper and of a superior kind, all accounts and 
books are perfectly correct and in order; all concerned with the madrasah 
are well-wishing and ardent in their work; all students are industrious and 
arduous; the administration is systematic with perfect clearness,- in short, 
consequently, the condition of the madrasah, besides those of India, is 
better than those of other countries. As such, the Jama-e Azhar of Egypt, 
which is famous in the world and in which seventeen thousand students 
study, I have seen with mine own eyes; than that also this madrasah is 
more preferable in many respects. May the Magnanimous Lord, through the 
mediation of His Holy Friend, bestow upon it more, progress than this and 
keep this Muhammadan Rose-garden flourishing and fresh and bestow 
upon it advancement"! 

Nawab Haji Ahmed Hasan Khan, 
Raees-e Hasanpur. 

(8) "I paid respects to the organised group of ulema of the Madrasa-e 
Deoband. I found them very complaisant, humane and self-effacing august 
men. Though, I, due to my own lack of knowledge, could not derive full 
benefit from their lofty academic thoughts and the precious library, it is an 
occasion of thanksgiving that these our ulema are aware of the exegencies 
of the time, are far-sighted and fully conversant with the current religious 
problems and conditions. I was reassured to see that these august men 
wish to maintain their old religious conduct. Religious weakness is 
common in the country; hence the existence of this madrasah is indubit- 
ably a Divine Mercy for the Muslims. Despite the Muslims' general poverty, 
the construction (of the madrasah) is splendid and strong". 

Muhammad Nryaz al-Din Khan, 

Extra Commissioner, 

Punjab, A.H. 1325 

(9) 'On 25th Zil Hijja, A.H. 1325, I visited all the auditoriums and 
buildings of the madrasah. I .found the accounts so neat and complete that 
most probably improvement thereon is impossible. I found the library very 
big and orderly. The education of the Persian-learning children is very 
satisfactory. The arrangement for teaching the Holy Quran is also very 
good. There is separate arrangement for orthoepy. In the lesson of Hadith 
fifty students were attending the lesson of Tirmizi Sharif alone. This class 
particularly looks very glorious and dignified in the eyes of a Muslim. 
Besides this the class of rational sciences also looked large and good By 
and large the teachers and the taught were found busy in their respective 



work. There is excellent arrangement for the students' lodging, boarding, 
clothing and medical treatment. The greatest thing that delivers daily the 
good tiding of progress to this madrasah is the good moral and conform- 
ance to the Sunnah of its teachers and managers. There is no doubt about 
it that the Madrasah-e Deoband is today sui generis in India. Should the 
high-spirited Muslims show laxity in helping and serving this madrasah, 
then it is their own misfortune. May Allah Most High keep such a madrasah 
on this very Islamic path, .its students successful with the wealth of 
knowledge and practice, and its teachers happy with His pleasure and 
mercy! Amen"! 

(Maulana) Fateh Muhammad, Muhtamim, 
Madrasah Rifah al-Muslimin, Lucknow. 

(10) "On account of its great fame I was eager to see the madrasah. 
Praise be to Allah that today, on 10th April, I reached the madrasah. The 
building of the madrasah has been made attractive and strong. The 
madrasah is excellently on the way to progress. With my personal conver- 
sance which I have had as regards construction work, I inspected the 
building under construction and found it good in every way. This 
madrasah, by virtue of its being purely Islamic and religious, has had no 
match. Out of 350 students, 186 reside in the hostel of the madrasah. All 
the expenses of the students, food, clothing, and of arrangement of Unani 
hakims, medicine, etc., are borne by the madrasah. There is good arrange- 
ment for cleanliness also. The library, office and its registers and all other 
affairs are in order". 

Sayyid Muhammad Ibrahim, 

Engineer, 

Lucknow, A.H. 1325. 

(11) "Today I visted this madrasah. I found the method of teaching 
quite proper. The teachers are very enthusiastic in their functions and the 
students are very assiduous and active in acquiring education. The teach- 
ing of the art of polemics with other religions is also being given on a fine 
principle. The Holy Quran is taught with the art of cantillation by hearing 
which one's faith (iman) is refreshed. In short, all the requisites and means 
that are necessary for the acquirement and completion of sciences have 
been provided by Divine Grace. May Allah Most High bestow grace upon 
the Muslims so that by supporting it they may deserve great reward"! 

Maulana Anwarullah Khan, 

Teacher of the Nizam of the Deccan, 

14th Rajab, A.H. 1327. 



273 

(12) "After 26 years I paid a visit to this madrasah the foundation of 
which had been laid by Maulana Muhammad Qasim (Allah's mercy be on 
him!). The first time I had paid a visit to this madrasah was at a time 
when the accomplished professor, Maulana Muhammad Yaqub (Allah's 
mercy be on him!) was its principal. 

At this time this madrasah has reached the apogee of progress. Inspite 
of the fact that the Muslims did not pay much attention to it, its build- 
ings have sufficiently increased. Those responsible for the madrasah have 
expended sreat attention in collecting ulema and teachers commensurate 
to its dignity. I hope it from God that this madrasah will make further 
progress. 

I attended a function of the Jami'at al-lrshad in which students 
divided into two groups were discussing the proposition of lawful 
slaughter of animals for food (zabiha). I was very much delighted on 
hearing this subtle discussion. I think that if this method is continued it 
will greatly benefit the students and the Muslims. 

At the vice-chancellor's drawing my attention, I inspected the cleanli- 
ness of the madrasah. I reget very much the lack of time otherwise I 
would have expressed my thoughts in details". 

(Masih al-Mulk) Muhammad Ajmal Khan. 

(13) "Earlier too I had heard something about this madrasah but I was 
not prepared to see such a big and flourishing Institution; nor I had the 
idea that I would be meeting those students who have come here from 
European Russia, Asiatic Russia, all parts of India and the adjoining inde- 
pendent countries for acquiring education. It is very reassuring to note 
that the Muslims are helping this madrasah fully, wherefore it does not 
require external help. I pray for every kind of success for this madrasah". 

Commissioner, Meerut Division. 
9th December, 1909 (A. H. 1327). 

(14). "Today I happened to come to Deoband and very eagerly visited 
the famous Arabic madrasah of Deoband. The thing that astonished me 
most is that the estimable efforts of a few destitute ulema sitting on palm- 
leaf mats have, with the subscriptions of the common Muslims, taken an 
ordinary maktab (primary shcool) to the grade of a dignified Arabic 
College. This Dar al-Ulum had made itself into a similar centre of sciences 
as there is Jama-e Azhar in Egypt. These thoughts drew in my mind a 



274 

a picture of the ancient madrasahs of the world of Islam like those of 
Cordova, Baghdad, Bukhara, Samarqand, Nizamia, etc., about the descrip- 
tion of which I have read in books of history and travel. It is the grace of 
similar madrasahs and the blessing of the writings of similar ulema that 
while the Isiamic states and present governments are in a shaky state, 
Islam, as a true religion, along with its pure belief in Divine Unity, is still 
as firm as it was in the beginning and, Allah willing, will remain firm and 
constant till the Day of Doom". 

Amir Hasan, Deputy Collector, Saharanpur, A. H. 1327. 

(15). "Fortunately I got a chance to visit the Madrasa-e Deoband and 
to hear its students reading the Holy Quran and making speeches in 
Arabic. They concluded their speeches in a very praiseworthy manner 
and showed a matchless spectacle of oriental education in India. As 
regards these few Arabic madrasahs existing in India it is generally comp- 
lained that persons educated in them cannot express their thoughts in 
Arabic, but the students of this madrasah fully gave the lie to this general 
view and by the style of their Arabic speeches thoroughly proved that 
they are habituated to speaking with great fluency. I congratulate the 
teachers and managers of this educational institution. 

"On going through the accounts it was known that this educational 
institution is being run on the principle of extreme frugality". 

Sayyid Zamir al— Din, 
Chief Secretary, Bhopal State, A. H. 1327. 

(16). "The impression made on my beart on seeing Deoband was very 
pleasant. I find those effects in. Deoband which give proof of a nation's 
being alive". 

(Maulana) Shaukat Ali, 
January 7, 1914. 

(17). "By way of a common factor the condition of all the national and 
governmental institutions that I have visited is that their fame is greater 
then their reality; all their exploits that are published are more in propor- 
tion to their internal conditions. But after seeing the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
I have arrived at the conclusion that its real services are much more than its 
publicity" 1 . 

Maulana Abd al-Bari Farangimahli. 

1. Extracted from report prepared by Mualana Muhammad Izaz Ali. 



275 

(18) "Staying at different times in different classes and batches, I heard 
and observed their discussions. I was very much pleased. It seems as if 
Allah's special grace is on this institution and religious, education is being 
imparted to angels. At present there are more than six hundred students 
and most of them reside in the madrasah, and all of them come to the 
mosque of the madrasah for prayers. Life is absolutely calm and quiet- 
Average students study upto 12 o'clock in the nights and some are seen 
studying even later. When any man of whatever rank he may be comes 
before them, they salute him respectufully and modestly bow while meet- 
ing. This Islamic and radiant picture is not to be found at any other place 
in India, though it may be there at some sacred places. 

"At the time of the distribution of food I marked that the food and its 
requisites are distributed in a sound manner, without any clamour. I tasted 
the bread and the curry; both were good and tasty. I also inspected the 
construction; it has been done in a fine manner. Cleanliness is such that it 
is in no way less than in government offices on which thousands of rupees 
are spent. At any rate, I found this institution much more than my expecta- 
tion and hope. The teachers are unrivalled in their particular subjects. Invo- 
cation gushes out from my heart that the Lord of the Universe may bestow 
prosperity on the lives and faith Oman) of the managers of the madrasah. It 
is regrettable that I have no words to express what I saw". 

Nawab Latif Yar Jung Bahadur, Hyderabad, Deccan. 
17th Zi-Qa'da, A. H. 1347. 

(19) "Today I came along with Qazi Mas'ud Hasan to Deoband. The 
accounts of the madrasah were shown to us and we audited them in 
detail. We were very much pleased to see that much labour has been 
spent in keeping the accounts and detailed account books are regularly 
maintained. According to our opinion, there can be hardly more improve- 
ment in accounts than this. We were also very much pleased to see that 
progress is being made in constructing new buildings. The library was 
found in a very good condition; and there are costly manuscripts in it". 

(Nawab) Muhammad Isma'il Khan; Qazi Mas'ud Hasan Gangohi, 
Advocate, Meerut. October 17, 1929. 

(20) "After seeing all the departments of the Dar al-Ulum closely I have 
arrived at the conclusion that during my tour and travels I have not seen 
anywhere a glorious seminary which, by virtue of its speciality, may 
deserve to be called a central seminary; nor the contemporary history can 
provide any example and proof thereof. 



276 

"The most astonishing and stupendous exploit that my eyes saw in 
this institution is that all the elders and teachers of this university, 
everyone of whom in his respective speciality and subject commands a 
high and noble position, have dedicated their precious lives for Islamic 
services on very, very ordinary salaries, and (yet) are busy in teaching 
with extreme cheerfulness, fervour and ardour, although, in ratio to those 
of other educational institutions of India, their salaries are not even one- 
fourth. From this is known the augustness, sanctity, altruism and selfless- 
ness of these gentlemen". 

Sulaiman Yusuf Mullan, Durban, South Africa, 
3rd Rabi al-Sani,. A. H. 1348. 

(21) "I had had the honour of inspecting the Dar al-Ulum. I scrutinised 
the accounts in detail. I am amazed as to how such a small staff is able to 
maintain accounts so clearly. In view of the staff of other offices, the staff 
here is so inadequate that one feels astonished. The accounts are clear 
and legible. Inspite of my trying I did not find any sum or writing struck 
off or doubtful. For each sum there is given an office report and the vice- 
chancellor's sanction. I had not any notion too of finding the accounts in 
such excellent condition. In every department separate files are kept 
arranged. I feel constrained to say that even as a very large staff of a 
bigger office can maintain magnificent and correct accounts, the same, I 
am seeing here also,- I never happened to see better accounts than this. I 
wonder how so few persons discharge so much work. 

■ "The strength of students, as detailed below, is 783 : — 

Outside India: 48,- Madina : 2; Burma & Assam: 10; Bengal: 213; 
Bihar: 33; U. P.: 337; Punjab: 101; Sind : 11 ; Indian States: 20; 
Bombay : 5; Madras : 3. 

"The library is very well-arranged. The chit of every subject is of a 
different colour. There are more than forty thousand books available. 
Orderliness and cleanliness are laudable". 

Zia al— Islam, Magistrate First Class, Kandhla. 
November 16, 1929. 

(22) "Today we visited the Daral-Ulum Deoband. We found the 
classrooms full of students. We took a stroll in the hostels where the 
students were busy in studies and discussions. The virtues of simplicity, 



277 

cleanliness, pleasing demeanour and courtesy are conspicuous in the 
students; sincerity is diffused around from their luminous foreheads. This is 
all the result of the training given by the elders of the Dar al-Ulum". 

Muhammad Ismail & Muhammad Idris, Japan House, Calcutta; 
Muhammad Ahmed & Sons, Delhi. 

(23) "I heard of the Madrasa of Deoband already in my native-country 
and have laways been eager to visit this fortress of learning and of true 
Islamic spirit. At last my wish was fulfilled and God granted me the favour 
to enjoy the hospitality of this unique institution 

"After the old mosque-schools of Turkey and Egypt I still was 
surprised by the depth of Arabic and Islamic learning and the vigour 
which reign supreme among the walls of the Madrasa and the affection 
and sincerity which the principal, the professors and all students tend to a 
humble visitor as I am 

"I wish and pray God that this institution shall flourish and shall further 
instil knowledge and religious convictions into the minds of its pupils and 
become a torch-bearer of ancient and much renowned Islamic learning. 
'Wa min Allah-e Ta'ala al-Taufiq' (and grace is from Allah Most High)! 

Deoband, 10 November, 1931. 

S. Julius Germanus Abd al-Karim, 
Professor of Budapest University (Hungary). 

(24) "Today I had had the honour of presenting myself in the Dar al- 
Ulum. The cleanliness of the Dar al-Ulum and the Dar al-lqama (Hostel) is 
praiseworthy. There are several hostels for the students but the strength of 
the students residing m the hostels is so large that the administrators have 
of necessity to accommodate more than the maximum number of students. 
This condition of the hostels needs immediate attention, particularly for 
the reason that a very large number of the students is accustomed to 
utmost labour and vast reading. 

"Food is distrtibuted both the times to nearly five hundred boarders 
from the Kitchen. I was vastly delighted to see its laudable cleanliness. 
Common flies which are a great nuisance in Deoband were conspicuously 
missing in the Kitchen. I have tasted the food of the students at different 
times. The food is not bad, cleanliness is observed in its preparation and 
is given in such quantity that a man can eat to his fill. 



278 

"The Library is the soui or cms educational institution, and it is pieasins 
to note that sufficient attention is paid to it. In comparison with the huge 
libraries of Europe, this library is nothing, but it suffices for the needs of 
the teachers and the taught here. Nevertheless, there is great need of the 
addition of books of different sciences. Books are kept in almirahs with 
neatness and in order, and have been classified according to subjects. 

"I spent much time in seeing and auditing the accounts. The accounts 
are maintained according to the method prevalent nowadays, i got files 
from here and there, looked into them and compared them with the 
registers. Vouchers were included in all the files, all bearing endorsements 
from different officials and final orders from tne vice-chancellor. Daily 
account book and ledger are regularly maintained and regularly presented 
before the vice-chancellor. 

"The students live a simple and pious life Generally they are very 
affable and very courteous. I was very much impressed by the good 
administration of this institution and the fine breeding of the students. I 
often get the chance of meeting the students of this institution and some- 
times have discussions with them on different topics. They have remark- 
able power of debating which is far in excess of the debating power of 
the average graduates of the other institutions of India. 

"But as a well^/visher of this historical institution I shall be remiss in 
discharging my function if I do not reveal the fact that there is urgent 
need of amendment in the syllabus of this educational institution. Today 
the ulema have not so much to cross swords with the Christians, Jews 
and the Hindus as much as they have to break lance with the rationalists. 
It is high time that the present-day ulema were introduced to the modern 
philosophy and science. I presented this thought before the elders of the 
Dar al-Ulum, They themselves feel this need but the finances of the Dar 
al-Ulum are an obstruction in the way of any new arrangement; should 
any gentleman extend help to this institution in this respect, he would 
render a great service to Islam". 

Muhammad Yusuf al-Zaman Farouqi, 
Munsif, Deoband; June 6, 1933. 

(25) "I cannot express in words how happy I have been on meeting 
the respectable teachers and students of this place. The greatest thing 
that came to my notice is the simplicity and Islamic equality of the 
people here. Each and every individual here is imbued with simplicity. 
The example of the sincerity that I witnessed in the people here is 



difficult to be met with at least in India. In short, it is beyond me to 
praise this magnificent institution and its people" 

Fazl Hani, Ex-Mayor, Calcutta, 
October 20, 1936. 

(26) In A. H. 1355 a delegation consisting of three scholars from the 
Jama-e Azhar, Egypt, had come to India. To fulfil the wish of the elders 
of the Dar al-Ulum the delegation came to Deoband and expressed the 
following impressions after inspecting it: — 

"We attained happiness by visiting the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and 
observed lessons in different classes, and also had the pleasure of meet- 
ing the honourable professor, Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani as well as 
other eminent teachers Here we witnessed things which filled our hearts 
with elation. We saw academic light on the faces of these gentlemen. 
Here we saw a group (of scholars) who have devoted their lives to the 
service of Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh, Usul-e Fiqh and other religious sciences. 
Along with this they have so much augmented the means of acquiring the 
sciences, that is, Arabic language, logic, philosophy and astronomy, that 
we are sure it will benefit the entire Islamic ummah. When we talked with 
the professors of this auspicious university we marked that they possessed 
perfect proficiency and great expertise in academic services, and we 
noticed the students' attention to their lessons and their religious and 
polite manners so much that we thanked (lit., our tongues thanked) Allah 
and we prayed that consummate bounties, external and internal, may 
continue to increase for us and for them. We invoke for us and for them 
grace and acceptance so that there may be sincerity in our actions". 

Abd al-Wahhab al— Najjar,- Muhammad Ahmed al-Adwi, and 
Muhammad Ibrahim, leader of the delegation. 

(27) "I observed the teaching in certain classes. As Allah willeth, I 
was very much pleased to see the Dar al-Ulum in its state of progress. 
Through Allah's grace and bounty, the Dar al-Ulum has made progress in 
every department; there has been increase in the number of students. Allah 
be praised for all this! I particularly observed the lower, Tajvid and Persian 
classes. The teaching m the lower classes, too, like that of the higher classes, 
is in a very good state. I pray to Allah Most High that there be constant 
progress in it from day to day, that this university which is the only seminary 
of the Muslims of India progress continually and benefit the future genera- 
tions of Muslims and spread the light of knowledge in the world of Islam"! 

Sayyid Muhi al-Dm, Principal, Osmania College, 
Awrangabad, 21st. Jamadi al-Sania, A. H 1357 



280 

(28) "It has been my very good fortune to visit Deoband and to find 
here the ancient Isiamic culture still florushing vigorously. For a historian I 
can imagine few more illuminating experiences; and I am greatly indebted 
to Maulana Mubarak Ali for his kindness in explaining to me the life and 
conception of education of the Madrasa". 

Guy Wint, 

Professor of History, 

Oxford University. 

March 27, 1939. 

(29) "I toured many cities of India but I did not see any Islamic 
madrasah geater than the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in this country": 

M. I. Shah Kiochen, President, Chinese Muslim Mission, 

Jama-e Azhar, Egypt. 

October 12, 1938. 

(30) "In this madrasah I saw pure Islamic life and simplicity which we 
do not find in the Islamic history save in the early decades. I found the 
classes of students engrossed in their lessons and the same is the condi- 
tion of those noble teachers who are the fountainheads of the sciences 
and pillars of the Muhammadan Shari'ah (on whose author be peace and 
blessings!). These gentlemen expend their full efforts in the service of the 
religious sciences and in bringing the Umma-e Muhammadrya to 'the 
straight path". May the Lord of the World make their efforts fruitful. In the 
present times particularly it is a great devotion". 

Mahmud Ali Khan, 

Private Secretary, Shimla, Bhopal. 

27-3-1358 (A. H.). 

(31) "Today, in the company of Hazrat Maulana Shabbir Ahmed 
Usmani, I received the felicity of inspecting the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. In 
these times when occidentalism and naturalism have taken possession of 
the hearts and minds and irreligion is the order of the day everywhere in 
the world, those angelic personalities who laid the foundation of this 
institution or those who are running it now most successfully deserve to 
be congratulated. In the past seventy to seventy-five years the way the 
sons of this alma mater spread the light of religion not only in India but 
also in all the Asiatic countries is known to all. Today also I felt glad to see 
that students from Kashghar to Samarqand and from Java to Sumatra are 
prosecuting their studies here. 



"The library of the madrasah is replete with ill the necessary books. 
Not only are the students given education and arrangement is made for 
their boarding and lodging gratis but they are also supplied text-books by 
the madrasah- The administrative departments are in very good condition, 
particularly the Accounts Departemnt is working very systematically. 

"I talked to Hazrat Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani on this problem as 
to how much necessary it is to provide instruction in this institution of 
certain modern sciences and western languages. I was pleased to hear that 
attention was paid to this matter before this, that some graduates with 
English education were kept here and were givern instruction in religious 
sciences and some of the local graduates were prepared to learn English. 
To my mind at least it is intensely necessary that the English language 
which is spoken in most parts of the globe and in which modern sciences 
are adequately present should be taught to every student as a language so 
that having an awareness of what is happening in Europe regarding Islam 
and the Muslims they may be able to render more service to Islam. 

There is a department of progress and organisation also in the 
madrasah which, on the one hand, keeps pondering over the means and 
causes of progress for the madrasah, and on the other, it also organises its 
old alumni and well-wishers. I am lucky that today I got the felicity of 
entering my name in the list of its well-wishers. 

"Though there is a ground in the madrasah for the physical exercise of 
students, it is not compulsory for them. At my plea Hazrat Maulana himself 
said that this matter exercised his mind also that physical exercise should 
be made compulsory for the students. I have promised that in this connec- 
tion I would proffer a paltry gift of one hundred rupees on my own behalf. 
It is my wish that the students of this Dar al-Ulum become models for 
others both mentally and physically". 

Bahadur yar Jung, Hyderabad, Deccan. 
16th Ramazen al-Mubarak, A. H. 1358. 

(32) "As I had heard, I found it correct. Students come here for 
prosecuting studies from every Islamic country and arrangement for their 
education and lodging is made by the Dar al-Ulum in every possible way. 
Praise be to Allah that this centre of religious education is a singular centre 
not only in India but also in all the Islamic lands an example whereof is 
difficult to find". 

Fateh al-Din, Adviser, Punjab Government. 
20th Shawwal, A. H. 1358. - 



282 

(33) "The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is a centre of Islamic teachings in 
India. The arrangement of the library is very good. The day-to-day prog- 
ress of construction-work is a witness to the fact that the Dar al-Ulum is 
sufficiently popular among the Muslims. Enough evidences of the exce- 
llent administration of this institution are present". 

(Dr.) Shafa'at Ahmed Khan. 

(34) "After a long time I had the pleasure or presenting myself at the 
Dar al-Ulum. I saw the buildings, associatec with the teachers and met 
the students. Thank Allah that the old cciour persists. There is progress 
on every side. Immense addition has been made to the buildings. The 
Dar al-Tafsir has, as if, put a crown on the head of the Dar al-Ulum. In 
the buildings the old features — strength, beauty and spaciousness are 
present. Many old buildings have been extended; some new ones have 
also come up. There has been great addition to the number of students; 
their number now is one and a half thousand. The vice-chancellor and 
the dons are keen in the discharge of their functions Would that the 
charitable too add to their keenness" 

(Sadr Yar Jung) Maulana Habib al-Rahman Khan Shirwani. 
14th Jamadi al-Ula, A.H. 1359. 

(35) Thank Allah that today I got the chance of visiting this glorious 
Islamic institution which is sui generis. As I was seeing the depart- 
ments, the respect for this institution was increasing in my heart Since I 
had heard its name only and had not seen it, seeing its administration 
today with mine own eyes, I was astonished as to how the Lord of tne 
Worlds was shedding light through this madrasah. The spaciousness of 
the madrasah, the large and wide rooms of the hostel and grounds are 
in no way less than the government colleges in which English education 
is given and which are run on the modern lines, that is, according to 
the current methods of today. The presence of simplicity side by side 
with the educational loftiness of this madrasah looked very praiseworthy 
to -me. 

"I also saw the arrangement of the library; the method of keeping 
books is so goad that most probably it is not present even in the 
Punjab Library. 

"The teachers' affability and their method of teaching ere commend- 
able which cut a deep impression on the heart. But I regret that the 



283 

Muslims of India seem to be somewhat less Inclined towards ch is 
incomparable madrasah and do not feel for the vast expense which m 
this institution depends upon merely the subscriptions of the poor. 
Whatever misgivings many people have in their hearts regarding this 
madrasah are most probably there for the reason that they have not 
seen it with their own eyes; every doubt can be removed by merely 
one inspection. In my opinion all those gentlemen who happen to see 
this institution should as a matter of duty describe its good qualities 
everywhere and present it before people in its true colour. Indubitably, 
this Islamic seminary is a great bounty for the Muslims of the world, lis 
building is of such a superb model that it causes gladness to one's dis- 
position. I pray that the Gracious Lord may bestow manifold progress 
upon this institution every day and night, and keep the dons safe and 
alive for long so that they may remain assiduously busy in its service 
and be the source of pride for the world of Islam". 

Abd al-Rasheed, B, A., LL.B. Secretary, Municipal Committee, 
Ludhiana. August 7, 1940. 

(36) "Arabic College, Deoband, is a precious institution of its kind 
as it possesses rare books and scripts. The staff and the management 
are emblems of simplicity and high thinking. The students under their 
parental care have imbibed excellent and impressive manners. They are 
all after knowledge, being unmindful of even minimum comforts". 

."The account section is being run on uptodate scientific lines, yet it 

has done well not to deviate from the antique accounting system. I 

would study the section in perfect details when I visit the institution 
next.' 

"The library, museum and its reference system is so very impressive 
that I wish I could utilise the section for some time. It is a holy place 
for research scholars and oriental topics." 

"The building has been kept neat and clean. The dilapidated 
portions have also not been neglected". 

"Students from all over the globe have assembled here. They have 
mixed so nicely that it is hard for a casual visitor to distinguish the 
domicile of one from the other They are all very cheerful in the godiy 
atmosphere in which they dwell. 



"I am highly thankful to Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Sahib Usmani for his 
untiring help in taking us round the institution". 

Bishwanath Mukerjee, M. A., B. L, 

Divisional Accountant, Agricultural Department, U. P. 

26th June, 1941. 

(37) "Today I happened to inspect the Dar al-Ulum. The accounts have 
been maintained systematically and details of everything are present. The 
yearwise record is kept in order in the Record Office whereby there is met 
no difficulty in finding out anything. Even as records are arranged in the 
government offices, the same method is used here also. As regards cleanli- 
ness, everything is kept at its place tastefully. The managers of the 
madrasah, by their good management, have produced such excellence in 
every department and have distrubuted work in such a way that every man 
is discharging his respective functions in the best possible manner". 

Muhammad Mohsin, Income-Tax Inspector, Delhi. 
July 20, 1941. 

(38) "This is an honour for me that I got an opportunity to see the Dar 
al-Ulum. Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib, vice-chancellor of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, took me round the Dar al-Ulum for which I am grateful 
to him. This institution is a purely religious institution, which can be called 
the "Al-Azhar of the East". It is the duty of every Muslim in and outside 
India to look after this eastern Al-Azhar and to strive to help it so that 
Islamic Culture may continue in the east in a better condition". 

Osman K. Woo, Representative, Chinese Salvation 
Federation, September 7, 1942 

(39) "Today, on 7th Rajab, A. H. 1362, I came to Deoband and got a 
chance to see the madrasah. God is my witness that I did not see till today 
even an English office with such regular and scrupulous management, dis- 
charging its function so honestly, although I have had the opportunity to 
see many an office in the countries of Europe; compared to this madrasah, 
low expenses apart, even in offices spending lavishly on their working, I 
have not seen such perfect work. I pray to the Munificent Lord that He may 
give grace to all Muslims to visit and help it. In my opinion, every man 
should see this madrasah. A few hours are spent. The railway station is on 
the main line and hence there is no difficulty,- there is only need of 
intention". 

(Dr.) Ahmed Jalal al— Din, Mall Road, Lahore. 



285 

(40) "I had the great pleasure and privilege of visiting the Darul Uloom 
in the company of the Mohtamim and his staff. I must first express my 
gratitude to the Principal and his staff for the great interest they took in my 
visit and the way they took me round every place. I saw the classes in 
session, the kitchen, the library and met students and professors. This is a 
very great institution in modest surroundings. The professors are as learned 
as their living is humble and manners polished. Not only oriental religions 
and philosophy are studied here but they are studied in the same manner 
as their spirit demands. I was greatly interested to see the curriculum and 
the syllabus. Students are supplid food, books, clothing, residence and 
tution free. The system of distributing food is excellent. This university 
shows very systematical work in the management of its kitchen and the 
management of its finances. I spent quite a good deal of time in the 
Library and was very glad to see many treasures. There is a copy of a 
Firman issued by the Prophet to the King of Egypt. 

'At the end of my visit the Staff assembled in a room and I met them 
all. The Mohtamim made a very learned speech to which I replied with 
equal unlearned speech. The following points struck me greatly: 

1. The humility of all concerned. 

2. The great mental culture and high learning combined with plain 
living and lack of pride. 

3. Preservation of ancient culture in purified form. 

4. Deep learning without ostentation. 

I hope that this institution will flourish. It was a matter of pride to see 
that in this institution were assembled students from Egypt, Iraq, Soviet 
Russia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Burma, the Dutch Indies and many other 
places. The medium of instruction is Urdu and I was very glad to know that 
these students take Urdu with them to their countries and thus Indian influ- 
ence is spreading. I felt very greatly honoured by the reception given to 
me by the principal and the staff. I hope that I shall come round again 
some time to renew the pleasure and the honour". 

J. D. Shukla, 

I. C. S., 

D./-8.11.1944. Magistrate & Collector, Saharanpur. 

(41) "Today I got the opportunity of visiting the Dar al-Uloom. In my 
opinion it is a dignity of the Muslim Community to have such an institution 



for so splendid a preaching work. The members of the siarr met me very 
warmly and explained to me everything in detail. The Boarding House of 
the Dar al-Uloom and the arrangement for teaching the students are 
exactly in accordance with the Islamic standard, particularly the system of 
issuing course-books from the college-library is exemplary. It is my 
prayer that this college may always keep thriving so that this provision for 
the people to find the correct path in this age of antitheism may continue 
in existence". 

Ganga Singh, 

Principal, Missionary College, Amntsar. 

July 30, 1945. 

(42) "I am much obliged to K. B Ziaul Haq and the Asstt. Mohtamim 
for very kindly showing me rouno the famous university of Darul Uloom at 
Deoband 

"Tne university was a hive of activity. Tne students, who now number 
1313, of whom over 80 are from other countries, were busy with tneir 
lectures. There are no fewer than 34 professors. 

"The system of accounting is excellent. The income last year was 
Rs. 2,76,328-0-7 and the expenditure Rs. 1,89,575/10/10. I am told that 
the estimated income for the current year is no less than Rs. 3,25,000/-. 

■ "To historians the vast library of 56,892 books, among them priceless 
treasures of the period of the Mughal Emperors and of even earlier times, 
is invaluable for purposes of reference and study". 

A. R. Hill, MB£, 

District Magistrate, 

Saharanpur, 

7th February, 1945. 

(43) "Today this university is considered great from the religious point 
of view amongst all the universities of the Islamic world. Nine hundred 
students coming from different parts of the world are taking education in 
it and all the scholars totally are more than 1200. Its building is very 
magnificent and strong although it is today seventy years old. There are 
55,000 books in the library of the madrasah. Most of the scholars are 
given food and books free". 



287 

"I was longing to see this university for a long time but I got the 
opportunity to visit it this year. I was astonished to see all its things What 
is wonderful is that, at a place which is like alchemy, it, by its effect, pro- 
duced some jewels in its very incipience,- it is a property of the 
philosopher's stone that whatever touches it, it turns into gold. 

"At a time the ulema of Deoband had not only taken great part in the 
movement of the Indian politics but had also established their position in 
the movement of world politics, as that of Afghanistan, Russia, Spain, 
Turkestan, etc.,". 

Mrs. Kulsum Sayani 1 , 

Editor, "Rehbar", Bombay, 

1st. April, 1945. 

(44) "The Dar al-Ulum (Deoband) is a public, academic and Islamic 
institution in the eyes of the Afghan masses but I can say this on the basis 
of my observation thar this is not only an educational institution but is also 
a centre of Islamic culture. 

"The Dar al-Ulum guarded religion and the Islamic sciences at a time 
when the Islamic sovereignty in India was no more and I hope that in 
future too it will remain similarly in the service of arts and sciences. 

"The Afghan masses, ulema and philomaths not only appreciate its 
value but are also helpers and well-wishers of the ulema. 

"The Dar al-Ulum is the most outstanding institution of Islamic culture, 
and is sui generis. The foundation of Islamic culture rests on truth, love, 
equality and the discerning of reality, and this institution is comprised of 
all these ingredients 

"The history of the Dar al-ulum is a witness to the fact that it has 
always produced upright crusaders and truthful sons of whom the Dar al- 
Ulum can be justly proud. The Dar al-Ulum is not the heritage of India 
alone, but it is the patrimony for the whole Islamic world. Hence I pray to 
Allah that He may keep the Dar an-Ulum alive with all sorts of progress and 
make it useful for the world of Islam"'. 

Sardar Najib Allah Khan, Ambassador of Afghanistan, 
New Delhi, A. H. 1369. 

1. Culled from the journal entitled "Rehbar", Bombay, of 1st. April, 1945 

(Mrs. Sayan was also a professor of Economics in the University of Bombay. Translator 



(45) "It is a matter of great pleasure and privilege for me to have 
visited this ancient and historical institution. Here one finds the essence of 
'simple living and high thinking' in its truest form. I was shown round tne 
institution, by Maulana Syed Husain Ahmed Madani Sahib and Maulana 
Mubarak Ali Sahib. I attended a few lectures, saw how the classes worked 
and how food was distrubuted to the students in an orderly and efficient 
way. The kitchen was kept very neat and clean. The finances of the institu- 
tion are managed in a most accurate and an efficient way. It has a large 
library consisting of valuable books on various subjects. In fact this institu- 
tion is a small university in itself. I was much impressed by the way all the 
students and tutors gathered for prayers at the call of the muezzin. Health- 
giving activities are not lost sight of and in the evening students assemble 
in the spacious lawns for games. 

"I am deeply grateful to all concerned, and specially to Maulana Syed 
Husain Ahmed and Maulana Mubarak Ali Saheb for their kindness, courtesy 
and hospitality during my short visit to this place". 

M. A. Amin, Deputy Director, All India Radio. 
10th September, 1950/26th Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1369. 

(46) "It is a fact that in Deoband I found a citadel of Islam and a 
shelter of faith (iman) and the prophetic sunnah, and on coming here I 
came to know what capacity the Dar al-Ulum has for both the religion 
and the world and the Hereafter; and that conformance to the pious 
ancestors which great august men preserved and from which the respect- 
able students derive benefit. It is a very valuable legacy the preservation 
of which is very necessary for us, and it is also necessary that we make it 
a pillar and prop for the making of future. And certainly, for the freedom 
of India the effort of these great august men under the leadership of the 
great professor, Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani, and the light on their 
faces in the path of the independence of the native land, will create 
such great secular and rligious power in the Indian Muslims and Islam 
that great bastions for the populace and faith may be built on it". 

Muhammad Abd al-Fattah Udah, 

Organiser of the Arabic Broadcasts, 

Delhi Radio. 

(47) "It is the very place where I perceived the glory and power of 
the real Islam, and found it; and found it in such a way that the rows of 



289 

Muslims in prayer were not empty, every one trying to go forward and take 
the place of the other. Ultimately the day will come when the shadow of 
the unity and simplicity of Islam and, as a result of the selflessness and 
sincerity of the Muslims, the "Nur-e Muhammadi", that is, Islam, will 
spread all over the world. 

"Worship to Allah as shown by Islam, that is, in accordance with the 
method shown by the Apostle of Allah, Muhammad (peace and blessings 
be upon him!), from which we, in the countires of the Middle East, had 
been far removed, and mundane pelf and lucre, pomp amd splendour had 
dazzled our eyes; that Islam we found in this sacred place and became 
reacquainted with the glory of Islam". 

Ali Ameer Mu'izz, Organiser of the Persian broadcasts, 
Delhi Radio. 

(48) "It was a heart-felt wish of mine for a long time that I should see 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, with mine own eyes. In my knowledge there is 
no other academic institution in India of such status and position on which 
such a lot of money, without any help from the government, of the Muslim 
community alone may have been spent; and its right use may appear in 
this way that in its building there may be arrangement for teaching 1200 
students, and there may be a hostel for nearly 600 students, and moreover, 
food, clothes and books may be distributed to an equal number of alumni. 
Without any personal expenses, any aspiring student of India as well as 
foreign countries can obtain the degree (sanad) of the madrasah on gradu- 
ation. One is astonished to see the arrangement for food as if food is 
being prepared daily in connection with some function. And the method 
of food-distribution has proved the thing that an Arabic-educated man, in 
worldly matters, is in no way less competent than the English-educated 
class of today, and performs them in a pleasing manner. Not only the 
arrangements for food etc.; if a glance is cast on the arrangements in the 
library, then the libraries of today in which arrangement of modern age has 
been introduced, have in no way any superiority over the library of the Dar 
al-Ulum. On seeing the arrangements of cleanliness one feels as if this 
department is under the supervision of a permanent qualified health 
officer. A very large mosque which by its five-time prayers, attended by 
nearly five hundred students, is presenting a spectacle the example where 
of is hard to find in the whole of India. All these things in fact are being 
provided by Allah Most High through the good offices of those religious 
elders by whose untiring efforts and fervid action the Dar al-Ulum was 
established; and even today their grace is current. Allah Most High is 



290 

getting This work done througn such holy persons who are graduates of the 
same institutions; and most of them are a specimen of the pious ancestors, 
and are refreshing their remembrance. And these gentlemen deserve to be 
congratulated; for contenting themselves with a meagre remuneration they 
are discharging the glorious work of this educational institution. Moreover, 
those gentlemen also deserve congratulations who got these buildings 
constructed at the expense of millions of rupees and are meeting the 
expense of nearly three lakhs annually. It is my prayer that even as poor 
students and those of the middle class are acquiring grace from this semi- 
nary, the children of the affluent also would take advantage of it. May Allah 
Most High bestow amplitude on the insight of the functionaries! 

"In the end, I am thankful to the vice-chancellor and his colleagues 
who provided me with every kind of facility during my stay, and my infor- 
mation about the madrasah was increased". 

Shaikh Muhammao Mustansir Allah, Banarsi Bagh, Lucknow 
November 23, 1950. 

(49) "I was very glad to revisit the Dar-ul-Ulum, Deoband after a long 
interval, and see the progress it has made since I last visited it. This 
premier institution of Islamic studies in India attracts students not only 
from all parts or the country, but also from distant regions like Indonesia, 
Malaya, Afghanistan, Central Asia and China. Its popularity with students 
anc scholars of sucn □ wide area is proof of its eminence. It is thus in the 
true sense an International University of Islamic studies. 

"My last visit was in 1914. The intervening years have been years of 
stress and hardship, but I am happy to see that the Dar-ul-Ulum has 
grown through all these years. New buildings have been put up, and the 
facilities for education considerably expanded. I am confindent that the 
distinguished body of scholars who are now running the institution will 
be able to effect still further imrpovements in its status and facilities. 

"One thing that gave me special pleasure was to learn that the insti- 
tution has been receiving the sympathy and cooperation of the State 
Government I am confident that this will continue and that local officers 
will always keep in mind the needs and interests of the institution". 

A. K. Azad (Abul Kalam Azad), 
8th January, 1951. Minister of Education, Govt, of India. 



291 

(50) "I had the privilege today of going round the Dar-ul-Uloom. I have 
visited every section of the institution and what struck me most was the 
essentially oriental atmosphere of learning. This institution is perhaps of 
the unique type in our country. The secret of its success seems to lie in the 
missionary spirit with which the staff works. Nowhere in India perhaps 
such large number of pupils (1500) are educated, housed, clothed, fed 
and are supplied with books without being charged for anything what- 
soever. Another interesting aspect of this institution is that it owns no 
property which might yield regular income. The Darul-Uloom is run on 
public subscriptions and donations which are collected every year. The 
annual expenditure touches 4 lacs a year, which shows the high esteem in 
which this institution is held by all those who supported it year after year. 
The high standard maintained by this institution is perhaps actuated by the 
'Referendum' which is held every year while collecting funds, 

"I believe this institution attracts a large number of students from most 
of the countries in Asia and Africa. I am told [a] function might be held 
this year to distribute 'Sanads' to the various persons who passed out from 
here during the previous years. The previous function was held 30 years 
ago and I am looking forward with eagerness for this occasion. I am grate- 
ful to the staff of the Darul-Uloom particularly to the principal and the 
Secretary of the institution" 

L. S Bisht, IPS., 

Superintendent of Police, 

Saharanpur, 

5.4.52. 

(51) "I had the honour of visiting Darul-Ulum-Deoband on 9/12/54. I 
was very much impressed by the institute and the work which the ulema 
are doing in that institution. It was an institution which has produced 
worthy leaders of not only the community but the country. I hope it will 
continue to produce worthy sons who, through uninterested service to the 
community and the country, will weld India into a very strong nation and 
work for the peace of the world". 

Abd a I Lateef, 

Minister of Justice & Health, 

9/12/1954. Govt, of Burma. 

(52) "The visit to this great religious and historical institution has com- 
pelled me that I offer congratulations from the bottom of my heart to those 



brethren of mine who are running this institution. I pray to Allah Most High 
that He make this institution a lighthouse of knowledge and gnosis and 
bestow upon the Muslims the grace to benefit from it for ever and ever". 

Anwar al-Sadat, Minister, Govt, of Egypt 
(Present President of the Republic of Egypt). 

(53) "Thanks to Allah Most High that He favoured this frail slave with 
a visit to the glorious Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and bestowed the grace to 
associate with the noble professors and great scholars (ulema) here. The 
heart and soul of this frail slave benefitted from their sweet words. I was 
delighted by their lasting academical works and compilations, which 
according to the saying "the ulema's ink is superior to the martyrs' 
blood", have had within their skirt divine graces and heavenly merits". 

Ali Asghar Hekmat, Ambassador of Iran in India. 
Jamadi al-Ula, A. H. 1376. 

(54) "Your Dar al-Ulum has rendered service not only to the inhabitants 
of this country but by your services you have achieved such fame that 
■students of foreign lands also flock to your institute, and, having acquired 
education here, they disseminate whatever they have learnt here in their 
own countries. This thing is worthy to be proud of for all the people of 
this country. 

"The august men of the Dar al-Ulum have been acquiring and imparting 
knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Such persons were there in the 
former times also, but few. They used to be more honoured than the kings. 
Th'e elders of the Dar al-Ulum are treading the same path today, and I 
understand that this is a service not only to the Dar al-Ulum or to the 
Muslims but is also a service to the whole country and the world. Today, 
due to progress of materialism, anxiety has spread in the world and the 
composure of mind and peace of heart are absent. Its correct remedy is 
spiritualism. I find that that equipment of peace and solace the elders of 
this place are providing for the world. If God willeth to maintain this 
world, the world has at last to come to this very line. I was very much 
pleased on coming to the Dar al-Ulum and I am taking away something 
from here". 

Dr. Rajendra Prasad, President of the Republic of India, 
July 13, 1957. 

(55) "I am very glad that I got a chance to visit the Dar al-Ulum. This 
Dar al-Ulum is very famous in Afghanistan, particularly in the religious 
circles there. The ulema of Afghanistan have always held the founders of 



the Dar al-Uloom and its teachers in high esteem, and have always been 
appreciative and convinced of that superiority and rank which they have in 
their certitude of knowledge and spiritualism. Many Afghan ulema benefit- 
ted from this Dar al-Uloom and, returning to their native land, spread the 
light of knowledge and rendered services to the country". 

Excerpt from King Muhammad Zahir Shah's speech, 

(now ex-king of Afghanistan). 

February 25, 1958. 

(56) "In all my life I have understood the philosophy of trust in God 
today, after seeing the working of the Dar al-Ulum. The exposition of the 
verse "Despair not of the mercy of Allah" (XXXIV :53) and the elucidation 
of "Effort is from us and its completion is from Allah" which the pious 
founder of the madrasah and its managers have done by their practice, 
certitude and trust (in Allah), is the first practical example that I have seen 
in my whole life. 

"May the Creator Most High bestow grace for such virtuous action upon 
all Muslims! I offer congratulations to all the administrators of the Dar al- 
Ulum, particularly to the respected Allamah Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib, 
for this virtuous work". 

H. M. Husain. 

Secunderabad, 

November 15, 1958. 

(57) "I used to hear the fame of this great institution and now I have 
been able to visit it. I am grateful to the staff for every facility and hospi- 
tality they show to me I have been particularly impressed by the library 
and the valuable manuscripts it contained. I have seen so much cordiality 
and friendliness that I am unable to express my gratitude adequately. I 
offer my congratulations for the fine work carried on by the staff and 
teachers and wish them all the best for the coming years. 

"I have just visited the piece sent by the Turkish ruler Muhammad V as 
a gift and as a recognition of Deoband's raising funds to assist Turkey 
during the Balkan war. It was attached to the sacred mantle of the Holy 
Prophet preserved in Turkey in the treasury of the Khirka-i-Saadet. I also 
have seen the books sent to Deoband during the reign of Sultan Abdul 
Hamid Khan through Abdul Hak Hamid, the famous Turkish poet, who was 
Turkey's consul in Bombay". 

Niyaz Berkes, Turkey 

March 9, 1959. 
28 Sha'ban, A H. 1378. 



294 

(58) "This Dar al-Uloom is a matchless university in the workd of Islam. 
We did not ever fancy or imagine that such a great religious seminary and 
so great an institute of Islamic morals would be existing in India". 

Shaikh S'ad ; 

Shaikh Ali ; 

Shaikh Husain Hejazi. 

(59) "A visit to this unique institution has served to further broaden my 
mental horizon. I shall give my impressions in the Hindustan Times". 

C. L. Mathur,. Staff Correspondent, 

the Hindustan Times. 

8/1/1958. 

(60) "I visited this institution and am pleased to note that classes are 
housed in proper class-rooms and that suitable arrangments have been 
made for Boarders who come from all the parts of the world. Darul-Ulum 
provides free education to those who cannot afford to meet any expenses. 
Providing quarters, food, clothing and Books and laundary at no cost to the 
student. The Alims are dedicated to their work — accepting meagre wages 
for their services which makes the running of this madrasa possible. It is 
the only institution to my knowledge which is exclusively teaching Isiamics 
and turning out alims in the true tradition of our Prophet. It is my hope and 
prayer that may Allah-Taala shower his blessings to this madressa and all 
those Alims, Professors, students and well-wishers and may this madressa 
continue in the same spirit till the end of this world".! 

E. A. Pasul; O. I. Salejee and C. A. Salejee, 

140 Queen Street, Durban. 

5-9-1 959. /1st. 

Rabi al-Awwal, (A. H. 1379) 

(South Africa). 

(61) "It was with the expectation of finding much valuable material on 
Islam in India that I wished to visit Dar ul-ulum, Deoband. Not only was 
that expectation completely fulfilled, but moreover I was overwhelmed 
with kindness, hospitality and invaluable guidance by the learned ulama of 
the institution, notably by Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Tayyib Sahib. I shall 
take away the best remembrance of my all-too-brief stay here but shall 
hope indeed that I may be permitted one day to return, but also that in 
what I shall write upon Islam in the years to come may be informed by that 



same understanding and integrity that I have witnessed as a guest of Dar 
al-Uloom. 

"May I express my grateful thanks to all who have made my visit a 
memorable one for me". 

(Dr.) P. Hardey, 

Lecturer m the History of Muslim India, 

School of Oriental & African Studies, 

1st. December, 1960. 

University of London. 

(62) I have been delighted to visit Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, about which 
I had read and heard much. But I had no idea it was really as large as it 
proved to be. I have been most impressed with the cordiality and hospita- 
lity and my welcome and am most grateful to all concerned. I particularly 
enjoyed discussing points of Islamic law with several of the 'ulama'. 

J. D. Anderson, 

Director, institute of Advanced Legal Studies 

& Head, Dept. of Law at School of Oriental 

& African Studies, University of London. 

22/xi/1962. 

(63) "I was very much astonished to see that today when all the 
universities of the world spend millions of rupees, this Dar al-Ulum is 
rendering so great and appreciable services at so very small an expense! It 
is a fact that had there been no sentiment of public service and fear of 
God in its founders and functionaries, they would have every year spent 
millions of rupees over it; but the state of their selflessness and sincerity is 
such that they never demanded a single paisa as help from the government 
and continued to manage it, and are still managing it, with mere reliance 
on God and the help of the poor Muslims. Had a missionary society run 
such a Dar al-Ulum, its annual budget would not have been less than any 
state budget, but the world would be astonished to hear that the Dar 
al-Ulum has been rendering the highest services at the lowest expenses for 
one hundred years! The ulema who, having become professors in any 
government university, would have received thousands of rupees as salary, 
work here taking the most minimum pay and sitting on palm-leaf mats 
perform that work which cannot be done even in air-conditioned rooms 
and on chairs. This Dar al-Ulum is an exemplary university for other 
universities; its simplicity and the sincerity and selflessness of its workers 



and their attachment to their objecitve can be an example for others. 

"The people who think that this educational and religious institution 
believes in or supports communalism, only deny the rays of the shining 
sun. Not only this institution but its graduates and teachers also have al- 
ways been opposed to communalism. Opposition to communalism is a 
very ordinary thing; it is a negative thing. In fact this institution lighted the 
candle of patriotic liberty in the whole country and awakened the nation 
for freedom. Had its elders not raised the slogan of freedom at that time 
when the Congress did not even exist, the history of India today would not 
have been what it is looking today. This institution has been the preceptor 
of freedom and the torch-bearer of the patriotic liberty; we are today 
eating the fruit of that freedom that !t had sown". 

Professor Humayun Kabir, 

Minister for Scientific Research & 

Cultural Affairs, Government of India. 

(From "Al-Jami'at" daily, Delhi, October 27, 1961) 

(64) "After coming to the Dar al-Ulum and seeing it I reckoned that 
this is an extremely attractive Islamic institution in India. I was very much 
pleased to see this educational institution which has rendered so much 
service to Islam. In this institution which was established nearly a century 
ago there is a very interesting and great library, containing very valuable 
Islamic matter. The most wonderful thing is that this institution, without 
taking any monetary help from the government, has been successfully do- 
ing its work for such a long time. I hope, and pray to God, that divine 
grace and favour may always rain down upon this institution and this may 
always be successful in imparting true Islamic teachings to the Muslims of 
this country". 

Muhammad Yusuf Francis, 1 , 

15 Liverpool Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 

West Indes, Via South America. 

January 10, 1961. 

1. One Sayyid Shams al-Din of Navsari had gone to the West Indies in 1922 as a Muslim 
preacher. There he stayed For some time and succeeded in converting a number of non- 
Muslims, particularly Christians, to Islam. Mr. Muhammad yusuf Francis was one of them. One 
day, in the late 1960, Sayyid Sahib brought him to me to know if I knew any saintly persons. I gave 
Mr. Francis two addresses, one of Baroda and another of Karachi where my spiritual mentor, 
Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ahmed Mujaddidi Naqshbandi Kabuli was then staying. He went to both 
the places with my introductory letters and a month later when I was going home from college, 
he ran into me near the local post office and on my enquiring how he found the two saintly men, 
he replied rapturously : "To my entire satisfaction, much more than what I expected". Then after 
some time he embarked on the journey for hajj He had came to India to meet Haji Sayyid Shams 
al-Din, who had introduced him to the wealth of Islam, and to enrich his knowledge by meeting 
saints and the ulema. (Translator). 



297 

(65) "With a feeling of reverence I went round the Darul Ulum. What I 
saw was far beyond what I had heard. It is an institution of which every 
Indian should be proud. Not only it is unique of its kind in the whole 
world; it is a great centre of learning which is spreading its light through- 
out the length and breadth of the globe The institution deserves all 
support and encouragement". 

(Mr. Justice) Jagdsih Sahai, 
Allahabad. 

May 12, 1963/1 7th Zil-hijja, 
A. H. 1382. 

(66) "We the members of the Legislative Council of U. P. and members 
of the Insurance Committee were very much pleased to be at the Dar al- 
Ulum — this institution which has been the centre for the fight for freedom 
of India and the -standard-bearer of the unity of the country, and which has 
been praised by no less a man than Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the 
nation. The fact is that our presence here and seeing it is a matter of pride 
for us. 

"We were very much surprised and much pleased to see that this 
university, in accordance with the traditions of its elders, is giving free 
education on merely public subscriptions, and does not need any perma- 
nent income or any great personality. 

"This is the same institution which produced leaders like Maulana 
Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madani and Maulana Hifz al-Rahman. The leaders of 
the Dar al-Ulum are working for unity and peace in the whole country. 

"We hope and believe that the Dar al-Ulum, under the guidance of its 
leader, Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib, continuing its traditions, 
will further make a grand future". 

Savitri Shiyam, M. L. C, 

Shiv Rajvati Nehru, M. L. C, 

Sa'eed al-Hasan, M. L. C, 

Ishaq Sanbhali, M. L. C. 

(68) "For this writer it is Allah's great favour and bounty that He vouch- 
safed this opportunity to visit and tour the cities of India amongst which 
Deoband particularly, with its seminary, the Dar al-Ulum, tops the list; the 
Dar al-Ulum which is indeed, in India, a live heart full of knowledge and 



298 

piety, the centre of scholars and authors, and the haven of the students of 
religion and gnosis. A visit to this centre of knowledge was one of the 
longings of a lifetime and one of the dreams of my days and nights. Thanks 
to Allah that today I received the felicity of seeing the Dar al-Ulum and an 
old dream was realised. 

"On seeing it from near I found it much better and finer than whatever 
mental sketch and image I had formed of it on hearing reports about it 
while living far away. Lights of knowledge emanate from each and every 
corner of this sacred institution and in its auditoriums are taught the Holy 
Prophet's (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him!) hadiths; and for the 
thirsty ones of knowledge and the seekers of guidance and instruction, 
along with ideal discipline, good disposition and enlightenment, the 
commandments of faith and the religious law (shari'at) are stated in a style 
which sparkles remarkably with the spiritualists' spirituality and the effects 
and graces of the men of knowledge and research. 

"This is Allah's utmost favour and obligation that I received the honour 
of hearing a part of a lesson of Hadith from al Shaikh al-Muhaddith 
al-Sayyid Fakhr al-Din Ahmed al-Moradabadi. As an act of favour for this 
lowliest self, the lauded professor spoke in Arabic on the hadith of Bani 
Salmah, in which it is mentioned that the Bani Salmah entertained a desire 
to shift from their houses to the vicinity of the Prophet's Mosque. When the 
Holy Prophet (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him!) came to know of 
this intention of theirs, he said : Histories and remniscences of your town 
will be written". The learned professor's lecture was a cluster of costly 
pearls and a pile of resplendent stars,- and a proof of Fayz-e Bari and 
Umdat al-Qari. At the same 'time, the learned professor was continuosuly 
favouring those students, who were hearing him with rapt attention, with 
special instructions, which sank into the disciples' selves even as fragrance 
permeates through the air and water through life. It is my prayer to Allah 
Most High that He bestow upon his learned self good reward on behalf of 
the Holy Sunnah and its conformists, and keep this institution pullulating 
and fructifying under the shadow of the 'pillars and columns', great 
imams — the full moons of guidance and the bright candles for darkness — 
like the beneficent professor and principal Maulana Allamah Ibrahim 
Balliavi and Maulana al-Qari Muhammad Tayyib; and bestow prosperity 
(baraka) on the beneficial time and holy breaths of these august men! 

"Moreover, that thing for which we are indebted today to Allah's 
favour and are under His obligation, is this institution, which, along with its 
teachers and students, is a luxuriant umbrageous tree, the centre of 



299 

knowledge and piety, and that life-sustaining lun - ; of the Islamic body in 
which the signs of spiritual life are pulsating. We pray to Allah Most High 
that He benefit the Muslims more and more from the survival and existence 
of this institution and the long life of its ulema! "Verily, Allah answereth 
prayers and, through His grace and magnanimity, doth not thwart the hope 
of those who cherish hope". 

"Mentioning the glorious services of the great ulema of this magnificent 
institution, which is rich in 'the pillars' of knowledge and piety, I wish to 
make a request. Rather, if I embolden myself a little, I can assert that it is our 
reasonable right which I am demanding. And it is this that it is a duty of 
these eminent ulema that they, clothing the results of thought of their singu- 
lar intellects and their valuable graces and researches in the Arabic 
language, provide a chance of deriving benefit for other ulema of the 
Islamic world also. This duty devolves upon these gentlemen for the reason 
that when a man reads a book of these research scholars of India, he finds 
therein distinctive new ascertainments which depend, besides profound 
knowledge and extensive reading, upon piety, rectitude and spiritualism. 
And since these ulema and Shaikhs of India not only fulfil the conditions of 
possessing virtue, rectitude, spiritualism and engrossment in knowledge but 
are also the true heirs and specimens of the pious predecessors, their books 
are not lacking in new and useful things. 'Such is the grace of Allah which 
He giveth unto whom He will' (V :54). Rather, some of their books are such 
in which are found things which are not to be found even in the works of 
the great ulema, professional commentators of the Quran, traditionists and 
thinkers of the past. But it has to be said with sorrow and regret that most 
of these rare compilations, rather all of them, have been composed in the 
Urdu language, which may be a common Islamic language of India but it is 
obvious that it does not command that prestige that Arabic does for its 
wide usage and for being the special language of the Islamic sciences. 
Hence these sciences and valuable disquisitions which are the special 
contribution and achievement of our Islamic brethren, the ulema of India, if 
kept confined within the frame of Urdu only, then, remaining hidden and 
concealed from us the Arabic-speaking people, will continue to be the 
cause of our deprivation. It will thus be an injustice not only to us but will 
also cause a loss to the rights of knowledge and religion. 

"So, to discharge the duty of gnosis and payment of the deposit of 
knowledge, it is among the foremost essentials that these excellent 
masterpieces and exquisite books be rendered into the Arabic language 
so that those eyes which are impatient, thirsty and eager for such things 
may derive light from these,- and as I think, this difficult duty and important 



300 

responsibility can be well discharged by the individuals of this very public 
institution which is the cradle and fountain-head of distinguished ulema 
and noble students. 

"On this occasion when I am putting the words of gratitude into black 
and white for the affectionate behaviour and elderly favours of the 
authorities of the institution and the emotions of love and brotherhood of 
the beloved students, I consider it necessary to dare hopefully to repeat 
my aforesaid risht and demand once more. So, if these august men turned 
their attention to the discharge of this duty, while they would have thus 
acquitted themselves of their responsibility, it would also be a glorious 
service to religion and culture and would be a noteworthy achievement, 
because these sciences are not only the property of the Muslims — let 
alone the Indian Muslims who may have a monoply on them — but all man- 
kind also has a right to benefit equally from these. Hence it is extremely 
necessary that these Urdu books be translated into Arabic so that they may 
get more and more currency and publicity and opportunities to benefit 
from them may be provided on a large scale. 

"I, however, have felt some satisfaction and pleasure on hearing that 
this problem is already under the consideration of the Majis-e Shura and 
it is going to take steps shortly to discharge this important burden and 
responsibility which is in fact a necessary obligation of the ulema of this 
institution, particularly of its students. After hearing this glad tiding, I thank 
in anticipation most sincerely all the senior ulema for this auspicious ambi- 
tion and undertaking of theirs; and also pray to Allah Most High that His 
special help and support be with them in this great work so that they may 
accomplish this obligation with ease! For Allah 1 Most High it is not a 
difficult thing. 'That is not a hard thing for Allah'. (XXXV =17). Nor, in view 
of their firm determination it is so hard and arduous a task for these great 
ulema that it may be insurmountable". 

Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, 

Q8th Rabi al-Awwal, 

A. H. 1382. 

(69) "We praise and thank the Magnanimous Lord that He bestowed 
upon us the grace to visit this glorious seminary which is discharging the 
function of the standard-bearer of the teachings and principles of the 
Islamic religion. For the preservation of the Islamic wealth the activity of 
this institution is a live example. I was very much pleased and delighted 
on seeing the different aspects of its activity. I pray to Allah Most High that 
He protect the foster-fathers of this institution and bestow on them aid for 



every work in which there may be the good and welfare of the Muslims"! 

Abd al-Sattar Amin, Embassy of the United Arab Republic, 
24th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1383. 

(70) "We perceived it, rather came to ,know of it, that this great institu- 
tion is one of those important centres which have made the dissemination 
and propagation of religion their only objective in this great country and 
other countries. 

"We thank the authorities of the madrasah for their high-spiritedness 
and for the efforts these gentlemen are making in the way of universalizing 
education and in strengthening and stabiilizing the pillars of Islam on 
earth". 

Al-Shankavi, Embassy of the United Arab Republic. 
24th Jamadi al-Sani, A. H. 1383. 

(71) "I have always felt glad in serving the Dar al-Ulum. Accordingly, 
when I became Food Minister I had got a chance to serve the Dar al-Ulum. 
The eightfold principle of the Dar al-Ulum propounded by its pious foun- 
der is a matchless principle. Gandhiji's viewpoint regarding the Congress 
was also the same : he used to say that the Congress must remain poor; if it 
became rich, dissension would arise in it which would destroy it. 

"The history of this institution is very magnificent. Leaving aside those 
things and plenty large and enough capital, which are necessary nowadays 
for education, you have adopted great simplicity 1 , and the poor men are 
given more consideration in this institution. The sample of simplicity that 
you have put up in the Dar al-Ulum, I understand, is alone the real 
socialism; people do take the name of socialism but they do not act upon 
its demands, whereas you demonstrated action upon it and have pre- 
sented a very good example. You have enhanced the honour of the 
country through the Dar al-Ulum and thus have, rendered a splendid 
service to India at which I offer you congratulations. 

"Whenever the name of India is mentioned in the Islamic countries, the 
name of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is also necessarily mentioned. At the 
Jamia-e Azhar of Egypt when I showed myself to be one living near 
Deoband, the ulema of that institution expressed great joy whereat I felt 
myself honoured. 

1. "Simplicity, most rare in our age". John Morley. (Translator). 



302 

"I have been to countries of Europe and America also and have seen 
the universities and esteemed institutions there which are doing gooo 
work, but those who showed me round there talked a good deal, in the 
context of describing their superiority, of their magnificent buildings and 
their wealth and capital, whereas on coming here I found quite the reverse 
of it. Here, from the tongue of its respectable authority, I heard the men- 
tion of poverty and destitution among the peculiarities of this institution 
whereby I have been much impressed. Really, the merit of humanity con- 
sists not in wealth and riches but in accomplishment which God hath 
bestowed upon you. 

"You trust in Allah only and this alone is the greatest trust. I pray that 
this Dar al-Ulum may make progress, produce good Muslims and render 
service for the welfare of the country"! 

Ajit Prasad Jam, 

Governor of Kerala. 

8th September, 1965. 

(72) "We were very much pleased on meeting the true ulema in the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. We thank Allah Most High that He hath favoured this 
part of the earth with such accomplished and reverable ulema who are 
actively taking part in the revival of religious knowledge and its dissemina- 
tion. In fact the Dar al-Ulum is a bright lamp which is guiding the whole 
world". 

■(Besides being a poet, Mr. Ibrahim Khalil is also a very good calligraph- 
ist. He expressed great joy on seeing the specimens of the students' hand- 
written copies in the Department of Chierography). The translation of the 
verses his good self extemporised regarding the Dar al-Ulum is as under — 

"The auspicious mosque of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, sheds light over 
the world like the sun and the moon. (The Dar al-Ulum) has benefitted a 
world with religious knowledge and has bestowed the grace of reality upon 
mankind. May this Dar al-Ulum last till the world lasts! May this source of 
grace and knowledge flourish till eternity without end!" 

Ibrahim Khalil, Afghanistan. 

7, Vidhan Sabha Marg., Lucknow. 
October 17, 1964. 

I was happy to visit the Darul Uloom, one of the premier religious 



educational institutions at Deoband on October 11, 1964. I was gratified to 
hear that there were about 1400 scholars in the institution. This institution 
affords very good facilities to the students coming from foreign countries. 
This is an institution of hundred years long standing. Late Maulana Husain 
Madani, the great patron of the institution, who fought with Britishers in 
obedience to the call of Mahatma Gandhi, has set up this example before 
the whole country. The name of Deoband will always be remembered in 
the annals of the freedom fight movement in India. I have every hope that 
the steps which have been taken by this institution will help a great deal in 
the advancement of Unani and Tibb system of Medicine". 

Sd/ Darbarilal Sharma, 

Chairman, U. P. Legislative Council, 

Lucknow. 

(74) A preaching party of American Muslims, consisting of Amir 
Rasheed, H. A. Hameed, Muhammad Ahmed, Sa'eed Ahmed and Amir 
Hasan, had come here in the late A. H. 1375. All of them were American 
neo-Muslims. Their dress and style were extremely simple. This sentence of 
theirs regarding the Dar al-Ulum will always remain memorable :— 

"We read about Islam in books but saw its practical example on 
coming here". 

(75)"We, the Members of the Commitee, are very much pleased with 
the System of Education and Organisation of the Institution which are 
unique in the country. The organisers and teachers are working here 
devotedly with zeal and enthusiasm. We congratulate the founders and 
organisers of the Institution". 

K. Lakshmana Shastry, 

Member (& three other members), 

Classical Languages Development Committee, 

March 14,1967. 

Andhra Pradesh, 

Hyderabad. 

(76) "The services the Dar al-Ulum Deoband has been rendering for 
nearly a hundred years to the Muslims of this subcontinent in particular 
and to the Muslims of the world in general make an everlasting chapter in 
history; the refreshing of heart and mind in the vicinity and surrounding 
areas rendered by this head-spring of Islamic education is an unforgett- 
able service to the Muslims. 



304 

"In the present times the world is facing all sorts of crises, particularly 
the crisis of character. If we make the character of Hazrat Maulana 
Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi (mercy be on him!) and that of Hazrat 
Maulana Mahmud Hasan (mercy be on him!) our polestar and keep the 
ideal attached to the institution alive with our action, I am certain that we 
shall render a matchless service to. mankind, Allah willing, in releasing it 
from the crisis of character and similar other difficulties. There is an 
urgent necessity of unity of thousht and unity of action, and this formula 
shown by the Prophet of Mercy (Allah's peace and blessings be upon 
him!) is the only way of salvation for being exalted and successful in the 
world and the religion. The alumni of the Dar al-Ulum, practically as well 
as mentally, are clean and unblemished. May Allah Most High bestow 
grace upon all of us and make you successful and triumphant".! 

Shaikh Muhammad Abdullah 

(Present Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir) 

January 28, 1968. 

(77) "I, in the company of His Excellency Isa Siraj al-Din, ambassador 
of the United Arab Republic, inspected the library. The visit to the library 
at this time has made a deep impression on my heart. 

"There is great appreciation in our heart of the tremendous efforts the 
respecatble ulema have made in the past in the collecton of this rare and 
valuable stock of manuscripts, and we consider it a great wealth which 
will last always as a perennial stream for the whole world of the en- 
thusiasts of knowledge and art"! 

Omar Abu Reesha, Ambassador of Syria. 
August 31, 1968. 

(78) "Thank Allah that I got a chance to see this magnificent centre in 
which Allah's name is taken and the Book of Allah is taught. 

"I pray to Allah Most Honoured and Glorious that He bestow 
opportunity on this centre to produce such individuals who may perform 
the work of leading the Islamic movement and restoring the honour and 
glory of the Muslims of the world"! 

Anas Yusuf Yasin, Ambassador of Saudi Arabia. 
2nd February, 1969. 

(79) "I am very lucky that I got an opportunity to visit this institution 
which has been established for the fulfilment of such a glorious objective 
from which humanity receives real comfort. 



305 

"Through this institution its men of action have spread throughout the 
world the message of Islam which is the foundation of world peace and 
the basis of unity, and for the dischage of this obligation they have 
devoted their lives. 

"For all of them and for the functionaries I invoke good grace and 
good reward from Allah. Verily, grace is from Allah"! 

Isa Siraj al-Din, Ambassador of Egypt. 
2nd February, 1969. 

(80) "It was a long-standing wish of mine to come here. Thank Allah 
that it was fulfilled and on coming here I was very much pleased and 
impressed. Our family has been closely related to this institution. The Dar 
al-Ulum Deoband which is serving the Muslims of the world deserves all 
applause. It is my prayer that Allah Most High bestow grace upon this 
institution to serve further. 

"I was very glad to meet the elders here, particularly Maulana 
Muhammad Tayyib Sahib; for this also I am especially thankful". 

Muhammad Farouq, 
February 10, 1969. 

(81) "I am very happy I could visit Daral Ulum, the internationally 
famous centre of Islamic studies today. The centre has very big library 
and over 1500 boys are studying . Quite a large number of them get free 
meals and lodgings and books too. I wish it to continue to maintain its 
glory as a centre of religious studies with due emphasis on service to the 
country". 

8. Gopala Reddi, 

22.9.69. 

Governor, U. P. 

(82) "It is a privilege and honour to visit this great institution, and see 
some of its rare collection of books and priceless treasures. 

"One recalls to mind the lines: 

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear'... 



"I wish the institution and all those who participate in its functioning, 
every success and greater glory". 

Gilbert A. James, 

Indian Revenue Service (Income Tax), 

Dehra Dun, 

21st. January,197C. 

(83) "Today I took a round of the Dar al-Ulum. This institution is of a 
unique type; I do not know if there is any othe institution also of this 
type. I was very much impressed to see the simplicity here; an 
atmosphere of simplicity is very necessary for high thinking. 

"It is my wish that the Dar al-Ulum may maintain its standard and 
flourish". 

Mahadeo Prasad, 

Govt. Deputy Chief Whip, Govt, of India, 

11th October, 1969. 

(84) "I was wishing to see the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, for a long time. 

"The very establishment of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, started with 
patriotism; for nearly a hundred years the Dar al-Ulum has displayed its 
patriotic behaviour before the country. 

■ "This institution has propagated sympathy for India in and outside the 
country through its foreign students". 

"This institution teaches truth, peace and patriotism; it is with this 
sentiment that I came here and am carrying from here a very good 
impression". 

Ramchandra Wukal, 

Shafqat Jung, 

Mulki Raj, 

Members of the Parliament, 

12th December, 1971. 

(85) "As a modest student of. Islam in South-east Asia, I have had 
the greatest possible pleasure in spending 24 hours at the Dar ul-Ulum, 
Deoband — not least because of the great courtesy and kindness 



307 

exteneded to me and to my companions. I have been most impressed by 
many features of the Dar al-Ulum — its fine library, its splendid build- 
ings, its students from every corner of the Islaimic world, its evident 
intention to maintain in every respect the high ideals of service to learn- 
ing set out by its founder. I shall take away with me an abiding memory 
of selfless dedication to scholarship, vigorous self-discipline in this 
turmoil, and withal a pervasive humanity and courtesy to those both 
within and without Islam". 

William R. Roff, 

Professor of History, Columbia University, 

New york (America). 

24th February, 1973/20th Muharram, 

A. H. 1393. 

(86) "I had always wanted to visit Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, as a student 
of Islamic studies and because I belong to a Punjabi family which has had 
an interest in Islam for long. My research in sociology in Afghanistan also 
taught me the extent of Deoband's influence in Central Asia. Today I have 
had the honour to see at first-hand the wonderful organisation, devotion 
and traditions that have established and maintained this unique position of 
Dar al-Ulum in the world of learning for over a century. If the spirit 
manifest here could pervade some of our other universities in India, our 
whole community of scholars and students would be richer for it". 

J. P. S. Uberoi, 
Professor of Sociology, University of Delhi, 
24th February, 1973. 

(87) Praise be to Allah and blessings be upon the Prophet (on whom 
be Allah's peace and blessings!) Thereafter: — 

"This is our good luck that today we are acquiring the honour of 
seeing this magnificent institution, which is considered the pharos and 
fountatin-head of knowledge and gnosis and is the centre of guidance 
and spiritual awareness; which prepared a very big group of ulema and 
traditionisits in the subcontinent and through whom God Most Honoured 
and Glorious extirpated deviation and innovation and took the work of 
protecting His religion. 

"Today we received the honour of seeing many things within the four 
walls of this institution, particularly the library full of countless books, 



and of the meeting with honourable teachers which provided complete 
information in understanding the motives and purposes of the Dar al-Ulum. 

"Our hearts are full of the mixed emotions of joy and pleasure. We 
are grateful from the bottoms of our hearts to all those gentlemen who 
expressed their imcomparable hospitality and fervent welcome for us 
and as a result of which we could achieve the honour of visiting this 
magnificent institution. 

"It is our prayer to Allah that He bestow more progress on the religi- 
ous sentiments and feeling of the responsible gentlemen of this institu- 
tion and, through His favour and bounty, aid them with divine succour! 
Lo! Allah is the Helper"! 

Secretary General, Rabeta-e A'lam-e Islami, Mecca; 

Secretary, Ministry of Hajj & Awqaaf; 

Representative of Bahuth-e "llmia & Ifta. 

31st August, 1974. 

(88) "The Dar al-Ulum of Deoband is a shining star in the firmament 
of the sky of Islam. Thanks to the infinite grace of Allah, the Dar al-Ulum 
has been playing a leading role for over a century in diffusing and 
preserving the science of Islam. Not only that. Its services in producing 
leaders of thought in every sector on Islam strictly following the Sunnah 
of our beloved Prophet (A), cannot be overestimated. I have the proud 
privilege in living with the spiritual and educational community of the 
esteemed Dar al-Ulum and drank deep at its various fountains of learning, 
from class-rooms, offices, library and even from the precincts of the 
sacred compound. The whole atmosphere is overshadowed with the halo 
of spiritual bliss. And the great honour and respect done and shown to 
me will remain ever fresh and green in my memory, and will be a fresh 
guideline in my life". 

"May Allah shower His blessings on the Dar al-Ulum and may He 
protect it till the doomsday from all sides so that its light remain beam- 
ing throughtout the universe"! 

Muhammad Ishaq 

(Dr. Muhammad Ishaq, M. A., Ph. D.), 

Professor & Chairman, Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, 

University of Dacca, 

Dacca, Bangladesh. 

26th Zil-hijja, A. H. 1393/21 February, 1974. 



309 

(89) "I consider my presence today in the Dar al-Ulum the cause of 
honour and pride for me. My good wishes are end will always be with 
this centre of knowledge and the centre of the freedom of India. 

"May it be so that this Dar al-Ulum progress every day and continue 
its old effort and endeavours in spreading knowledge and wisdom, in 
enhancing the sentiment of doing public service and in strengthening still 
further the feelings of patriotism"! 

Akbar Ali Khan (Governor, Uttar Pradesh), 
December 12, 1973 — 12th Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1393. 

(90) "Alas, I only could stay for less than two days. But this short visit 
here was a unique experience for me. In my studies I had learned and 
read a lot about Dar al-Ulum, Deoband and had a special interest in 
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi. what I saw and experienced here 
has impressed me deeply: A sincere and true welcome, learned and 
sympathetic company, a great simplicity and openness of truly learned 
men. I had important discussions and friendly talk and I have received 
many ideas and much encouragement for the completion of my research 
work. 

'The rich, and beautifully installed library has impressed me and I 
hope that I can use it more and for longer period in my future work. 
Within one hour in the library I made out four books of great importance 
to my present work; the same I had looked for in vain in many other 
libraries inside and outside India. 

"Whole-heartedly I want to thank this great institution and its leading 
teachers for the welcome thay have given to me. May the work, so 
unique in the field of Islamic theology and religious sciences, prosper 
and receive God's rich blessings"! 

Christian W. Trounj, 

Rheinbacher Str. 55—53, 

Bonn, West Germany. 

(91) I stayed here for more than a week. From my childhood I had a 
heartfelt wish to see this famous and reputed Dar al-Uium, because in my 
childhood when I used to read the Holy Quran and the religious 
sciences, my two teachers were graduates of Deoband itself. Although 
I was educated at Muslim University, Aligarh, and therefrom I obtained 



310 

a high degree, I did not get a chance to see the Dar al-Ulum. Now God 
created such a cause that the Government of Jammu & Kashmir sent me 
here for the solution of a religious problem. During this brief period I met 
all the great divine scholars and saw the whole Dar al-Ulum. I particularly 
attended lectures on the Bukhari Sharif. By coming here my religion 
improved. Here, especially, the real Islamic faith is there. A longing 
appeared in my heart that this Dar al-Ulum must be copied in Kashmir, 
and a madrasah should be established which may be affiliated to the 
management here. I inspected every department. I thank God that He 
brought me here and from here I am going back delighted and happy; at 
any rate, I am taking the right Islamic faith from here". 

Abd al-Khaliq Hamadani, Deputy Secretary, Legal Dept, 

Government of Jammu & Kashmir. 

August 22, 1974. 

(92) "We visited the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and we are very glad that 
we found it much higher than what we thought and imagined it to be. It 
is our prayer to Allah Most High that He may continue the good fortune 
of serving the sciences for the Dar al-Ulum and the Dar al-Ulum continue 
to pass its successful life like this only. Our solicitation to Allah Most 
Glorious is also this that He may keep us always adhering to the belief of 
the Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah and save us from the evil of the misguided 
sects; that He may create more such madrasahs in the world and 
universalize its benefit for the entire world whereby we hope that, Allah 
willing, the earliest period of Islam will return to the earth"! 

Dr. Muhammad Yugel, Civil Engineer, Istanbul; 
Zaki Jelb.Sth Sha'ban al-Muazzam, A. H. 1394. 

(93) "The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is such a national institution of 
which one can be rightly proud. I was very much pleased on coming 
here. The method of education here, the facilities available to the 
students, and the knowledge and learning of the teachers are most 
probably singular in the whole country. This institution has rendered 
very valuable services, and I am certain that in future, too, valuable 
benefits will accrue to the nation and the country". 

Shehbaz Husain, 
Taraqqi-e Urdu Board, 
Ministry of Education, 
Government of India. 



(94) "Praising (the Lord) and blessing (the Prophet), 

Today we were very glad to see this central educational institution 
"the Dar al-Ulum Deoband", which, with its sincere authorities and 
fuctionaries is active in the service of religion. Our attendance in this 
Islamic university of Deoband is certainly our good luck. We are acquiring 
the felicity of joining it in its service by offering a paltry sum (which, 
though, does not beseem this great institution, it does reflect Islamic 
fraternity and love and our sincere relation with it). Here, through the 
efforts of the Indian ulema, we saw things which were beyond our imagi- 
nation. May Allah Most High bestow good reward upon these respect- 
able ulema and grace upon all of us for good works"! 

Delegation of the Rabeta-e Ulama-e Iraq, Baghdad: 
Al-Shaikh Nuri, Secretary; Al-Shaikh Ibn Mansoor al-Sa'di, 

member; 

Al-Shaikh Ibrahim, member. 

1st Zi-qa'da, 1394. 

(95) "Today, for the second time, I got the chance to visit the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. I felt very glad on seeing the advancements this 
institution has made during the intervening period of two years after my 
first visit. The efforts of its teachers are worthy of respect and the 
advancements of its students praiseworthy. It is my prayer to Allah Most 
High that He may bestow upon all of us the grace to serve Islam and 
the Muslims of the world, particularly these admirable Indian ulema who 
have' devoted themselves to the dissemination of Islamic culture and 
civilisation, and knowledge and gnosis; and may also give us the grace 
to work according to His Will"! 

Shaikh Muhammad Abd al-Hakim, Mufti of Aleppo (Suria), 
9th Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1394. 

(96) "This University — the Dar al-Uloom University^ has done 
much for Islam. I am proud, therefore, to pay a visit and associate 
myself with Maulana Muhammad Taib and its professors". 

"I am thankful to the University for giving Malaysian students the 
opportunity to study here". 

Tan Sri Haji Abdul Khaliq, 

High Commissioner of Malaysia for India. 

March 29, 1975. 



312 

(97) "I visited the Dar al-Ulum Deoband, and attained the felicity of 
passing some time here. I saw the students busy in acquiring knowledge 
with diligence and assiduity and, on the other hand, judged about the 
teachers also that they are ready with sincerity of heart for every kind of 
effort for academic benefaction. 

"Under the system that is working in the Dar al-Ulum the students 
can very easily avail themselves of facilities of lodging, boarding and 
studies. 

"I cannot help acknowledging that these are the signs of the absti- 
nence and piety, academic sublimeness, sincerity- and selflessness of the 
vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, which are being witnessed 
in this institution, and it is the. result of the same that the graduates of the 
Dar al-Ulum are successfully busy in the dissemination of knowledge in all 
cities and countries"- 

"It is the prayer of all of us that Allah Most High may favour the 
authorities, teachers and students of the Dar al-Ulum with matchless 
reward and recompense". 

Abd al-Haleem Mahmud, Shaikh al-Azhar, 
April 26, 1975. 

(98) "I visited the Dar al-Ulum and' achieved the honour of knowing 
its educational activities. In connection with Hadith and Tafsir particularly 
its services ste commendable. I felt great pleasure when I happened to 
hear their lofty speeches in the Arabic language. 

"It is my prayer that Allah Most Glorious my keep this institution in 
existence for a long time, favour its founder with forgiveness and also 
those who are engaged in serving it, and bestow upon the Muslims the 
grace to help this public institution lavishly. . 

"Allah is our witness that the thoughts we have expressed are the 
good wishes of our heart. This good visit to the Dar al-Ulum took place on 
Sunday, 29th Sha'ban, A. H. 1395, corresponding to September 7, 1975". 

And peace be on all! 

Ali Ubayd Muhammad Ghazali, Government of the Arab Emirates. 

(99) "I had heaj-d about the .fame of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, for a 



313 

long time and it was also in my know that its teachers are disseminating 
the Arabic language in all sides of India with consummate efforts; these 
things used to be the cause of my great happiness. 

"I was keen on visiting it and meeting the ulema of the Dar al-Ulum 
for a long time, and when I heard that the students there were very 
assiduously busy in learning Arabic, so much so that their books and 
articles as well as those of the teachers of the Dar al-Ulum had begun 
to appear in Arabic, my keenness increased further, so much so that it 
went on increasing day by day and I prayed to Allah that as long as I 
did not visit the Dar al-Ulum and meet its ulema and students, I should, 
not die. 

"Praise be to Allah that this my longing was fulfilled, my desire was 
gratified and I visited on a day which I can never forget till the Day of 
Doom, and that was the day of Sunday, April 26, 1975. Whatever I saw 
here with mine own eyes was much more than what I had heard about 
it. If, on the one hand, the students are busy in their lessons, the 
teachers, on the other, are immersed in .the feeling of their responsibility 
and consider the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran 
and the Hadith, their wealth. 

"I also got a chance to see its great library and, by Allah, found a 
lot of books of lexicons and history. 

"It is my prayer that Allah Most High may favour the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, and its ulema with all kinds of grace and progress! And it has 
to be admitted that this institution is a secure fort among the forts of 
Islam. May Allah Most High help fully those people who are working in 
it so that they may render better and better services! Verily, Allah is the 
Giver of grace"! 

Muhammad Al-Faham, Ex-Shaikh al-Azhar. 

(100) "Allah Most High bestowed upon me and my companion, Prof. 
Abd al-Rahman, editor of the Arabic religious journal, Al-fialagh, which 
is published from Kuwait, the grace to visit this great Islamic fort, which 
we remember as Azhar al-Hind Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

"Tiiis visit took place on Friday, 7th Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1395, cor- 
responding to November 11, 1975, when we had come as an Islamic 
delegation in connection with the educational jubilee of Nadvat al- 
Ulama, Lucknow. 



314 

"Praise be to Allah that we found this institution to be excellent. We 
saw it to our heart's content. We had already heard about it. We were 
pleased. I also got a chance to address the students in the function that 
had been held to honour the guests. 

"It is my prayer that Allah Most High may bestow plenty of grace 
upon this Islamic institution to serve the upright religion and the Islamic 
call; Allah alone is the Owner of grace". 

Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim Rifa'i, Ex-minister, Govt, of Kuwait, 

7th Zi-Qa'da, A. H. 1395 

November 7, 1975. 

(101) "I praise Allah for this that He obliged us by bestowing upon 
us the favour of visiting the Dar al-Ulum. 

"In the land of Egypt and the region of Arabia this institution is 
much famed and all are full of praise for it and remember it as Azhar 
of India, and think that this institution has devoted its life and every 
activity for the service of Islam; and that the flag of Islam is up on its 
account and its brilliance is reaching the whole world. By Allah, we 
found it much more than whar we had heard about it. And, similarly, 
the erudition of the ulema of this place, their continuous efforts, their 
well-wishing for their pupils, and their good sentiment for Allah, His 
Apostle and religion,- — these were such things that my joy knew no 
bounds. 

"And their behaviour, manner of speaking and considerateness with 
the guests, these things were further enhancing their charm. 

"I implore Allah Most High that even as He hath made this institution 
a bright lamp of the Quranic and Hadith sciences in this part of the 
world. He may also make it successful in its objective, and every next 
day of it be better than the previous one, even as the present day is 
better than its yesterday; and make its students who are its product the 
true heirs of the Holy Prophet's (peace and blessings be upon him!) 
religion! And on behalf of my brethren who live in Qatar I offer their 
good wishes". 

Abd Al-Mui'zz Abd al-Sattar (Qatar). 

7th Zi-qa'da, A. H. 1395, 

November 11, 1975. 



(102) "I consider myself very fortunate that a very long cherished 
desire to visit this famous institution 'Darul Uloom Deoband' was fulfilled 
today, through God Almighty's grace and favour. 

"This internationally known institution is doing laudable service in the 
cause of Islam, Arabic and local languages. Arrangements for teaching, 
residence and food etc. are exemplary. I was amazed to know that the 
students get free board and lodging. Established in 1866 with an annual 
income of about Rs. 700/— it has reached an annual budget of over 26 
lacs during the current year and all this raised through private sources 
without any recurring grants from the state or central Govt. 

"I am deeply gratetul to Moulana Mohd. Tyeb Muhtamim and his staff 
for the trouble they took in connection with my visit. I was indeed very 
happy to visit the library which has some rare manuscripts in Arabic, 
Persian and Urdu. Some of the Holy Quran manuscripts are rare pieces of 
old art of calligraphy. 

"I wish this institution all good wishes and success. Insha Allah". 

Manzoor Alam Quraishi, 

Ambassador of India to Saudi Arabia. 

5th March, 1976. 

(103) "I was honoured with a visit to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, which 
is a great academic resort and felt reassurance in my heart that as long as 
such gentlemen who are engaged in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and are 
accomplishing its exploits, are present, Islam will not sustain any harm. 

"I think that these great exploits which these gentlemen are accomp- 
lishing, that is, guidance to the Muslims in religious matters and their 
education and training, are a great jihad in the way of Allah. May Allah 
favour you, gentlemen, with grace and help you, and invest you with 
every capability to discharge your responsibility, and I am certain that 
He will help you"! 

Husam al— Din, March 21,1976. 

(104) "Today I visited the Dar al-Ulum. I wish complete success in 
the work that is being done here in connection with knowledge. I was 
very much pleased. It is my sincere wish that this institution may continue 
to render real service to the masses". 

Basudeo Singh, 

Speaker, Uttar Pradesh Assembly. 

16th May, 1976. 



316 

(105) "I was pleased to see the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. This educa- 
tional institution illuminated the hearts of the people of the world with 
the light of knowledge and gnosis, and its outstanding personalities, 
rendering remarkable exploits in the national politics, raised the banner 
of their greatness. All are well aware of the fact that this institution has 
been distinguished in its educational, national and political services. 

"I was impressed by seeing the great stock of rare books in its 
library. I was very glad to meet Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib, 
his college-teachers and students. It is my prayer that Allah Most High 
may bestow grace upon the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, to advance further, 
maintaining the old traditions in 'the modern age and it may always 
command a conspicuous place in the service of the country and the 
nation". 

Fakhr al— Din Ali Ahmed, President of the Republic of India. 
April 24, 1976. 

(106) "I feel pride and honour in this that I got a chance to visit the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and meet its ulema, teachers, other workers and 
students who are receiving education and training from these ulema. This 
visit has provided an opportunity for us that we, on behalf of ourselves 
and the Organisation for the Freedom of Palestine, express our good 
sentiments regarding the ulema, teachers, and the past and future of this 
educational institution; and we also thank the Indian masses for this that 
they have always supported Palestine and the Arab public. This behaviour 
of the Indian public is worth following for the masses of other countries 
also. The stand of the Indian public depends upon those "lofty principles 
and values which are common between the Indian public and the Palesti- 
nian public fighting for their freedom and self-respect. 

"Before concluding our impressions and words of thanks we consider 
it appropriate to express from our side the wish and hope that the 
"Tanzim-e Azadi-e Falasteen" will participate in your centennial jubilee 
and by that time the Arab Palestinian masses will have succeeded in 
achieving their freedom and regaining the occupied land of their native 
country. 

"May Allah Most High fulfil these hopes"! 

Fatahi Abd al-Hameed, 

Secretary of the Office of the Organisation 

for the Freedom of Palestine. 

July 11, 1976. 



317 

(107) "We, the manager and students of the Gaurmat Missionary 
College, Delhi, came here today, on 14th July, 1976, to acquire informa- 
tion of this institution. We acquired information about the history and 
arrangements of this institution from Ghazi Sahib and the vice-chancellor. 
The love and faith with which both these gentlemen and the whole staff, 
devoting much of their time, not only gave us necessary information 
about this institution but also emphatically repeated the near relation and 
essential unity between Islam and secularism, has given us sufficient light 
and direction in running our own institution. May God bring those days 
when mutual concord and faith might increase among us and we might 
reciprocally be of help to each other"! 

Mahendra Pratap Singh. 
14th July, 1976. 

(108)"l happened to visit the Dar al-Ulum after a very long time and 
got an opportunity to see several new departments and the advance- 
ments it made during the interregnum. Under the care and supervision of 
Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Tayyib Sahib (may his shadow last longl), this 
educational and spiritual institution of India is busy in serving the religi- 
ous science. During its life of 11 3' years it has, in many branches of the 
Islamic sciences, produced thousands of men of learning and merit 
whose influences have been and are still extant not only in this subconti- 
nent but also in other countries. There has been a good addition of 
books in the library during the last ten years but the pity of it is that 
due to want of accommodation it is not in a more well-arranged condi- 
tion; as a matter of fact many such halls are required for the library. The 
work for the centenary celebration of the Dar al-Ulum has been started 
on a large scale and a committee is working on its practical aspects. It 
is a necessary function which should be celebrated in a manner befitting 
the Dar al-Ulum. .I was also glad to know that the administrators are 
paying attention to the planning of the whole campus of the Dar al-Ulum 
also. It is a very important work; the future works of construction and 
progress must be done under planning only. I pray to Allah that the Dar 
al-Ulum may cover the new stages of progress also nicely, that He may 
bestow more spirit and strength on the administrators and that the 
domain of its services may continue to widen more and more". 

(Hakim) Abd al-Hameed, 
Mutawalli, Hamdard Dawakhana, Delhi. 

(109) "I was honoured by visiting this great Islamic institution. The 



great achievements that I have seen here have caused me heartfelt joy. 
This institution is performing very important works in connection with the 
service to Islam and the Muslims. 

"At a time when materialism has trampled all principles and values, 
institutions of this type are badly reeded. The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is 
one of the most important strongholds and as regrads those people who 
are at the helm of its affairs my opinion is that they are amongst the best 
people, because the best people are those who are engaged in the 
teaching of the Quran. I wish further progresss for this institution. The 
example of this institution, according to me, is the same which Allah 
Most High hath described a goodly tree, its root set firm, its branches 
reaching into heaven", (XIV: 24) 

The individuals of this institution, armed with the weapons of bene- 
ficial knowledge, command the position of a beacon and torch of 
guidance in the darknesses of infidelity; these people lead the ummah 
towards the well-being of both the world and the religion. It is incum- 
bent upon all Muslims that they help this institution in every way and it is 
a necessary duty of every person to look after it. I pray to Allah Most 
High for grace and prosperity for all". 

Maqbool Abd al-Kafi, 
Madrasah Tahfiz al-Quran, Mecca. 

(110) "At the end are given two versified reports. 

Haji Zia al-lslam Zia, the nobleman of Kandhla, District Muzaffamagar, 
was an excellent 'poet/ a knowledge-patronising august man, decorated 
with modern education and fond of the old oriental culture. Literary cir- 
cles know him as a patron of literature and a consummate poet. His 
lauded seif came to Deoband in A. H. 1348. The Dar al-Ulum cut a deep 
impression on his poetic heart; a paraphrase of the same impressions that 
he expressed in a Persian poem is as under:— 

"How pleasant is this fascinating Dar al-Ulum, an auspicious centre of 
religious education. It is an example of Cordova in India; it is thus of 
the grace of Egypt and the Azhar. The splendour of the true religion is 
everywhere; everyone is picking from the dinner-cloth of knowledge. 
There is (mention of ) the Hadith of "the Mercy for both the worlds"; 
the tongue is full of honey with the sayings of Allah. What an excellent 
tavern of knowledge and certitude it is! Every bumper is full of the 



319 

water of life. The light of gnosis has settled into every heart; every 
forehead is the Canopus of the light of faith. Every 'strong pillar' is 
engrossed in its own work; away from lapse, it is near mercy. Every one 
is a supporter of the survival of the religion of Ahmed, because every 
one is enlightened as well as trustworthy. Wonderful is the grandeur of 
the house as well as the occupant; it is sheer descent of the bounty of 
the Lord of the Worlds! 'If Paradise were on earth, it is this, it is this, it is 
this'. 

Zia al-lslam, Magistrate First Class, Kandhla. 
November 16, 1929 (A. H. 1348). 

(111) The impression which the late Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, editor of 
the Zamindar daily, Lahore, got on seeing the Dar al-Ulum is expressed 
by the following Urdu poem which had been published during the same 
time in the said paper. Its paraphrase is as follows: — 

"Be happy and live happily, O land of Deoband! you hoisted the flag 
of Islam in India, you bestowed grace on the honour of the bright 
community; you double the value of the wisdom of Butaha. your name is 
worthy of its significance, your blow is unsparing,- for the neck of the 
demon of tyranny there is lasso. Thousands of forward steps willingly 
sacrifice themselves on your retreat; your reverse caper brought informa- 
tion of the first Decade (of Islam), you are the standrad-bearer of truth; 
the Lord is your protector,- no harm can reach you from the host of false- 
hood. Take pride on your luck that the religious divines of the true faith 
selected your soil; those who will sacrifice their lives on Muhammad's 
honour,- those who will get themselves dismembered in the path of the 
Lord; those who led infidelity (kufr) a dance a number of times before 
them, even as the seed of wild rue dances on the heated iron-pan. 
Whether there be Qasim or Anwar Shah or Mahmud al-Hasan there — the 
hearts of all of them were sympathetic, the natures of all of them noble. 

The fervour of your assembly today is due to Husain Ahmed — it's 
because of him that the flag of the old traditions is eminently up"! 



MASNAVI FAROGH 

'Masnavi Farogh' is an old versified history of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. This masnavi is an interesting album of the initial conditions of 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and its elders, and on account of its being an 
eye-winess, it commands the position of an authentic source and an 
important document. It had been written at a time when the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, was passing through the second decade of its life. It was a time 
when the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was known as "Madrasa-e Islami Arabi 
Deoband". But from its .very infancy, due to its uncommon popularity, 
fame and greatness, it was being felt that this sprouting plant was soon to 
grow into a stalwart tree : 

"Over its head, due to intelligence, was shining the star of loftiness". 

It seems that the author of the masnavi, through his consummate insight 
and farsightedness, had perceived these presages, which he has predicted 
in the following manner : — 

"The Madrasah of Diban 1 is now matchless, although it has not yet 
reached its prime. It is yet in its infancy, but see it some time in its youth. 
All the customs of ignorance and innovation have been eradicated; 
Deoband has now become a Dar al-Ulum (university). 

From 'Masnavi Farogh', besides the quality of teaching and learning of 
the Dar al-Ulum, the knowledge and learning, abstinence and piety of its 
august men, such a picture of their value and place in the hearts of the 
common Muslims and the then-prevailing ideas regarding the Dar al-Ulum 
comes before one's eyes that it is not to be found elsewhere. 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, in its very incipient period, had acquired a 
central position academically and educationally due, on the one hand, to 
the coming of students from the surroudning places of Deoband as well as 
from the distant parts of the country, and, on the other, due to the joining 
of the charitable people of far off places in extending financial aid to the 
Dar al-Ulum. 

1. The names Diban and Deoband both have been used in the 'Masnavi Farogh 1 . The masses 
generally call it Diban but sometimes even the learned, for poetic necessity, versify it as 
Diban instead of Deoband. Maulana Fazl al-Rahman (father of Maulana' Shabbir Ahmed 
Usmani) has written Diban only in a qasida. The couplet is like this : 

'This is an academy, O monarch, a memorial of the Muslims due to which a sleepy 
village like Diban is an object of envy for the city of Tus'l Tile chronogrammatic name of a 
masnavi of Maulana Fazl al-Rahman is "Qissa-e Gham-e Diban". Vide Tarikh-e Deoband for 
details. 



321 
THE CAUSE OF COMPOSITION OF THE 'MASNAVI FAROGH' 

Showing the cause of its composition the author has stated : — 

"And those who are in the vicinity, help with their wealth. Many 
orthodox ones of foreign countries extend help with heart and soul. I also 
wish to render some service but I am helpless due to want of money. For 
this reasom, O respected Sir, I wrote this praise so as to acquire recom- 
pense (savab). All give there plenty of money but I have only this insigni- 
ficant writing. Though I have no ability in versificatoin — I am hundreds of 
miles apart from poetry, I have written (this) for the sake of recompense; it 
is a poem, whether you call it meaningless or matchless. 

In the 'Masnavi Farogh', besides the circumstances of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, the merits and virtues of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum, like 
Shaikh al-Masha'ikh Hazrat Haji Imdad Allah Mahajir-e Makki (may his secret 
be sanctified), Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Hazrat 
Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub 
Nanautavi, Hazrat Haji Muhammad Abid Deobandi, Hazrat Maulana Rafi al- 
Din Deobandi and Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Dehelvi (Allah's mercy 
be on all of them!), as also of other members of the Dar al-Ulum have been 
described. Under the description of virtues incidentally have been 
mentioned such particulars regarding these gentlemen which were not 
known till now. 

This masnavi is the oldest versified history of the Dar al r Ulum. Besides 
the annual reports, no other history of that period is extant. Masnavi 
Farogh was printed in 1303/1885 at Matba-e Nizami 1 , Kanpur. But despite 

1.Matba-e Nizami, Kanpur, is one of the earliest presses established in India. It was 
established in 1854/1271 by Abd al-Rahman Khan Shakir and in its period did a great job 
in printing books and helped the Dar al-Ulum, when the latter was established in 1866, 
avishly with its publications. This help is mentioned in detail in the early reports of the Dar 
al-Ulum. Many books of this press are present in the library of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

A Persian chronogrammatic fragment, written by Abd al-Rahman Khan Shakir, on 
the deaths of Hazrat Maulana Ahmed Ali Muhaddith Saharanpuri and Hazrat Maulana 
Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, is mentioned at the end of this masnavi. The fragment Cin 
translation) is as under: — 

■ "Ah! Qasim Ali, the theologian of the time, the lover of the Dignified Intercessor of 
ummahs. It was Thursday, 4th Jamadi al-Ula, when my friend departed. Again, Ahmed Ali, 
the peerless one of his time, defender of the law of the Lord of the Universe, stepped 
into Paradise on the 6th of the same month on Saturday Both of these were the 
polyhistors of their time,- they were hajis, jurists, and of angelic disposition. In the grief 
for these two' seals of the law of the Apostle, mourning was held on the face of the 
earth. Shakir's pen wrote this chronogram :Radi Allah anhuma da'im" (may Allah be 
enternally pleased with them!). The year in the above verse is A. H. 1297. 



publication, it is unavailabe. Its copy is rarely met with. In the Library of 
the Dar al-Ulum there is only a single copy and that too has become very 
fragile. In the catalogue of Urdu Literature its number is 735/88769. 

It appears from the concluding verses of the Masnavi Farogh that the 
turn of its going to press came many years after its composition. The 
author has stated : — 

"Having written this masnavi at Pali, with eagerness of heart I wished 
to publish it. But when my spiritual director went to glory, it greatly 
shocked my soul. How to publish and who cared for the book when 
composure and sleep vanishd from the heart"! 

He writes further that "a beneficent friend of mine, Munshi Muhammad 
Shah Mir, resident of Jalalabad, who is staying in this state, insisted upon 
the publication of the masnavi and himself drew attention of the Nizami 
Press to it". He has stated ■.— 

"Then he, through kindness and favour, penned a letter to the Nizami, 
Press, asking it to publish it, and at last the desire of the heart was ful- 
filled. It was printed through his favours and attention; so I dedicate it to 
friends". 

Besides the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, particulars regarding the construc- 
tion of the Jame Masjid have also been described. This masnavi consists 
of nearly 1700 couplets. 

THE AUTHOR OF THE MASNAVI FAROGH 

Maulana Abd al-Karim 'Farogh' was a resident of Deoband. His 
father's name was Maulavi Abd al-Rahim. At a distance of three miles 
to the south of Deoband there is a small village named Amalia where a 
respectable family of Siddique Shaikhs has been living since the late 12th 
century hijri. Maulavi Abd al-Rahim belonged to the same village Amalia. 
He had two sons: Maulavi Abd al-Karim 'Farogh' and Maulavi Fazl-e 
Azeem. Both of them had settled down in mohalla Dewan of Deoband. 
Maulavi Abd al-Karim Farogh graduated from the Dar al-Ulum in A. H. 
1296. He drew attention of his self for taking admission in the Dar al- 
Ulum in the following manner: — 

"Acquire religious knowledge in the madrasah; 'live in attendance 
upon the Hazrat morning and evening. Look! what a wonderful gathering 



is there, what lucky persons have gathered there. Pass your life in his 
company so that you may also become perfectly religious". 

After graduation from the Dar al-Ulum, Maulana Abd al-Karim Farogh 
went over to Jodhpur where he became a state servant, in the Jodhpur 
state he lived at Pali village and, living there, he wrote the Masnavi 
Farogh. He has himself stated : — 

"Having written this masnavi at Pali, with eagerness of heart I wished 
to publish it". 

At another place he says ■.— 

"The fire of eagerness is so much ablaze that the heart as well as the 
liver are being roasted. I am like a bird and Pali is a cage; I may fly off but 
it is not within my power. Ill-luck has so ruined me that Diban is now at 
years of journey for me". Maulana Abd al-Karim Farogh was the real mater- 
nal grandfather of the Hakim al-lslam Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Tayyib 
Sahib, vice-chancellor, Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. He had vowed spiritual 
allegiance to Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi. He himself writes ■.— 

"That was strangely delicious, that mention of my spiritual elder and 
director, Maulavi Muhammad Yaqub". 

It is regrettable that besides the Masnavi Farogh his other poetica 
compositions are not available. The date of his death also could not be 
known; only this much is traceable that his life was not long. Around 
1310/1982, he died at Mathura and was buried there. 

It is not easy to write historical events in verse form. Every couplet of 
the Masnavi Farogh is fluent, which provides poof of Farogh's being a 
mature poet. There is found clarity, fluency, spontaneity, maturity, and 
power of expression in his composition. There is inspiration and perti- 
nence in the themes. This masnavi is a mirror of the author's passionate 
belief in and relation with the Dar al-Ulum and its elders. 

The definition of a masnavi is usually this that some tale may be 
versified in this form. Divine praise, hymns, prophetic praise, Companions' 
praise, panegyric, cause of composition, etc. are topics which are the 
necessary ingredients of a masnavi. Besides these, themes of battle and 
banquet, sufism, morality etc. can also be described. For a masnavi it is 
necessary that the whole poem is in a single metre. All these ingredients 
are present in the Masnavi Farogh. There is continuity and fluency in the 
chronicling of events. 



324 

ECSTATIC RELATION WITH THE SPIRITUAL DIRECTOR 

He had very reverential and tender attachement to his spiritual 
director, Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi (the first principal 
of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband) which can be estimated from his follow- 
ing verses : — 

"The eagerness for visiting you is making me also uneasy from within. 
Now in the whole world there is no man dearer to me at all than you. 
This alone is my longing that I live in attendance on you and keep 
seeing you alone day and night. I may live in attendance morning and 
evening and gird up my waist for you service. May I have the opportu- 
nity to bear you shoes! What a good fortune, what a good luck it would 
be for me! May that luminous face remain before me! Then there would 
remain no worry and confusion. What good stars, what a fine luck is 
theirs who live near you every moment. They have had proximity with 
you day and night, enjoying the pleasures of faith and religion. Again 
the disposition is getting restless; again the agitation is increasing. The 
fire of eagerness is so much ablaze that the heart as well as the liver 
are being grilled. Let us see when the disposition comes to rest, when 
the hopeful heart is satisfied. What satisfaction and what rest! As for 
me, I wish to have access to that assembly. Going to Deoband, I may 
report in his service, though I may be doubly more discomposed than 
I'm here. O Giver of effect to the prayer of an afflicted one! Reach me 
also quickly to Deoband, because this heart of mine full of disconcern- 
ment is now getting very impatient and restive; again show me that 
luminous face; again there be the same sight morning and evening. May 
I continue to sacrifice my heart and soul on him and keep conforming 
to him from the bottom of my heart! All may see that pleasant-looking 
visage and I may pine in longing and longing only! I may suffer grief 
and others may have joy! Day and night they may be near and I be 
remote"! 

DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND 

In connection with the particulars of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and 
its graces and blessings he has written: — 

"There is there a madrasah of Islam which burnished the mirror of 
religion. Its respect and status in India is such as it is of the House of 
Allah in the world. It acquainted all and sundry with religion,- the 
customs of ignorance all got obliterated. Those who would not touch a 



325 

book with their hands have now become unrivalled scholars. Now they 
.are dead-drunk with the wine of learning, light shedding on them from 
top to toe. Those who did not know the name of knowledge have now 
became hafizes and polyhistors. Hundreds of men from alien countries 
too came and became pious scholars by coming here. There is boom of 
knowledge from house to house; there is influence of the religion of 
truth everywhere. The virtuous ones there are the most fragrant musk 
whereby the whole of India has become redolent. The Indians are not 
unaware of how much benefit has accrued from the madrasah; rather, it 
is on account of it that madrasahs have been started at other places. 
Due to this madrasah the light of the sun of religion has reached remote 
places. For education, through the Lord's bounty, has been built a 
spacious building, by seeing which the heart may be delighted and a 
specimen thereof may not be found far and wide. On the four sides 
there are lofty houses, attractive, splendid, beautiful and extensive. In 
the middle there is a neat garden, exhilarating and delighting the soul 
and the body. 

Describing the salient features of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he 
writes : — 

"If you go and see the auditoriums, you will not wish to get up from 
there. When the teachers, sitting at their places, give lessons of the religi- 
ous sciences, divine grandeur becomes visible on hearing the lessons of 
Tafsir and Hadiths. It is so much filled with relishes that no other thought 
then remains in the heart. My heart knows this relish, which still lingers in 
my disposition. The mind remembers the same pleasures for which it 
keeps agitating. Now that mention of those pleasures has come, as it 
were, salt has been sprinkled on the wound. There is such a crowd of 
the students of religion that men of sciences live in every house. There is 
no place in the town where their bed may not have been made. Due to 
their residence there is manifestation of blessing (barakat) wherefore 
every house has become a house of happiness. All the inhabitants of 
Deoband, like sympathetic persons, are ready to serve from the bottom 
of their hearts. All of them remain sympathetic to them (students) and 
participate in fulfilling their needs. Other madrasahs of Islam too have 
been established in different towns, but where is that thing in them 
which is here? The grandeur of the sun is far more sublime than that of 
the moon. Those desirous of good education come here from there to 
prosecute their studies. Where were madrasahs of religion in those 
towns? They were established only because of this. They are cells 
whereas this is a great mansion; they are branches and this is the root, O 
Companion! What comparison does it bear now with them? There is a lot 



difference between this and them. There is difference between imitation 
and invention; there is difference between pupil and teacher. The hon- 
ours the Creator conferred on Diban are all due to this madrasah only. 
All customs of isnorance and innovation got extirpated (clue to it); 
Deoband has now become a Dar al-Ulum (university). Why should all the 
good qualities not gather there for religious divines have gathered 
there? Why should there be no splendour morning and evening? The 
splendour of Islam is manifest everywhere. Day and night all live there 
in mosque, in remembrance of Allah, in devotions. Day and night before 
all of them remain books of Fiqh, Tafsir and Hadith. If at one place is 
being given the lessons of the Tirmizi, one is proximate to the Divine 
Bounty through the Mishkat. And an ardent one, bending his head, is 
absorbed in the meaning of the Quranic exegesis. One overcome with 
drowsiness due to toil has dozed off but the book is still on the chest. 
While one is busy with the Quran and prayer, another is engrossed in 
'remembrance' (zikr) with yearning. And one strikes his heart constantly 
morning and evening with the strokes of 'lllailah' 1 ! And a pious one in 
his cell is engaged in 'mental mentioning' (Zikr— e Khafi) with sincerity 
of heart. A group of the righteous has foregathered there; how can one 
describe the attributes of all of -them? Allah gave the madarasah such 
progress that none can be its rival (now). All the Indians have benefit- 
ted from it; this too is the Lord's favour upon Diban. Where did anyone 
know the name of Diban? (But) now it has become famous upto Rum 
(Turkey) and Syria! Students of the true religion flock from everywhere 
now to Diban for study. Spontaneously, with ease and comfort, do they 
derive benefit from Islam. Without demanding they get every thing : all 
their needs are fulfilled. Regarding the generous behaviour of the 
helpers of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, he writes ■.— 

"The Muslims have shown great spirit, for they have great love for 
religion itself. All the people of Deoband are pious, perfect in Islam 
and fortunate. The glory of knowledge and religious divines has settled 
in their soul and heart. Their spirits are devoted (to this work); why 
shouldn't then God be the supporter of high spirits? Though the 
Muslims are penniless and poor, God has endowed them with wonder- 
ful spirits. To them I don't say but this: Bravo! a hundred times bravo! a 
hundred times bravo! Why shouldn't it be so? This is the effect of 

1. "There is no deity but Allah". Sonant or mental repetitiftn of this Kalima, in a 
particular method, is a sovereign specific for burnishing and purifying the heart and 
self-realization It being the main and common recitation, serval other recitations and 
methods are also employed in different Sufi orders. 

(Translator). 



Islam; they have in them the power of the name of Allah. They (often) 
accomplish wonderful things; marvellous actions proceed from them. This 
is the proof of their truthfulness; the Glorious Lord Himself is their parti- 
san. Helpless though they call themselves, even kings can't execute works 
they can. They also built such a Jame Masjid which is so spacious and 
pleasing,- and the building is so magnificent whereby the deniers' reason 
is confounded. All this is Muhammad-e Mustafa's grace which God hath 
bestowed upon his ummah. Just have a look how from east to west has 
this religion of the Prophet spread! The Muslims get divine aid and the 
Great Lord takes this work from them. This is a miracle, if you ask the 
truth; this is guidance, if you ask the truth. This is divine support to the 
poor otherwise what can the poor accomplish"? 

HAZRAT MAULANA MUHAMMAD QASIM 
(MAY HIS SECRET BE SANCTIFIED!) 

"The first revered Maulavi Sahib that was there — from him various 
graces proceeded to all. He passed away from this world, (but) his 
accomplishment endures in the universe. Howevermuch I may praise him, 
his rank is far more sublime than that. How aptly fits in his name in the 
legend (saj'a) : 'On the bank of Kauser Muhammad is the Qasim (the 
Distributor) — or Muhammad Qasim is on the bank of Kauser'. He 
directed special attention to the madrasah: that knowledge may spread 
was his heart's desire. So whatever he wished, materialised; Allah fulfilled 
each and every wish of his". 

HAZRAT MAULANA RASHEED AHMED GANGOHI 

About him he has said : — 

"The patron of this madrasah, O Farogh, is one who is highly accom- 
plished in the true religion; a true mufti, an authentic traditionist, a 
gnostic, an approved one in the Court of the Independent Lord, for 
improvement and management he regularly frequents the madrasah, all 
the affairs of the madrasah that are there depend on his opinion. Such a 
rank he enjoys in religion that the Chosen One's (Mustafa's) union is avail- 
able to him. Gracing the principal seat in the realm of religion, he does 
not have a compeer in the period. A religious divine, an accomplished 
man, an unrivalled jurisprudent, a matchless Sufi, a practical traditionist. 
The students of the prophetic hadith acquire this wealth from him. If one 
hears his sermon someday, the heart and the soul feel delighted; the soul 
becomes restless on hearning it, the heart is stirred like quicksilver. 
Whoever heard his sermon once, its delight dwelt in the heart for long. 



Remedially he always treats the body and the soul and removes the 
deformities (i. e., diseases) of the exterior and the interior". 

HAZRAT MAULANA MUHAMMAD YAQUB NANAUTAVI 

Maulana Farogh has eulogised his spiritual director (murshid), 
Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi, in detail. Some of the verses are 
as under : — 

"Amongst them is that peerless maulavi, the mentor, a clairvoyant 
mystagogue, Maulavi Yaqub, the pride of saints, a divine gnostic, a 
spiritual heir of the Chosen One (i. e., the Holy Prophet); splendour of 
the religion, springhead of faith and practice; matchless, peerless, 
unrivalled. Pious and an owner of a whole heart (qalb — e salim); a 
quarry of forbearance and a mine of great morals. The Shaikh of the 
world, leader and guide, busy in devotions to Allah day and night. 
When he takes Allah's name, the heart gets a wonderful pleasure. The 
heart of one who says the prayer behind him becomes submissive and 
supplicative. He shows such esoteric recitations whereby the heart can 
be cleansed in a moment. His method is that of guiding towards the 
right path; recollection of Allah is among his habits. His heart is full of 
lights from the Unseen,- secrets from the Unseen are revealed in his 
chest; conformance to the Sunnah, righteous actions, knowledge, piety, 
devotions, good morals and clemency. According to what the Last of 
the Apostles hath said, he is like the prophets of the old. He is the 
cause of pride for Diban, a basis of honour and dignity for the 
madrasah. He alone is the pride of the madrasah; on him alone depends 
the madrasah. All the townspeople and the people of the madrasah 
follow him sincerely. 

HAJI SAYYID MUHAMMAD ABID 

Haji Sayyid Muhammad Abid was the first vice-chancellor of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. A very pious, abstemious and influential august man 
he was. It was he who was the originator of the method of collecting 
public contributions for the Dar la-Ulum. 

"And his respected self was the mine of kindness and favour, a pious 
man and a pilgrim to the Inviolable House whose name is Muhammad 
and Abid on whom Allah hath exhausted every excellence. He has 
practised so much spiritual self-discipline which many men fall short 
of. He performed so many devotions to Allah that the baser self at last 



329 

became submissive to him. He is of very pure h jbits and virtuous dis- 
position,- day and night he remains absorbed in the recollection of Hu 
(Allah). His heart is pledged to the remembrance of Haq (Allah). He is 
manager of the Jame Masjid. That high-ranked one sincerely participates 
in the administration of the madrasah consistently. Due to his blessing 
(barakat) this mosque and madrasah always progress form day to day. 
It is the effect of his spiritual concentration that such splendour has 
appeared in Diban. May he get the reward of his intention! May Allah 
(Haq) bestow upon him good recompense! This progress of religion 
obtained due to him. Where will anyone muster such courage"? 

MAULAVI RAFI' AL-DIN 

He was the second vice-chancellor of the Dar al-L)lum. He had been 
permitted to receive spiritual allegiance from Hazrat Shah Abd al-Ghani. 
The Dar al-Ulum made a great progress during his tenure of office: — 

"Its vice-chancellor whose name is Maulavi Rati' al-Din Sahib is also 
efficient in administration. A man of wisdom and of sober plans, he is 
the well-wisher of the religion of the Last of the Apostles. He dis- 
charges his function on the post. May his effort be luaded on the Day 
of Resurrection"! 

MAULAN SAyyiD AHMED DEHLAVI 

He "was one of the earliest professors of the Dar al-Ulum. He was 
very proficient in mathematics : — 

"A scholar, a polymath, a keen-witted professor (is) Maulavi Sayyid 
Ahmed Dehlavi. He, as it were, remembers every book by heart; he is 
unequalled in every art and science. What a fine nature Allah hath 
endowed him with! How much clemency He bestowed upon him! He is 
righteous, a follower of the Prophet's law, an orthodox Muslim, and 
perfectly pious. There is so much humility in his heart that not even 
once did he lead the prayer in the mosque, and through his own hum- 
bleness, that spiritualist (sahib-e batin) says prayers behind all". 

The Masnavi Farogh is a precious and rare document of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband. Its importance demands that this valuable, historical 
and literary wealth should be protected. 



APPENDIX -I 

ABSTRACT OF INCOME & EXPENDITURE 

AND BOOKS 

FROM AH. 1283/A.D. 1866 TO A.H. 1396/A.D. 1976. 

Statistics are the best means of expressing a reality; let us, therefore cast a look upon Statistics. 



Sr. 


A. H. 


A. D. 




INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


EXPENDITURE 


NO. OF 


REMARKS 


No. 
















ON 


BOOKS 








Rs. 


- As. 


- Ps. 


Rs. - As. 


- Ps. 


BUILDINGS 






1. 


1283 


1866 


649 


4 - 





393 - 12 - 


3 


_ 


_ 


No building of 


2. 


1284 


1867 


1275 


- 1 - 


9 


809 - 15 - 


3 


— 


— 


the Dar al-Ulum 


3. 


1285 


1868 


1411 


- 14 - 


9 


1343 - 3 - 


3 


— 


— 


was constructed 


4. 


1286 


1869 


1780 


- 6 - 


6 


1564 - 4 - 


9 


— 


— 


till A.H. 1293. 


5. 


1287 


1870 


1556 


- 4 - 


9 


1532 - 4 - 


9 


— 


— 




6. 


1288 


1871 


1069 


- 10 





1513 - 6 - 


11 


— 


— 




7. 


1289 


1872 


1810 


- 6 - 





1681 - 12. 


10 


— 


— 




8. 


1290 


1873 


1780 


- 13 


6 


1606 - 12 





— 


— 




9. 


1291 


1874 


2426 


- - 





2048 - 5 





— 


— 




10. 


1292 


1875 


2200 


- 9 - 


9 


2054 - 11 







— 




11. 


1293 


1876 


1811. 


- 9 - 


10 


2167 - 12 


5 




— 




12. 


1294 


1877 


1739 


- 8 - 


9 


2030 - 9 


10 


13991 - 2 - 9 


— 




13. 


1295 


1878 


3097 


- 5 - 





2167 - 14 


3 








14. 


1296 


1878 


2003 


- 6 - 


9 


2704 - 5 


3 









Sr. 

No 


A. H. A. D. 


INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


E> 


PENDITURE 

ON 
(JILDINGS 


NO. OF 
BOOKS 


Rs. - 


As. - 


Ps. 


Rs. - 


As. - 


Ps. 


E 


15. 


1297 


879 


2256 





9 


2425 


- 2 


6 


2295 


■ 11 - 


7 




16. 


1298 


880 


2845 


14 


3 


2580 


- 10 





1376 


- 7 - 


11 




17. 


1299 


881 


3076 


14 


6 


2567 


- 10 


3 


2930 


- - 


6 


2566 


1 8. 


1300 


882 


6277 


10 


4 


5793 


- 11 


1 


1948 


- 1 - 


3 


2842 


19 


1301 


883 


6031 


13 





7035 


- 15 


9 


2458 


- 4 - 


9 


3151 


20. 


1302 


884 


4431 


10 





4663 


- 12 


3 


767 


7 - 


3 


3353 


21. 


1303 


885 


6761 


11 


6 


6470 


- 13 


5 


1312 


- 10 - 


9 


3736 


22. 


1304 


886 


6504 


2 


10 


6046 


- 5 


4 


1653 


- 10 - 


7 


3788 


23. 


1305 


887 


7171 


8 





7431 


- 15 


2 


2150 


- 6 - 


8 


3973 


24. 


1306 


888 


7974 


2 


9 


6558 


- 9 


10 


1466 


- 11 - 


6 


4124 


25. 


1307 


889 


5959 


3 


6 


5859 


- 7 


6 


1055 


- 3 - 


11 


4269 


26. 


1308 


890 


5497 


11 


9 


5657 


- 4 


4 


114 


1 - 


9 


4588 


27 


1309 


891 


6180 


3 


3 


7788 


- 10 


9 


1027 


- 15 - 


6 


4718 


28. 


1310 


892 


6608 


7 


6 


6652 


- 6 


3 


1026 


- 15 - 


3 


4767 


29. 


1311 


893 


7531 


7 


11 


7472 


- 2 


8 


181 


6 - 





5030 


30. 


1312 


894 


5511 


9 





7967 


- 11 


3 


21 


- 


6 


5118 


31. 


1313 


895 


6077 


3 


3 


5252 


- 14 


6 


28 


5 - 


3 


5238 


32. 


1314 


896 


6306 


9 


3 


5962 


- 1 


6 


151 


2 - 


9 


5321 



Sr. 
No 


A. H. 


A. D. 




NCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


EXPENDITURE 


NO. OF REMARKS 




















— ON 




BOOKS 








Rs. - 


As. 


Ps. 


Rs. - 


As. - 


Ps. 


BUILDINGS 




33. 


1315 


1897 


10487 


- 4 


3 


8192 


- 9 


6 


1861 - 10 - 





5872 


34. 


1316 


1898 


10964 


- 13 





10313 


- 6 


3 


3987 - 15 - 





6015 


35. 


1317 


1899 


9466 


- 7 


9 


11676 


- 8 





4041 - 3 - 


3 


6301 


36. 


1318 


1900 


5372 


- 5 


9 


9315 


- 8 


3 


1404 - 3 - 





6778 


37. 


1319 


1901 


9166 


- 


8 


7460 


- 8 - 


2 


1040 - - 





7153 


38. 


1320 


1902 


8115 


- 10 


3 


6875 


■ 6 - 


6 


616 - - 


3 


7379' 


39. 


1321 


1903 


7019 


- 7 - 


3 


7862 


■ 12 





13 - 14 - 


3 


7999 


40. 


1322 


1904 


9559 


- 10 


9 


8513 


2 - 


6 


176 - 15 - 


6 


8157 


41. 


1323 


1905 


9117 


- 2 - 


8 


10914 


- - 


11 


339 - 2 - 


6 


8340 


42. 


1324 


1906 


16181 


- 7 - 


10 


13259 


- 11 


8 


2748 - 7 - 





8663 


43. 


1325 


1907 


12124 


- 6 - 


3 


19706 


11 - 





6899 - 14 - 


6 


9060 


44. 


1326 


1908 


15990 


- - 





14Q42 


8 - 


6 


3447 - 7 - 


3 


9410 


45. 


1327 


1909 


32055 


- 5 - 


3 


28326 


12 - 


3 


14324 - 15 - 


6 


9674 


46. 


1328 


1910 


55811 


- 2 - 





55221 


9 - 


4 


9875 - 3 - 


9 


10312 


47. 


1329 


1911 


35344 


- 1 - 


8 


31711 


10 - 


7 


10072 - 2 - 


6 


11251 


48. 


1330 


1911 


38669 


2 - 


9 


35889 


7 - 


6 


12222 - 6 - 


9 


13938 


49. 


1331 


1912 


40131 


7 - 


4 


46875 


13 - 


7 


22652 - 1 - 


2 


14924 


50. 


.1332 


1913 


53206 


15 - 


6 


48865 - 


1 - 


4 


19892 - 2 - 


6 


15708 



Sr. 


A, H. 


A. D. 




NCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


EXPENDITURE 


NO. OF REMARKS 


No 




















ON 




BOOKS 
























Rs. - 


As. 


Ps. 


Rs. - 


As. - 


Ps. 


BUILDINGS 




51. 


1333 


1914 


45378 


- 4 


5 


41939 


- 9 


9 


11537 


2 - 





17686 


52. 


1334 


1915 ' 


48123 


- 4 


6 


55742 


- 5 





13675 


4 - 





18286 


53. 


1335 


1916 


89917 


- 12 


6 


61662 


- 


3 


14633 


4 - 


3 


21155 


54. 


1336 


1917 


63021 


- 1 


7 


64627 


- 4 


7 


18920 


4 - 


6 


22055 


55. 


1337 


1918 


63818 


- 4 


11 


57584 


- 15 


11 


11236 


3 - 


3 


24653 


56. 


1338 


1919 


54533 


- 6 


3 


69658 


- 7 


9 


14510 


6 - 


3 


25369 


57. 


1339 


1920 


62085 


- 6 


5 


62011 


- 13 


4 


11104 


13 - 


4 


25609 


58. 


1340 


1921 


82621 


- 13 


7 


68333 


- 1 


10 


6477 


5 - 


9 


26232 


59. 


1341 


1922 


59133 


- 12 


7 


62399 


- 13 


6 


9020 


7 - 


9 


28856 


60. 


1342 


1923 


94459 


- 11 


2 


79121 


- 5 - 


4 


14851 


15 - 


3 


29981 


61. 


1343 


1924 


73177 


- 4 





99176 


- 9 ■ 


9 


35918 


15 - 


3 


31186 


62. 


1344 


1925 


82889 


- 13 


11 


78771 


- 3 - 


2 


16412 


12 - 


6 


33914 


63. 


1345 


1926 


52216 


- 14 


11 


79367 


8 - 


5 


12566 - 


- 


9 


34760 


64. 


1346 


1927 


57365 


- 8 - 


10 


53964 


13 - 


10 


4805 - 


- 





35538 


65. 


1347 


1928 


58181 


- 9 - 


9 


63176 


4 - 


9 


4381 - 


9 - 


3 


35722 


66. 


1348 


1929 


50262 


- 6 - 


6 


47884 


8 - 


6 


4125 - 


14 - 


3 


36336 


67. 


1349 


1930 


54137 


- - 





53430 


- 





3858 - 


9 - 


9 


38065 



Sr. 

No. 


A. H. 


A. D. 


INCOME 




EXPENDITURE 


EXPENDITURE 

ON 

BUILDINGS 


NO. OF REMARKS 
BOOKS 


Rs. - As. - P 




Rs. - As. - 


Ps. 




69. 


1351 


1932 


44707 - 


- 





49377 - 








4298 - 


3 - 


3 


40076 


70. 


1352 


1933 


54234 - 


- 





54016 - 








4764 - 


5 - 





41294 


71. 


1353 


1934 


51136 - 


- 





51703 - 








3633 - 


6 - 


9 


42699 


72. 


1354 


1935 


64732 - 


- 





50901 - 





- 


3661 


10 - 





43402 


73. 


1355 


1936 


58643 - 


- 





63627 - 





- 


7545 


4 - 


9 


44528 


74. 


1356 


1937 


76213 - 


- 





76448 - 





- 


14260 


15 - 


9 


45381 


75. 


1357 


1938 


77447 - 


- 





80679 - 





- 


17787 


9 - 


6 


46740 


76. 


1358 


1939 


82023 - 


5 - 


1 


67035 - 


1 


- 10 


5231 


8 - 


3 


49080 


77. 


1359 


1940 


86185 - 


2 - 


8 


79899 - 





- 5 


8818 


8 - 


6 


50745 


78. 


1360 


1941 


120195 - 


11 - 


4 


103545 - 


2 


- 3 


23414 


12 - 





52597 


79. 


1361 


1942 


120465 - 


2 - 


7 


125221 - 


15 


- 9 


33442 


1 - 


3 


54200 


80, 


1362 


1943 


175398 - 


4 - 


7 


135703 - 


6 


- 8 


13191 


7 - 


3 


55270 


81. 


1363 


1943 


276328 - 


- 


7 


289075 - 


15 


- 10 


15241 


1 - 


3 


56840 


82. 


1364 


1944 


302720 - 


7 - 


3 


205573 - 


14 


- 10 


21247 


- 3 - 


10 


57647 


83. 


1365 


1945 


269743 - 


1 - 


5 


274322 - 


6 


- 1 


20760 


- 14 





58446 


84. 


1366 


1946 


262583 - 


10 - 


4 


301712 - 


1 


- 7 


19134 


- 9 





58790 


85. 


1367 


1947 


271812 - 


9 - 


6 


311874 - 


11 


- 9 


28677 


- 1 


3 


62280 



Sr. 


A. H. 


A. D. 


INCOME 




EXPENDITURE 


EXPENDITURE 


NO. OF REMARKS 


Nc 




















ON 
LDING 




BOOKS 






Rs. - As. - Ps. 


Rs. - As. - Ps. 


BU 


S 


86 


1368 


1948 


247760 


- 11 - 


5 


311054 


1 - 


6 


29434 


- 


6 


64309 


87 


1369 


1949 


262865 


- - 


8 


272333 


1 - 


6 


11145 


4 - 





65810 


88 


1370 


1950 


307302 


- 15 - 





270645 


5 - 


9 


14159 


11 - 


3 


66810 


89 


1371 


1951 


281599 


- 7 - 


1 


316696 


12 - 





31880 


9 - 





— 


90 


1372 


1952 


370535 


- 15 - 


3 


415902 


- 





15014 


9 - 


3 


68740 


91 


1373 


1953 


411379 


- 5 - 


4 


424712 


15 - 


3 


18067 


14 - 


9 


69550 


92 


1374 


1954 


417117 


- 8 - 


5 


435728 


13 - 


6 


19906 


11 - 


3 


71230 


93 


1375 


1955 


422244 


- 9 - 


11 


492417 


15 - 


9 


29914 


3 - 


3 


71610 


94 


1376 


1956 


425312 


- 11 - 


1 


461364 


3 - 


6 


29438 


8 - 


6 


72423 


95 


1377 


1957 


678669 


■ 4 - 


6 


596818 


1 - 


3 


72694 


15 - 


9 


73030 


96 


1378 


1958 


503876 


- 8 - 


9 


583091 


8 - 


2 


68541 


- 


9 


76000 


97 


1379 


1959 


522335 


- 5 - 


11 


523511 


10 - 


9 


9894 


- 





79270 


98 


1380 


1960 


597125 


- 15P 




558871 


60P 




28418 


15 - 


3 


80390 


99 


1381 


1961 


628470 


- 22P 




590881 


94P 




43981 


OP 




81664 


10 


3. 1382 


1962 


687226 


- 19P 




645046 


31P 




50742 


83P 




82350 


10 


1. 1383 


1963 


703695 


- 94 




722211 


96 




82390 


19 




84452 


10 


2. 1384 


1964 


808680 


- 65 - 




780595 


11 - 




32112 


39 - 




85230 



Sr. A. H. 
No. 


A. D. 


INCOME 


EXPENDITURE 


EXPI 


ENDITURE 
ON 
ILDINGS 


NO. OF REMARKS 
BOOKS 




Rs. - A: 


i. - Ps. 


Rs. - A£ 


;. - Ps. 


BU 


103. 1385 


1965 


943364 - 


■ 54 - 


869782 - 


4 - 


57802 


- 33 - 


86340 


104. 1386 


1966 


907021 - 


• 33 - 


915535 - 


83 - 


66041 


- 36 - 


88590 


105. 1387 


1967 


1027511 - 


42 - 


1033008 - 


71 - 


26683 


- 00 - 


89780 


106. 1388 


1968 


1020916 ■ 


■ 48 - 


913590 - 


13 - 


45485 


■ 65 - 


91100 


107. 1389 


1969 


1275773 - 


30 - 


1091525 - 


68 - 


57784 


- 34 - 


91783 


108. 1390 


1970 


1126476 - 


88 - 


1149287 - 


39 - 


73162 


- 67 - • 


93840 


109. 1391 


1971 


1130586 - 


88 - 


1258336 - 


24 - 


161786 


- 56 - 


95890 


110. 1392 


1972 


1276896 - 


• 79 - 


1202324 - 


79 - 


11737 


- 12 - 


97710 


111.1393 


1973 


1459188 - 


77 - 


1324278 - 


66 - 


48825 


- 43 - 


99810 


112.1394 


1974 


1863727 - 


32 - 


1663521 - 


5 - 


55052 


- 05 - 


101270 


113.1395 


1975 


2010437 - 


55 - 


2199422 - 


15 - 


113252 


- 00 - 


102590 


114.1396 


1976 


1900351 - 


13 - 


2339013 - 


23 - 


326514 


- 88 - 


104370 



St. A. H. 
No. 



APPENDIX — II 

EDUCATIONAL & ADMINISTRATIVE ABSTRACT 
From A. H. 1283/A. D. 1866 to A. H. 1396/A D. 1976 



No. of No. of No. of No. of PATRON 

TEACH- NON- Students Graduates 
ING TEACH- 
STAFF ING 
STAFF 



1: 


1283 


1866 


6 




78 




2. 


1284 


1867 


6 




100 


3 


3. 


1285 


1868 


6 




114 


3 


4. 


1286 


. 1869 


9 




92 




5. 


1287 


1870 


9 




87 


6 


6. 


1288 


1871 


9 


2 


106 




7. 


1289 


1872 


5 


2 


145 


1 


8 


1290 


1873 


6 


2 


83 


3 


9. 


1291 


1874 


10 


3 


183 


2 


10. 


1292 


1875 


10 


3 


178 




11. 


1293 


1876 


8 


3 


198 


7 


12. 


1294 


1877 


14 


4 


215 


1 


13. 


1295 


1878 


14 


3 


188 


5 



VICE- PRINCIPAL REMARKS 

CHANCE- 
LLOR 



Sr. ■ 


A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


PATRON 


VICE- 


PRINCIPAL REMARKS 


No. 






TEACH- 
ING 
STAFF 


NON- 
TEACH 

ING 
STAFF 


Students 


Graduates 




CHANCE- 
LLOR 




14. 


1296 


1878 


11 


3 


164 


4 








15. 


1297 


1879 


11 


3 


186 


3 








16. 


1298 


1880 


10 


3 


224 


2 


Maulana 






17. 


1299 


1881 


10 


4 


187 


12 


Rasheed 






18, 


1300 


1882 


10 


4 


170 


9 


Ahmed 






19. 


1301 


1883 


10 


4 


152 


11 


Gangohi 






20. 


1302 


1884 


11 


7 


159 


2 






Maulana 


21. 


1303 


1885 


12 


7 


159 


2 






S. Ahmed 


22. 


1304 


1886 


10 


7 


195 


5 






Dehlavi 


23. 


1305 


1887 


14 


7 


215 


5 








24. 


1306 


1888 


11 


7 


190 


6 




Haji S.M 




25. 


1307 


1889 


10 


7 


178 


4 




Abid 




26. 


1308 


1890 


9 


8 


272 


26 






Shaikh al 


27. 


1309 


1891 


11 


6 


264 


31 ■ 






Hind 


28. 


1310 


1892 


12 


5 


288 


29 




Haji Fazl 


Maulana 


29. 


1311 


1893 


13 


7 


298 


21 




Haq 


Mahmud 


30. 


1312 


1894 


13 


7 


293 


32 




M. Munir 


Hasan 



Sr. 


A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


PATRON 


VICE- PRINCIPAL 


REMARKS 


No. 






TEACH- 


NON- 


Students 


Graduates 


CHANCE- 










ING 


TEACH 








LLOR 










STAFF 


ING 
STAFF 












31. 


1313 


1895 


12 


8 


224 


32 




Nanautavi 




32. 


1314 


1896 


13 


10 


241 


9 




Mau. 




33. 


1315 


1897 


11 


7 


239 


20 




HafizM 




34. 


1316 


1898 


12 


5 


262 


18 




Ahmed 




35. 


1317 


1899 


12 


5 


244 


17 








36. 


1318 


1900 


11 


7 


254 


30 








37. 


1319 


1901 


12 


7 


151 


26 








38. 


1320 


1902 


12 


7 


282 


26 








39. 


1321 


1903 


13 


7 


310 


36 








40. 


1322 


1904 


13 


8 


284 


35 








41. 


1323 


1905 


12 


8 


325 


30 








42. 


1324 


1906 


13 


7 


274 


24 


There was no 






43. 


1325 


1907 


12 


.8 


292 


51 


resular patron 






44. 


1326 


1908 


12 


8 


294 


35 


after him. 






45. 


1327 


1909 


17 


8 


361 


28 


However the 






46. 


1328 


1910 


18 


7 


425 


50 


Shaikh al-Hind 






47 


1329 


1911 


16 


12 


462 


50 


was 







Sr. 


A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


PATRON 


VICE 


PRINCIPAL REMARKS 


No 






TEACH 


NON- 


Student 


Graduates 


CHANCE 










ING 


TEACH 








LLOR 










STAFF 


ING 
STAFF 












48. 


1330 


1911 


19 


11 


568 


54 


considered as 






49. 


1311 


1912 


22 


12 


630 


43 


acting patron 






50. 


1332 


1913 


22 


17 


586 


55 


and during 






51. 


1333 


1914 


19 


16 


562 


51 


his political 






52. 


1334 


1915 


21 


24 


597 


50 


detention 






53. 


1335 


1916 


21 


29 


597 


42 


Maulana Abd 






54. 


1336 


1917 


20 


31 


601 


73 ■ 


al-Raheem 






55. 


1337 


1918 


23 


29 


621 


70 


Raipuri acted 
as such. 






56. 


1338 


1919 


22 


27 


601 


46 






Mau. S. 


57. 


1339 


1920 


25 


25 


556 


64 






Anwar 


58. 


1340 


1921 


24 


25 


580 


70 






Shah 


59. 


1341 


1922 


22 


27 


722 


44 






Kashmiri 


60. 


1342 


1923 


23 


29 


795 


72 








61. 


1343 


1924 


24 


29 


830 


78 








62. 


1344 


1925 


27 


33 


580 


96 









Sr. A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of PATRON 


VICE- PRINCIPAL REMARKS 


No. 




TEACH- 
ING 
STAFF 


NON- 
TEACH 
ING 
STAFF 


Students 


Graduates 


CHANCE- 
LLOR 


63. 1345 


1926 


27 


31 


599 


104 


Mau. S. 


64. 1346 


1927 


29 


49 


514 


43 


Husain 


65. 1347 


1928 


22 


34 


790 


58 


Ahmed 


66. 1348 


1929 


18 


32 


840 


65 


Madan 


67. 1349 


1330 


24 


32 


942 


89 






68. 1350 


1931 


26 


26 


1002 


91 






69. 1351 


1932 


23 


28 


1138 


124 






70. 1352 


1933 


25 


30 


1142 


153 






71. 1353 


1934 


27 


35 


1114 


136 






72. 1354 


1935 


27 


36 


1196 


189 






73. 1355 


1936 


25 


39 


1166 


153 






74. 1356 


1937 


25 


41 


1389 


178 






75. 1357 


1938 


29 


44 


1447 


185 






76. 1358 


1939 


27 


88 


1416 


180 






77. 1359 


1940 


28 


111 


502 


144 






78. 1360 


1941 


33 


84 


1580 


1901 







Sr. 


A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of PATRON VICE- PRINCIPAL REMARKS 


No. 




TEACH- 
ING 
STAFF 


NON- 
TEACH 
ING 
STAFF 


Students 


Graduates CHANCE- 
LLOR 




79. 1361 


1942 


33 


76 


1265 


205 




80 


1362 


1943 


40 


78 


1164 


194 




81 


1363 


1943 


37 


89 


1326 


157 




82 


1364 


1944 


35 


84 


1569 


156 




83 


1365 


1945 


36 


98 


1442 


196 




84 


1366 


1946 


35 


115 


1134 


208 




85 


1367 


1947 


36 


111 


1163 


117 




86 


1368 


1948 


33 


100 


1103 


164 




87 


1369 


1949 


35 


92 


1071 


156 




88 


1370 


1950 


36 


97 


1206 


191 




89 


1371 


1951 


34 


117 


1204 


■ 127 




90 


1372 


1952 


34 


111 


1252 


141 




91 


1373 


1953 


41 


113 


1191 


121 




92 


1374 


1954 


43 


129 


1362 


150 




93 


1375 


1955 


43 


139 


1327 


146 





Sr. A. H. 

No. 


A. D. 


No. of 
TEACH 
ING 
STAFF 


No. of 

NON- 

TEACH 

ING 

STAFF 


-No. of 
Students 


No. of PATRON VICE- PRINCIPAL REMARKS 
Graduates CHANCE- 
LLOR 


94.1376 


1956 


43 


149 


1309 


1681 








95.1377 


1957 


45 


142 


1309 


185 








96. 1378 


1958 


44 


151 


1332 


167 








97.1379 


1959 


41 


190 


1480 


169 








98. 1380 


1960 


41 


195 


15J7 


190 








99.1381 


1961 


41 


197 


1524 


222 








100.1382 


1962 


41 


200 


1522 


228 








101.1383 


1963 


53 


160 


1569 


158 








102 1384 


1964 


45 


163 


1577 


226 








103.1385 


1965 


45 


166 


1562 


263 








104.1386 


1966 


44 


174 


1648 


304 








105.1387 


1967 


47 


168 


1454 


230 








106.1388 


1968 


46 


178 


1552 


291 








107.1389 


1969 


45 


173 


1571 


270 








108.1390 


1970 


43 


172 


1480 


292 









Sr. A. H. 


A. D. 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of PATRON 


VICE- PRINCIPAL REMARKS 


No. 




TEACH- 
ING 
STAFF 


NON- 
TEACH 
ING 
STAFF 


Students 


Graduates 


CHANCE- 
LLOR 


109.1391 


1971 


42 


175 


1458 


302 




110.1392 


1972 


55 


159 


1601 


346 




111.1393 


1973 


59 


170 


1548 


253 




112.1394 


1974 


59 


166 


1511 


299 




113.1395 


1975 


60 


177 


1612 


339 




114.1396 


1976 


60 


193 


1581 


343 





345 
A GLANCE AT THE EXPENSES 

It is evident from the afore-mentioned tables that during a period of 
114 years, from A. H. 1283 to A. H. 1396, the balance of the total 
expenses of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is Rs. 28330821.62, and the total 
number of its graduates during this span of time is 11524. If these 
expenses are distributed over the said graduates, the expense per indi- 
vidual comes to Rs. 2458 and 42 paise. This is an expense for the 8-year 
course. It is necessary to point out here that in this number (11524) 1 are 
not. included those students who gave up their education before the 
Daura-e Hadith or who could not pass its annual examination or those 
students who only learnt to read the Quran or memorised it or those who 
graduated only in modern Arabic literature or completed the course in 
the Persian Class, Cantillation Class, Class of Urdu Theology, Tibbia 
College, Chirography Class or the Craft Class etc. .If all these students too 
are included whose number is more or less equal to the number of the 
graduates of the Dar al-Ulum and the Dar al-Ulum, at all events, has borne 
expenses, more or less, on their account also, then the average of the 
above-mentioned expenses per individual will not be more than a 
thousand or twelve hundred rupees. This amount includes the student's 
expenses for food, clothing, lodging, cash stipends and the general 
arrangements for the students' health, sanitation, lighting, etc. Besides 
this, the total expenditure for buildings (Rs. 240237), salaries of the 
teachers and other functionaries, collection of books and their binding, 
etc., as also other miscellaneous expenses are also included in the same 
total. Then the average expense is all the more lessened, which can be 
interpreted only, without the least exaggeration, as the selflessness 
(lillahiyat), sincerity of purpose and miracle of the pious founder of the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

This amount of expenses of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is so small that 
it is difficult to believe without seeing. Such inexpensive and economical 
education is hard to find elsewhere except in the religious seminaries. 
This peculiarity of the religious seminaries is undoubtedly a great 
achievement. In this regard the way the Dar al-Ulum has made arrange- 
ments for the highest religious education with amazing frugality, fakir-like 
life and simple living is sui generis. 

As such, once, John Palmer, the secretary of the governor of the 

1. The copy-writer wrote the number incorrectly in Vol. I. The correct number is the same 
as mentioned above. 



United Provinces (present Uttar Pradesh), Sir John Strachey, having seen 
the higher education at the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, had remarked that 

"the work that is being done in big Colleges at the expense of 
thousands of rupees is being done here in a few rupees. There cannot be 

a better teaching institution than this for the Muslims rather, even 

if a non-Muslim takes education here, it will not be without benefit". 1 . 

1. For details see vol. I pp. 135 to 139. 



347 

AN EXCERPT 

MODERATION OF THE ULEMA OF DEOBAND 

(Allamah Khalid Mahmud, M. A., Ex-Professor, Murray College, Sialkot 
(Pakistan), is a learned person with higher modern education. He has 
great proficiency in both Urdu and English lecturing and writing. For the 
purpose of preaching Islam he has been residing in England for a long 
time. The weighty and balanced impressions his lauded self has expre- 
ssed regarding the ulema of Deoband are as follows): — 

In the understading and explaining of religion the ulema of Deoband 
are neither convinced of that method which may be altogether severed 
from the past because it is not a continuous relation — it is a new path; 
nor are they convinced of this extreme that under the force of custom 
and convention and conformance to the ancestors every heretic innova- 
tion may be introduced into Islam. Actions deviod of continuity and 
continuity that may not reach uniterruptedly up to the "best of 
decades" cannot be the actions of Islam. However, these gentlemen are 
fully convinced of and committed to that conformance that has con- 
tinued in the name of Islamic Fiqh (jurisprudence) emanating from the 
headspring of the Quran and the Hadith. The holy Quran decries con- 
formance to the ancestors simply for the reason that those ancestors 
might be devoid of the light of intelligence and guidance: "What! Even 
though their fathers were wholly unintelligent and had no guidance"? 
(II : 170). Conformance to the Imams of the past and the jurisprudents of 
Islam who were enlightened with the light of knowledge and guidance 
is not only not blamable but is also the real thing to be desired, and 
we have been taught that we pray to the Lord of Honour in each prayer 
to make us walk on the path of not only the prophets but also the 
truthful ones, the martyrs and the righteous because this alone is the 
straight path : — 

"Show us the straight path, the path of those whom Thou hast 
favoured". (I :5-6). 

Due to this moderate tack the ulema of Deoband remained safe from 
religious unrestrainedness and self-opinion and the darknesses of 
polytheism and innovation too could not draw them into their net. By 
their actions and thoughts the continuity of Islam was maintained as 
well as no discontinuous view and action could enter Islam in the name 
of religion. These respectable men went on kindling the lamps of Islam 



348 

by the continuity of knowledse and action, and, looking at the history 
of Deoband, we can assert that Islam is really a live religion which is 
continuous from their time upto the felicitous period of the noble Com- 
panions (may Allah be pleased with all of them!). 

According to the ulema of Deoband, the class of eminent saints 
(awlia) and great sufis constitute or command the position of its animus 
for the ummah whose inner life which is the real life is connected with 
it. Hence the ulema of Deoband consider love and reverence for them 
necessary for the protection of faith Oman), but overestimating them 
due to this love and reverence they do not deify them. To revere them 
they consider legally necessary but they do not misconstrue it as worship 
so that they (the ulema) may make them or their graves the object of 
prostration and genuflexion or circumambulation and oblation or for 
making vows and sacrifice. The fact is that the same august ulema are the 
true successors of Sayyidena Hazrat Shaikh Abd al-Qadir Jilani, Hazrat 
Sayyid Ahmed Kalir Rifai, Hazrat Shaikh Ali Hujwiri, Hazrat Shaikh Mo'een 
al-Din Chishti, Hazrat Imam-e Rabbani Mujaddid Alf-e Sam and Hazrat al- 
Imam al-Muhaddith Shah Wali Allah Dehlavi, and, through their graces, are 
the persons who fill the colour of conformance to the Sunnah in their 
life-sketches. The spiritual grace of these gentlemen is not due to spiritual 
spells for captivating (people) but has been established through acts of 
Sunnah, and these gentleman maintian regular connection with Chishtia, 
Suhrawardia, Naqshbandia and Qadiria filiations. Rather, if it is seen justly, 
now this path of sagacity and self-purgation is populated by the people of 
this very tack. In both the affairs of knowledge and action these gentlemen 
maintain the authoritative 0. e., proceeding from the chain of competent 
authorities) aspect. In the prevention of innovations also these gentlemen 
remained in the forefront because no authoritative aspect of the innovative 
actions was extant anywhere,- and this refutation too is not new, for Hazrat 
Imam-e Rabbani Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi (Mujaddid Alf-e Sani) also used to 
refute innovations in the same style. Says he that 

"it is indispensable to be on one's guard from the very name and 
action of innovation. Even the smell of spiritualism cannot reach the brain 
of its seeker if he does not abstain from even good innovations even as 
one abstains from the evil innovations. And this thing has today become 
very difficult: a whole world is sinking into the sea of innovation and 
people are taking rest in the darknesses of innovation. Who has had the 
courage to speak for the eradication of innovation and open his tongue 
for the revival of the Sunnah? At present many maulavis are giving 
currency to innovations and are busy in obliterating the sunnah practices; 



349 

considering the current innovations to be public usuage, they are issuing 
fetwas of their legitimacy (jawaz), rather of their approbation, and thus 
are showing the people the path of innovation." 

Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-e Sani had wished for divine ulema as to where 
they were who would open their tongues for the revival of the Sunnah 
and speak against innovations. This wish of his has been fulfilled by the 
family of Hazrat Shah Wali Allah Muhaddith Dehlavi and the renaissance 
of its movement in the shape of the respectable elders of Deoband. "So, 
it is Allah's obligation"] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Anwar-e Qasimi, Mau. Anwar al-Hasan Sherkoti; Pub: Lahore. 

2. Arwah-e Salasa : Collection of narratives by Amir Shah Khan:Azad 

Press, Dcoband. 

3. Al-Saurat al-Hindia : Mau. Fazl Haq Khairabadi; Madina Press, Bijnor. 

4. Ashraf al-Sawanh : Khwaja Aziz al-Hasan Majzoob : Kutub Khana 

Ashrafia, Delhi. 

5. Dar al-Ulum Deoband Ka Nisab-e Ta'lim : Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 

AH. 1397. 

6. Dar al-Ulum Ki Sau Sala ZindaghMau. M. TayyibiDar al-Ulum, 

Deoband. 

7. Ezah al-Bukhari : Mau. Riyasat Ali : Azad Press, Deoband, A. H. 138Q. 

8. Fatawa Dar al-Ulum Deoband: Mau. Zafeer al-Din Siddiqi : Dar al- 

Ulum, Deoband. 

9. Fatawa Rashidia : Mau. Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi ; Maktaba Rahimia, 
Delhi. 

10. Fihrist-e Matbu'aat wa Makhtutaat ; Mau. Zafeer al-Din Siddiqi, 

1973. 

1 1 . Hayat-e Shaikh al-Hind : Mau. Mian Sayyid Asghar Husain Deobandi. 

12. Hindustan Ka Nisab-e Dars Awr Uske Taghayyuraat : Mau. Hakim 
Sayyid Abd al-Hayy : Tanwir Press, Lucknow. 

13. Jam'e al-Mujaddidin : Mau. Abd al-Bari Nadvi : Nami Press, Lucknow. 

14. Kaghazaat-e Mehfooz-Khana-e Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

15. Kitab-e Mo'aina, Dar al-Ulum Deoband (Ms.). 

16 Ma'asir al-Kiram : Mau. Ghulam Ali Azad Bilgrami : Mufid-e Aam 
Press, Agra, A. H. 1328 

17. Ma'asir-e Siddiqi : Nawab Ali Hasan Khan, Nawal Kishore Press, 

Lucknow. 

18. Majmu'a-e Fatawa: Mau. Abd al-Hayy Firangimahli; Alavi Press, 

Lucknow. 

19. Mukashifaat : Mau. Mir Baz Khan ; Bilali Steam Press, Sadhora. 

20. Maktubaat-e Nabavi : Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi, Mahboob Press, 

Deoband. 

21 . Vaqubi : Mau. Muhammad Yaqub Nanautavi, Dilli Printing 

Press, Delhi, 1929. 
22. Masnavi Farogh : Mau. Abd al-Karim Farogh Deobandi, Nizami Press, 

Kanpur, A. H. 1303. 



23. Maulana Muhammad Ahsan Nanautavi : Muhammad Ayyub Qadri; 

Javid Press, Karachi, 1966 

24. Meri Dastan-c Hayat : Raja Mahendra Pratap. 

25. Muntakhab al-Tawarikh : Mulla Abd al-Qadir Badauni : Nawal Kishore 

Press, Lucknow. 

26. Musalmano Ka Nizam-e Ta'lim-O Tarbiat : Mau. Manazir Ahsan Gilani 

Nadvat al-Musannafin, Delhi, 6. 

27. Naqsh-e Hayat : Mau. Sayyid Husain Ahmed Madani; Dilli Printing 

Works, Delhi, 1375/1954. 

28. Nuzhat al-Khwatir : Mau. Hakim Sayyid Abd al-Hayy; Dai'rat al- 

Ma'arif-e Osmania, Hyderabad, Deccan. 

29. Prof. Humayun Kabir Dar al-Ulum Deoband Main : Sayyid Mahboob 

Rizvi, Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 
30 Register Nuqul-e Asnad-e Dar al-Ulum Deoband CMS .). 

31. Rudad-e Amal-e Dar al-Ulum Deoband : from A. H. 1383 to A. H. 

1396. 

32. Rudad-e Dar al-Ulum Deoband (Tehsil-e Ghalla):A. H 1332 to 

A. H. 1374. 

33. Rudadhai-e Dar al Ulum Deoband: A. H. 1283 to A. H. 1360 & 

A. H. 1371 to A. H. 1390. 

34. Sarguzasht-e Mujahidin : Mau. Ghulam Rasool Mehr ; llmi Press, 

Lahore, A. H. 1336. 

35. Sawanh-e QasimhMau. Manazir Ahsan Gilani; National Press, 

Deoband. 

36. Shah Wali Allah Awr Unki Siyasi Tehrik:Mau. Ubayd Allah Sindhi; 
Mercantile Press, Lahore, 1944. 

37. Sirat-e Maulana Muhammad AM Monghyri : Shahi Press, Lucknow, 
1964. 

38. Taqrir-e Mubarak : Mau. Shabbir Ahmed Usmani; Matba-e Qasimi, 

Deoband, A. H. 1353. 

39. Tarikh-e Deoband : S. Mahboob Rizvi; 2nd ed. Azad Press, Deoband, 

1972. 

40. Mazahir-e Ulum, Saharanpur : Mau. Muhammad Zakariya; Kutub- 
, Khana-e Isha'at al-Ulum, Saharanpur. 

41. Tazkira-e Maulana Fazl-e Rahman : Mau. S. Abu Hasan Ali Nadvi; 

Lucknow. 

42. Sadat-e Rizvia-e Deoband : S. Mahboob Rizvi, Mahboob Press, 

Deoband. 



43. Tazkirat al-A'bidin : Maulavi Nazeer Ahmed Deobandi; Dilli Printing 

Press, Delhi, A. H. 1333. 

44. Tehrik-e Shaikh al-Hind:Mau. Muhammad Mian Deobandi; Al- 

Jami'at Book Depot, Delhi, 1975. 

45. Wahdat al-Wajud wal-Shuhud : Sana al-Haq Deobandi; Educational 

Press, Karachi. 

46. Zati Diary :Mau. Ubayd Allah Sindhi; Sindh Sagar Press, Lahore. 



JOURNALS & NEWSPAPERS 

1. Al-'llm (monthly), Karachi : From Jan. to March, 1960. 

2. Al-Jami'at (daily), Delhi. Nov., 1971. 

3. Al- Qasim (monthly), Deoband. Zi-Qa'dah, A. H. 1330. 

4. Dar al-Ulum Deoband (monthly), Deoband. Jamadi al Ula, A. H. 
1373. 

5. Madina (newspaper), Bijnor, 1949. 

6. Rehbar (newspaper), Bombay, April, 1945. 



APPENDIX III 

BRIEF REPORT OF 

CENTENARY CELEBRATION OF THE DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND 

HELD ON 21, 22 and 23 MARCH, 1980. 

This report has been prepared in Urdu by Muhammad Azhar Siddique 
by order of the vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, Maulana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib, and under the instruction of Maulana Muhammad 
Aslam Qasimi. Its manuscript was read out before Maulavi Abd Allah 
Javea, Maulavi Qari Abd Allah Saleem and Maulana Abd al-Ra'uf A'ali. The 
latter also helped the compiler with his valuable opinions and sincere co- 
operation, and Mufti Zafeer al-Din went through the copied pages and 
made useful suggestions. Maulana Abd al-Haq, personal assistant to the 
vice-chancellor, read and correctd the final copy and also gave several 
opinions. The compiler is. thankful to all these gentlemen. 

AN UNPARAUELED AND SOUL - NOURISHING GATHERING 

Praise be to Allah that the Centenary Session of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, was held on 21st., 22nd. and 23rd. March, 1980, on the histori- 
cal, revolutionary and renowned land of Deoband at Qasimpur — "the 
town of knowledge and gnosis" — over a vast area of one million square 
metres, with great fervour, full splendour and on ?n exceptionally large 
scale. Lending a new brightness to the pages of history and blazoning a 
new path of action for men of religion and wisdom, it ended on the sunny 
afternoon of 23rd. March. 

A very remarkable and important feature of this session was that from 
its proceedings, its resolutions, and ■ its speeches and addresses a 
multitudinous gathering of nearly one and a half to two million souls took 
the lesson of humanism, morality, good behaviour arid spiritualism and 
heard the message of national unity and international agreement and 
friendship which can save the world from a horrendous and ruinous war 
and can make it a haven of peace and prosperity. 

This session has removed great misunderstandings and, levelling the 
path for the unity of the Islamic millat (community), has generated 
the spirit and ardour for the spread and propagation of the Din-e 
Muhammadiya. There is no doubt about it that, seeing the greatness, vast- 
ness and dignity of this session, as also the imperishable and unparalleled 
gusto, spirit, love and faith of the fifteen to twenty lakhs of- participants 



"moths around the prophetic candle" — visitors and leaders of foreign 
and Arab countries as well as our own national leaders were swayed with 
joy and could not help feeling within themselves a spirit, an ardour and an 
infinite zeal. 

The sleepy habitation of Deoband — this habitat of cognition and 
awareness, the abode of knowledge and art, religious law and spiritualism, 
the home of revolution and liberty, and the haunt of faith and certitude — 
had become, on the one hand, neat and clean in its external features, and 
on the other, internally too, its atmosphere was surcharged with the light 
of Divine Unity and faith. The whole town was lost in a soul - satisfying 
atmosphere which can be called a clear and overt manifestation of the 
light of knowledge, consummation of sincerity and the special 'spiritual 
concentration' and invocations of perfect saints, great Shaikhs' and the 
august men of Deoband. 

These were three wonderful days during which men of learning and 
accomplishments, saints possessing spiritual power and perfections, sav- 
ants, political leaders, heads of educational and social institutions, 
journalists and spiritual directors of the path (Masha'ikh-e Tariqat) had 
come from far off places and had gathered at this centre of knowledge 
and learning. Divine mercy was descending on all the doors and walls and 
the atmosphere was showe/ing light, as though every morning was ecstatic, 
every afternoon intoxicating, every evening perfume-scattering and every 
night sparkling and overflowing with divine splendours. The observers 
marked with great pleasure how every man participating in this historical 
and 'epoch-making gathering, brimming with spiritual ecstasy and absorp- 
tion, was putting up with every kind of inconvenience cheerfully and what 
captivating specimens of faith and love, fraternity and magnanimity were 
being witnessed. The throbbings of the hearts of lakhs of men were for the 
honour and greatness, success and exaltation of the Dar al-Ulum ; rising 
above every kind of dissidence, every individual was most sincerely 
concerned with making the gathering a success. The fact is that on seeing 
the jubilant, soul-nourishing and faith -augmenting spectacle of this cente- 
nary session, one inadvertently wished from the innermost recesses of 
one's heart to salute the auspicious souls of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum 
and to pay homage to their extraordinarily sincere national services. The 
heart cried out that if anyone wanted to see a live specimen of the 
spiritual powers of these humble elders of the Dar al-Ulum, one could see 
this session. 

The people who are aware of those disheartening, dispiriting and 



355 

distressing circumstances that the organisers had to face cannot but remark 
that, passing through difficult, unfavourable and labyrinthine stages, the 
holding of this session on such a gigantic scale was not an ordinary thing. 
The knowledgeable know that during the span of ten months such disap- 
pointing stages and incidents had confronted every moment and at every 
step that even the most dogged men cried out : — 

"These calamities at every step — in this vicinity of the Beloved's lane! 
Let one who holds life dear return just from here". 

We should have no hesitation in admitting — and no sensible man can 
deny it — that the arrangements for the session proved inadequate, as in 
the case of a host who may have made arrangements for the arrival of ten 
men, in proportion to the capacity of his house, but unexpectedly there 
may arrive hundred men. One can imagine the condition of the host then. 
Every organiser and every worker is unassuming enough to admit that there 
was much looseness, many shortcomings and many lapses. Plainly and- 
briefly speaking, there can be a debate on every aspect and angle of the 
arrangement and organisation of the session; one can indeed dissent and 
make it a topic for criticism. But it is as clear as two and two make four 
and it should be acknowledged that in respect of its effects and results 
this centennial session was unparalleled, worthy of taking pride-on, and a 
momentous gathering of the 14th century hijri; a gathering conducive to 
spiritual elation and joy, a message for the propagation of the Islamic 
teachings; a lifelike portrait and a live proof of national unity, uncommon 
Islamic fraternity and love of lakhs of people for the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

Allah willing, the history of the millat will take pride upon the fact that 
some people, in the pitch darkness of ignorance and deviation, kindled 
the candle of faith and certitude at a time when the fourteenth century hijri 
was fading out and the Islamic millat was busy in welcoming the fifteenth 
century,- that they took such an important and useful step which removed 
the remoteness of hearts and the distances between thought and mind, 
and broke up all those warps and woofs of misunderstanding that had 
been woven long back. The centennial session has no doubt put an end to 
all- hopelessness that was dominating the milieu, has dispelled all the 
misconceptions that had been knowingly or unknowingly created against 
the Deoband group, and has enhanced those great objectives which 
convey the programme for the propagation of Islam to each and every 
corner of the world. 

Hundreds of thousands of men of the day from different walks of life 
have witnessed clearly the honour, fame and popularity the Dar al-Ulum 



356 

enjoys, as also the uncommon and unrivalled gamut of its influence and 
the reverence and love the Muslims cherish for it throughout the world. 
The reportage regarding this session in distinguished newspapers, 
particularly of India, Pakistan and Arabia and of the whole world in 
general, the publication of innumerable articles regarding the Dar al-Ulum, 
the unusual interest of the world broadcasting stations in the faith- 
kindling proceedings of this session, the participation of select and 
distinguished delegations from Arab kings and presidents, the attendance 
of our prime-minister Mrs Indira Gandhi and the expression of her 
impressions, the speeches of other national leaders, the esteemed 
messages of Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Amir of Kuwait, President of 
the Republic of India, President of Iraq, King of Jordan, King of Oman 
and many other leading personalities commanding world-renown and 
position, all these things demonstrate in no unambiguous terms that — 
praise be to Allah! — the 117-year old quiet, academic, and practical 
services of the Dar al-Ulum have influenced millions of men. It is a 
bounty for which howevermuch we thank the Lord of Honour, it would 
not be much. 

The sixty crores of Indians can rightly take pride in the fact that the 
light of the radiant lamp kindled by the august men of Deoband has 
reached the whole world and the name of India has become famous 
throughout the world before which this session has made a great display 
of Indian democracy, secularism and tolerance. The fully valuable 
co-operation extended by the U. P. Government and the district 
authorities in connection with this session in the building of a guest 
house and other matters, and the way the Hindu brethren and the 
Muslims of Deoband received the hundreds of thousands of visitors so 
cheerfully and cordially, entertaining them and discharging the dues of 
hospitality so generously, constitute a golden chapter and a pleasurable 
caption for our history of democracy. 

At all events, this historical session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has 
shown the world, burning and smouldering with political mischiefs and 
the fire of racial and interanational hatred and enmity, a way which can 
lead to the destination of peace and prosperity; it has also given a 
messge which, if given a corner in the heart and the mind, can help solve 
the knotty and complex problems of nations and countries. 

It is required that the resolutions passed in this centennial session be 
conveyed to the entire world of Islam and those doors be tapped where 
the light of Islam has not reached so far. 



QASIMPUR— THE VILLAGE OF KNOWLEDGE & GNOSIS 

The utility of this centenary session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, its 
far-reaching influences, its magnificent and important resolutions and the 
mention of its great and unrivalled individuality, having travelled through 
the millions of miles of this subcontinent and crossing the sky-kissing 
peaks of the Himalayas, have now reached many countries and different 
corners of the world. This gathering was held on a spacious area of one 
million sq. metres at the village named Qasimpur. The pandal for this 
session was larger than those of the largest conferences of the world. Its 
covered portion alone was 600,000 sq.ft., with an additional uncovered 
portion of equal area. A 10-foot high dias of 150 X 150 feet had been 
erected to accommodate as many as 400 distinguished guests on high- 
class sofa sets and chairs. Rows of chairs were also arranged on the 
ground on both sides of the dias, including 150 chairs for journalists. 

A GREAT INTERNATIONAL & MATCHLESS STAGE 

In connection with this stage it will not be out of place to mention 
here that it was being graced on this occasion by high-ranking religious 
divines, great Sufi Shaikhs, prominent muftis, political leaders, scholars, 
savants and social workers from all over the world and the different states 
of India, as also by representative delegations, ministers and ambassadors 
from different Muslim countries. So many high-ranking representatives from 
Arab and Islamic countries, it has been remarked, have not been seen on 
any other stage so far. It was a very precious, effective and fascinating 
specimen of international unanimity, harmony, iove, concord and unity. The 
members of the special delegation nominated and sent by Jalalat al-Mulk 
Shah Khalid — the Guardian of the Two Holy Sanctuaries — and his 
representative, Dr. Shaikh Abd Allah Abd al-Mohsin Turki,- the prime 
minister of India Mrs Indira Gandhi; the president of Pakistan General 
Muhammad Zia al-Haq's special representative Justice Afzal Chima, the 
chairman of the Nazaryati Council of Pakistan, and the president's special 
counsellor Hakim Muhammad Sa'eed Dehlavi; King of Jordan Shah Husain's 
and President of Iraq's representatives; delegation of the Rabeta-e 
A'lam-e IsJami; leader of Pakistan's National Unity Movement, Maulana 
Mufti Mahmud, Shaikh al-Hadith Maulana Ghulam Allah and Maulana Abd 
al-Haq (Akoda Khatak) of Pakistan,- representatives from Qatar, Oman and 
Palestine; vice-chancellors of Riyadh and Madina Universities; the Minister 
of Awqaf of Egypt Shaikh Abd al-Munim al-Namar,- the Minister of 
Awqaf of Kuwait Shaikh Yusuf al-Hajji, director of Islamic Affairs, Kuwait; 
Sayyid Muhammad Ihtesham Kazimi from the United States of America, 



358 

Muhammad Abd al-Raheem from West Germany; delegates of the Islamic 
institutions of England, Russia, Iran, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Libya, etc., rep- 
resentatives from Reunion and France,- Home Minister of India Mr Zail 
Singh, Minister of Housing Mr P. C. Sethi, and the well-known sympathiser 
of the Muslims Mr Bahuguna ; were all gracing this occasion. The presence 
of these celebrities had created an atmosphere of international under- 
standing and friendship. 

Then there were Muslim luminaries like Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib, vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband; the 
Thinker of Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi, vice-chancellor, 
Nadvat al-Ulama, Lucknow,- Maulana In'am al-Hasan, Amir-e Jama'at-e Tab- 
ligh; and Maulana Muhammad Masih Allah Khan, patron of Madrasa-e 
Jalalabad; their presence was radiating light and fragrance to this gather- 
ing. Responsible officials of the All India Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat and 
All India Muslim Personal Law Board; the chief of Imarat-e Shariat-e Bihar, 
Pir Zamin Nizami and Khwaja Hasan Sani Nizami; and representatives of 
Jama'at-e Ahl-e Hadith, Dr Abd al-Hafeez and Mukhtar Ahmed, were also 
present. The leader of Jama'at-e Islami-e Hind and president of the 
Jami'at al-Ulama-e Hind and their colleagues, high ambassadorial rep- 
resentatives and journalists were also gracing the occasion, and thus one 
could feel a peculiar colour and harmony, glory, comprehensiveness, 
dignity and variegation. It was virtually an omnium gatherum, composed 
of men from all walks of life. Almost all the members of the Majlis-e 
Shura of the Dar al-Ulum (that comprises of eminent Masha'ikh, high- 
ranking ulema and distinguished administrators) were also present. 

On 21st March, when, after the Friday prayer, at about 2-30 p.m., the 
proceedings of this momentous session began in an atmosphere of 
auspicious moments surcharged with light and divine mercies, it looked 
as if it was a billowy ocean of humans as far as the eye could see. The 
aforesaid area was plainly inadequate for such a huge gathering, though 
some inexperienced men had opined earlier that this ground was many 
times more capacious than the requirements of the centenary 
celebrations. 

On this vast area of one million metres had been raised 40 camps each 
one of which could accommodate thousands of men. Ordinarily there was 
one big camp for the inhabitants of each Indian state but as per need 
several more camps had been allotted to the people of certain big states. 

Some camps were reserved for foreign visitors. There were more than 
150 hotels and tea-stalls. Shops of hundreds of wares, tents of various 



359 

government departments, centres of the Health Department, camps of 
political and religious parties, and nearly 183 book-stalls selling countless 
religious and academic books had turned this plain into a veritable "city 
of knowledge" Such a huge gathering that comprised of lakhs of men of 
heart, sincerity and faith, radiated peace, refreshed faith, expanded soul 
and illuminated certitude; the lamps of hope dispelled the darkness of 
despair, and everywhere firmness of ambition, strength of intention, and 
ardour and aspiration for struggle and action were perceptible. 

CAMP FOR THE GRADUATES, CELEBRITIES & DELEGATES 

Several camps had been erected on a big plain, adjacent to Shah 
Vilayat's tomb, near the south gate of the Dar al-Ulum, for the graduates, 
celebrities and delegates, with reasonably good arrangement in each 
camp for their stay, board and breakfast, prayer and other needs. In this 
camp there was also a big dming-hall where two thousand men could 
dine at a time. For three days, Allah be praised, people were busy non- 
stop round the clock in serving the guests in this camp. Seeing their 
assiduousness and engrossment in work, one liked to bless them all for 
their welfare in both the worlds. 

Besides this camp, other buildings of the Dar al-Ulum too had been 
reserved for the celebrities and special graduates and delegates from 
India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, England, America, Russia, North and South 
Africa, West Germany, Nepal, Iran and other countries; and they were all 
packed to capacity The large boarding houses of the Dar al-Ulum and all 
its other buildings had virtually turned into a magnificent and great guest 
house. The guests were also staying in the Islamic School and the Inter 
College 

RESIDENCE OF DISTINGUISHED ARAB AND FOREIGN GUESTS 

The Afriqi Building in the Jamia-e Tibbia and some other buildings 
were made more comfortable and provided with all necessaries and 
decorations for distinguished Arab guests, including the special 
representatives of Jalalat al-Mulk Shah Khalid of Saudi Arabia and His 
Majesty King Husam of Jordan, and ministers, scholars and savants of 
other Arab countries. The vast and magnificent Guest House of the Dar 
al-Ulum and all the good-looking, modern style flats in the Teachers' 
Apartments, the Dak Bungalow of the Public Works Department and the 
Government Guest House erected by the government in a lovely style, 
were all occupied by these celebrities. 



DELEGATES FROM ASIA, AFRICA, EUROPE & AMERICA 

A very pleasing and noteworthy peculiarity of this historical gathering 
of the fourteenth century hijri is that, besides India, Pakistan and Bangla 
Desh, as many as 18,000 delegates (a number which is indubitably larger 
than the number of delegates attending any big conference anywhere in 
the world) had come from various parts of Asia, Africa, Europe and 
America,- and, moreover, these delegations included very high-ranking 
traditionists, orators, professional commentators of the Quran, political 
leaders, distinguished ulema, righteous men, Masha'ikh of the Path, 
spiritual personalities, intellectuals, educationists and men commanding 
international fame and position, from every region and country. 

THE HOSPITALITY OF THE CITIZENS OF DEOBAND 

On this historical and memorable occasion the inhabitants of 
Deoband, irrespective of their creed and religion, made a dignified dis- 
play of their traditional hospitality and open-heartedness as well as their 
deep attachment to and faith in their old institution — the Dar al-Ulum. 
Most heartily and sincerely they all welcomed these guests. Arrangements 
had been made in a very neat, dignified and civilised manner in several 
ocalities of the town for the lodging and boarding of thousands of 
guests and the dues of hospitality were discharged with utmost sincerity, 
civility and respectfulness. 

. Announcement was being made on loud-speaker, inviting the guests 
for breakfast and meals. There was not a single Hindu or Muslim family 
wherewith guests of the session were not staying. The Hindu brethren 
had made preparations for this celebration even as they make on occa- 
sions of betrothal and marriage. There was no locality and no lane of 
Deoband where the guests of the Dar al-Ulum were not to be seen; every 
primary school, high school, college and all the organisational centres 
were occupied in hosting the guests. 

SPECIAL COIMCENTRATIVE ATTENTION OF EMINENT SAINTS 

On this occasion of the first magnitude, Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib had wisely invited some saintly figures of the Deoband 
group, like Maulana Aal-e Hasan (may his shadow never grow less!), 
Masih al-Ummat Maulana Masih Allah Khan, Maulana Abrar al-Haq and 
Maulana Siddiq Ahmed, to reach Deoband earlier than others to engage 
themselves in invoking and spiritual concentration for the success 



361 

of this celebration. They all complied and remained busy along with 
several other pious men in special invocations jnd attention towards 
Allah. It was indeed a very delicate situation, for the multitudinous 
gathering had far exceeded — ten times more — our expectations and 
hugely disproportionate to the external arrangements, but due to the 
invocations and spiritual concentration of the deceased elders and these 
saintly gentlemen one felt immense confidence and composure of mind. 
Surely it was due to the same special attentions and invocations that 
such divine favour and peace and well-being were being experienced in 
such a huge gathering. Thus this session refreshed the memory of the 
auspicious pattern of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum like Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hmd and Hazrat Raipuri on the occassion of the session of A. H. 1328. 

GENERAL SESSION 

FIRST SITTING AT 2-00 P.M., AFTER THE FRIDAY PRAYER, MARCH 21, 
1980 

(A running commentary on this first session was broadcast from All 
India Radio, New Delhi). 

Shaikh Abd Allah Abd al-Mohsin Turki, special representative and 
leader of the delegation of His Majesty King Khalid ibn Abd al-Aziz, the 
Guardian of the Two Holy Cities, and chancellor of Imam Muhammad bin 
Saud University, was presiding over this inaugural session. Shaikh Yusuf 
Jasam al-Hajji, Minister of Awqaf, Kuwait, inaugurated it. According to a 
guarded calculation the audience consisted of fifteen to twenty lakhs of 
people, and the precious sentiments of homage, dignity and reverence 
with which they were attending it, were impressing the government 
officers, honourable ministers, foreign ambassadors and the distinguished 
intellectuals. 

There were six delegations from Saudi Arabia alone. One of these 
nominated by His Majesty King Khalid was representing the Saudi Arabia 
Government, and the remaining five consisted of eminent personalities of 
important international institutions and universities. Prince Fahd, heirappa- 
rent of Saudi Arabia, had also sent a very pithy, dignified and effective 
message. Similarly, there were delegations from the King of Jordan, Sultan 
of Oman, President Sadat of Egypt (under the leadership of the Minister 
of Awqaf Shaikh Abd al-Munim al-Namar), Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Sri Lanka 
and Nepal; a delegation from the Islamic organisations of the U. K., and 
Sayyid Ihtesham Kazimi from the United States of America. 



362 

The first sitting of this general session began with the rapturous reci- 
tation of the Holy Quran by the most famous orthoepist (qari) of the ■ 
contemporary world of Islam, Shaikh Abd al-Basit Abd al-Samad, who 
was a member of the Egyptian delegation. The reciting of the Quran 
conjured a state of elation and exhilaration over the whole audience, 
rather over the whole atmosphere. 

Honourable Shaikh Yusuf Jasam al-Hajji, Minister of Awqaf, Kuwait, in 
his inaugural speech, expressed joy at the holding of this magnificent 
session and congratulated all the authorities of the Dar al-Ulum. He also 
expreseed the hope that this centenary session would prepare an 
atmosphere of mutual accord and unity and singleness of purpose for 
all the Muslims of the world, that it would become a means of spread- 
ing the message of Islam and its sacred teachings, and that a universal 
programme for publicising Islam everywhere in the world would be 
chalked out in this session. In a vigorous manner he paid a tribute of 
praise for the grand services >_f the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 

Then the tarana (song) of the Dara al-Ulum was sung,- it was very 
effective and delightful. 

Thereafter the vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Maalana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib, presented the welcome-address in which he narrated, 
in chaste and clear language, the history of Deoband and the 117 -year 
old services of the Dar al-Ulum, and accorded a warm welcome to all 
the participants, delegates, visitors and graduates who had come from 
various parts of Asia, Africa, Europe and America. There was also mention 
of the multi-faceted progress of the Dar al-Ulum and its academic, 
research and progressive plans for the future. 

In this address he also pointed out that the services of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, are not confined to any particular circle and group 
but this institution has discharged its duty of religious guidance on every 
occasion and at very critical turn, and has tried its best to bring into 
vogue the right tack and the pure religion. This scholarly and comprehen- 
sive address also included topics like the background of the foundation 
of the Dar al-Ulum, the universal movement for the revival of religion, the 
jihad of Shamli and the movement for independence of the country, 
service to knowledge and the propagation of Islam through books and 
articles, and sermonising and preaching. 

After this address, Dr. Abd Allah Abd al-Mohsm, the president of this 
session, read out the message which Prince Fahd had sent through him 



for this occasion. But before this he started his presidential speech which 
was virtually an auspicious and sacred messat£ of the holy land to the 
elders of the Dar al-Ulum and the Muslims of India. He said : "I present 
His Majesty King Khalid bin Abd al-Aziz's sincere compliments to you 
The great services this institution has rendered to Islam are acknowledged 
by the Muslims of the whole world. I, on behalf of His Majesty the King 
and the Saudi people, offer you hearty congratulations on this auspicious 
and momentous occasion. The relation and love which the common 
people and the king of Saudi Arabia cherish for you is no secret to you. 

"The Saudi Government appreciates every service that may be 
connected with the diffusion and currency of Islam and it considers it a 
sacred duty to co-operate with every work concerned with the service of 
knowledge and religion; and all these efforts it is making are meant to 
win the divine pleasure". Regarding the Dar al-Ulum and its elders, he 
said : "In the past you have rendered very valuable service to the cause 
of Islam, knowledge and the Religious Law (Shari'at) which is very 
appreciable and worthy of praise, and we consider you the crusaders 
and intrepid soldiers of Islam". 

Continuing, he said: "My brethren-in-lslam! The thing most necessary 
is that we translate the religion of Islam into practice in our lives with 
consummate insight and live united in every way. This huge gathering is a 
proof that there is mutual love and unity among you and all are deeply 
attached to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and to Islam. The Saudi Govern- 
ment and the people most sincerely believe that all the Muslims of the 

world — howevermuch different they may be in race and colour are 

one on the basis of the unity of the Kalima". Dr Turki, on behalf of King 
Khalid and the Saudi Government, also congratulated the responsible 
authorities of the Dar al-Ulum and said : "I also offer good wishes to the 
Government of India, the Indian public and the prime-minister Mrs Indira 
Gandhi and thank you all. May Allah bless you all with welfare and 
protect you"! 

Then he read out Prince Fahd's message in which the Prince had 
expressed his heartfelt joy on the occasion of the centenary celebrations 
and had said : "The Muslims of the whole world should remain united and 
co-operate with each other. We very much appreciate the Government of 
India and the prime-minister Mrs Indira Gandhi and thank them heartily that 
they co-operated with this magnificent international institution — the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband — of Islamic sciences and knowledge in holding these 
centennial celebrations". 



364 

He also expressed the wish to improve the relations between Saudi 
Arabia and India still further. On this occasion, amid loud slogans of 
applause the president of the session announced that Prince Fahd had 
sent for the present a personal gift of rupees ten lakhs to the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband. 

MRS INDIRA GANDHI'S SPEECH 

"The Dar al-Ulum has created the sentiment and consciousness for 
liberty in the country". 

In this first session of the centenary celebrations, Mrs Indira Gandhi, 
the prime-minister of India, also addressed the huge audience, in chaste 
and pure Urdu. Speaking in vigorous terms about the Islamic, cultural and 
national services of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, she paid a glowing tribute 

to it and said : — 

"Such a great work has been done in this small village, such a big 
gathering in which scholars, divines, men of accomplishments and 
intellectuals from all over the Islamic world are participating is indeed a 
great thing. It shows what the honour of the Dar al-Ulum is and how lofty 
its position is in the world of Islam. I have heard very good arrangements 
have been made here; this is no ordinary thing." 

She further said.: 'Though the movement for the independence of 
India which the elders of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, had started was not 
considered successful externally and for the time being, but the senti- 
ment and aspiration for achieving independence did emerge from it in 
the hearts of the people and India won freedom due to the same 
endeavours. Islam and the Muslims have contributed much to this 
country, have enriched its culture and have made a deep impression 
upon life here". 

She reassured in her speech that the minorities here will enjoy every 
kind of facility and rights of equality. At the end she congratulated all the 
ulema, respectable guests and the participants and said : "I pray that this 
session may be fully successful and the Dar al-Ulum may continue to 
serve Islam, religious knowledge and humanity magnificently — because 
there is no service greater than the service to the creatures of God". 

MESSAGE FROM RABETA-E A'LAM-E ISLAMI 

Read by Shaikh AH Muhammad Mukhtar 

Mentioning the Islamic services of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 



in solemn words, the head of this international institution of Mecca says 
in the message that 

"this Islamic university, the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is a Islamic centre 
and a haven of knowledge and gnosis. It has so far produced many 
high-ranking ulema, several leaders of Islam and a number of outstanding 
and prominent personalities who went to every nook and corner of the 
world to spread the teachings, and convey the message, of Islam, and 
establishing institutions for the teaching of the Quran and Hadith, they 
illuminated the hearts of the people of the whole world with this 
precious bounty and trust (amanat) of Islam. These eminent scholars 
have made huge sacrifices as a result of which the Muslims have 
benefitted from the Islamic teachings and Islamic thoughts. We express 
our heartfelt joy at these stupendous services of yours". 

MESSAGE FROM KING HUSAIN OF JORDAN 

Shah Husain's message too was very important. Extolling the services 
of the Dar al-Ulum in emphatic terms, he said in his message: — 

'On my own behalf as well as on behalf of the people of Jordan I 
offer sincere greetings and good wishes to you all. I am also sending 
salutation to you all on behalf of that holy land of Palestine where there 
is the place of Ascent (Mi'raj and Asra) and also that Holy Sanctuary 
(Bayt al-Muqaddas) and the First Qiblah which is a very valuable source 
of the Islamic teachings". 

King Husain further said : "The elders of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
have lighted the torches of knowledge and gnosis and have rendered 
very valuable services to Islam and the Shari'ah". 

GENERAL SESSION 

SECOND SITTING 

FRIDAY, MARCH 21, 1980 — 9-00 P.M. TO 1-00 A.M. 

The second sitting of the Centenary Session began after the Isha prayer. 
Due to electric bulbs and tube lights the whole area of one million sq. 
metres on which spread rows and rows of camps, hotels, shops and book- 
stalls was ashine and the stage of the session too, due to the presence of 
distinguished and venerable august men and their luminous personalities. 



366 

was aglitter. It was a very soul-nourishing and ecstatic spectacle so that 
one could feel one's heart and mind and the recesses of the soul glow- 
ing and sparkling with light; it looked as if every corner of this village of 
knowledge and spiritualism (Qasimpur) was radiant. 

The programme started, in this delightful and impressive atmosphere, 
after the recitation of the Quran. The able Minister of Awqaf of the 
government of Kuwait, Honourable Yusuf Jasam al-Hajji, presided and 
Shaikh yusuf al-Qarzavi acted as vice-president. 

The head of the Islamic Affairs of Kuwait, Shaikh Abd Allah al-A'qeel, 
Shaikh Ali Muhammad Mukhtar of the Rabeta-e A'lam-e Islami of Saudi 
Arabia, and a famous divine of the holy Madina, Shaikh Muhammad Hafiz 
al-Qazi, who holds the elders of the Dar al-Ulum in high esteem and 
acknowledges their erudition and versatility, addressed the audience. 

All these speakers, in their own individual styles, emphasised the 
excellence of conforming to the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, and threw 
ample light on the usefulness of the veracity of Islam and mutual accord 
and unity. They also paid a glowing tribute to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
for its historical, national, academical, religious and social services, and 
expressed their heartfelt delight at the matchless gathering of this 
magnificent session. 

The Minister of Awqaf of Egypt, Dr Abd al-Mun'im al-Namar, read out 
the message sent by President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt. In this message 
President Sadat too paid glowing tributes to the Dar al-Ulum for its glory 
and glorious services. 

MESSAGE FROM THE AMIR OF KUWAIT 

The president of this second sitting, Honourable Shaikh yusuf Jasam 
al-Hajji, read out the message of His Excellency the Amir of Kuwait. The 
message said : — 

"1, on behalf of myself, the Govt, of Kuwait and the people of Kuwait, 
offer hearty congratulations on the occasion of this auspicious and 
momentous Islamic gathering and pray for the welfare and success of all of 
you. I and the whole world of Islam admit the fact that the Dar al-Ulum has 
to its credit the extremely glorious achievement of providing remarkable 
education and training to youths and divines and of preserving the Islamic 
treasures and propagating and publishing Islamic thoughts and 



367 

sciences. On account of the services the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has 
rendered in correcting the beliefs and cleansing the millat of un-lslamic 
thoughts, I can assert that the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is a pharos and a 
headspring from which all people quench their thirst. 

"The next century will be a century of challenge for us and it will 
be the duty of the institutions like the Dar al-Ulum that they adopt such 
a method and system of educating and training the youths that they may 
be able to face every challenge and keep the flag of Islam aloft. 

"The most important thing is profound and strong faith Oman) and 
knowledge and faith are two such weapons of ours with which we can 
face every challenge of the coming century and fulfil all the demands of 
the present era". 

GENERAL SESSION 

THIRD SITTING 

SATURDAY, MARCH 22, 1980 — 9-00 A.M. TO 1-30 P.M. 

The president of this session, Dr Shaikh Abd Allah al-Za'id, vice- 
chancellor, Madina University, came somewhat late and so, until his 
arrival, the session was presided over by Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Abul 
Hasan Ali Nadvi. 

The proceedings of the session as usual began after the reciting of 
the Quran. The whole pandal and all the camps and the ground around 
it were full of audience. 

In this sitting Hazrat Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib 
Cmay his shadow never grow less!), vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, read out the message of Honourable Mr Sanjiva Reddi, 
president of the Republic of India; and Maulana Mufti Mahmud, leader 
of the Mutahadda Muhaz-e Pakistan, delivered a powerful speech in 
which, adjudging the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, to be the greatest centre of 
religion, knowledge and Shari'ah, he paid glowing tributes to its magni- 
ficent services and said that the Dar al-Ulum is in fact "the Mother of 
Madrasahs" (Umm al-Madaris). 

A significant message from General Muhammad Zia al-Haq, president 
of Pakistan, was arso read out by his special representative. It. said : — 



368 

"I am feeling glad in sending this message of congratulations and 
good wishes to the head of the Dar al-Ulum and his confreres on this 
happy occasion of the centenary celebrations of the Jamia-e Islamia Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband. No doubt the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is a great Islamic 
university of the subcontinent — India and Pakistan. While the elders of 
Deoband, through selfless and sincere sen/ice of Islam, did remarkable 
work in preserving the Islamic heritage and in reviving the glory of Islam, 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, carried forward the ceaseless Jihad against 
those un-lslamic beliefs which had begun to hinder the pure and truthful 
teachings of Islam; and the list of services rendered by Deoband in other 
walks of life is also quite long". 

In connection with the "turban of proficiency," Hazrat Hakim al-lslam 
delivered a comprehensive speech in which he threw light on the histo- 
rical and religious importance of this ceremony of conferment. At the end 
he said that Maulana Sayyid Minnat Allah Rahmani, member of the Majhs-e 
Shura, would announce the procedure of this ceremony. The latter, 
accordingly, announced that turbans woud be wrapped around the 
heads of certain particular august men only at that time as time was short, 
and the order made in connection with this conferment could not be 
maintained due to heavy rush and hence turbans would be conferred on 
the remaining gentlemen on the following day. Meanwhile the vice- 
chancellor, Maulana Qari Tayyib made the happy announcement that 
Hazrat Shaikh al-Hadith (Maulana Muhammad Zakariya) — may his 
blessings be perpetual! — had sent four turbans from the Propet's (Allah's 
peace and blessings be upon him!) City (the illuminated Madina) which, 
according to the Shaikh's wish and instruction, would be conferred on 
Maulana Sa'eed Ahmed Gangohi (alias Bhaiji), Maulana Sayyid As'ad 
Madam, Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasimi and himself. Accordingly, 
these turbans were wrapped around the heads of these four divines in 
the same order. Hazrat Hakim al-lslam tied a turban around the head of 
Hazrat Maulana Masih Allah Khan, patron of Madrasa-e Jalalabad and 
khalifa of Hazrat Thanvi. Turbans were conferred on Hazrat Maulana 
Sayyid Fakhr al-Hasan, former principal of Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and 
Hazrat Maulana Abd al-Haq Haqqani (Akoda Khatak, Pakistan) also. 

Hazrat Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi delivered a grand speech 
on the Deoband tack and the preservation of the Muslims' communal 
identity. He gave such a comprehensive and fascinating definition of 
Deobandism that the audience were enraptured. At the wish of certain 
august men Maulana Nadvi also spoke in Arabic. (This Arabic speech has 
been separately published in Urdu). 



369 

In this session several Arab delegates also spoke. The Chief Justice 
of Al-Sharaqa (U.A.E.), Shaikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim al-Sa'ud, paid 
glowing tributes to the Dar al-Ulum for its glorious services. Similarly, 
the representative of the Dar al-lfta, Riaydh, Saudi Arabia, also expressed 
his joy, in effective terms, over the services of the Dar al-Ulum, offered 
congratulations for this magnificent session, and spoke on the 
importance of preaching religion and the propagation of Islam. 

MESSAGE FROM THE MADINA UNIVERSITY 
TO DAR AL-ULUM, DEOBAND 

At the end, Maulana Badr al-Hasan respectfully requested the presi- 
dent of this session, Shaikh Abd Allah al-Za'id, vice-chancellor, Madina 
University, to speak on this occasion. Introducing him to the audience, 
Maulana Badr al-Hasan said that the Shaikh commands an extraordinary 
academic position and a very influential, dignified and dynamic 
personality. 

In his presidential address the Honourable Shaikh said : — 

"On account of the momentous educational services of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, and its domain of influence, I think that such institutuions 
should be amply aided. May the Lord of Honour bestow upon us the grace 
to fulfil such responsibilities. 

"These institutions (Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and Jam'e-e Islami, 
Madina) are in fact strong fortresses of religion. To co-operate in their 
educational and publishing programmes and works is to co-operate in 
fact with the propagation of Islam. In the Madina University, we are 
surveying the educational projects, programmes for progress, means and 
great needs of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband; over and above this, we are 
also considering addition and enhancement in the educational stipends 
to the students of the Dar al-Ulum" 

Continuing, he said: "We very sincerely appeal to all our Muslim 
brethren to remain united and well-organised so as to be able to put a 
bold front against the forces of falsehood." 

He thanked the Indian Government for its extending co-operation 
and facilities to the Indian Muslims for their religious gathering. He said: 
"The Muslims of the whole world and particularly the Muslims of Saudi 
Arabia are pleased with every thing that may be for the good 



370 

and benefit of the Indian Muslims and we are pained at every thing that 
may cause them any trouble. Whatever service the government here 
renders to the Indian Muslims the Muslims of Saudi Arabia and their 
government consider it a service to themselves. 

'We again thank the government of India and wish that it try to create 
here such conditions that the Muslims may live here satisfied and may 
advance for the progress of India." He gave an assurance that efforts 
would be continued to make the relations and connections between Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, and the Jamia-e Islamia, Madina (Madina University) 
more and more compact and stable. "We all", he said, "are grateful to 
the authorities of the Dar al-Ulum that they made arrangements on such a 
gigantic and grand scale for this international and religious gathering". 

Maulana Badr a)-Hasan translated the president's impressive speech 
(into Urdu) and thanked him on behalf of the authorities of the Dar al- 
Ulum that he condescended to come and afforded an opportunity and 
such facilities to the students of the Dar al-Ulum also who are reading 
in the Madina University that they could easily come to attend this 
session. 

GENERAL SESSION 

FOURTH SITTING 

SATURDAY, MARCH 22, 1980— AFTER THE ZUHR PRAYER AT 3-00 P. M. 

In this sitting Qari Abd al-Basit recited the Quran for one and a half 
hours, and in a very rapturous and ecstatic mood and style by which the 
audience were very much delighted. 

Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib informed the audience 
that letters had been sent to many heads of states for messages and they 
were good enough to send the same. Then he read out some of these 
messases. Some Arab ulema and dignitaries also addressed the audience. 
Mr Gopal Singh also delivered a speech. The renowned national leader 
Mrs Mohsina Qidwai, M. P., the late Mr Aziz Imam, M. P., Mr Yunus 
Saleem, M. P., Dr Farouq Abd Allah (special representative of the chief- 
minister of the state of Jammu & Kashmir), Maulana Muhammad Farouq 
Mir Wa'iz of Kashmir, Mr Mubarak Shah, M. P., Mr Rasheed Mas'ud, M. P., 
Mr Raj Narain, Mr Ghulam Muhammad Kuchak, M. P., Muhammad Shafee 
Quraishi, etc. also participated. 



Paying a glowing tribute to the 117-year old national and academical 
services of the Dar al-Ulum, the Home Minister of India, Giani Zail Singh 
said that 

"the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is the greatest educational, cultural and 
national centre of the Muslims in and outside India the services of which 
are undeniable. The Government of India appreciates these services and 
considers this unmatched gathering a source of pride for itself." 

The opposition leader, Mr Raj Narain also spoke and paying tribute to 
the services of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, profusely, said: "The Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, is a bright chapter in the valuable teachings of Islam and 
the teachings of Islam are the teachings of peace, love and humanism." 
On the one hand he sincerely counselled the Muslims to follow, with 
heart and soul and complete sincerity, the true teachings of their faith 
and religion, and, on the other, advised the compatriotic brethren that it 
is their duty to consider it an obligation to protect their Muslim brethren 
in every possible way. 

GENERAL SESSION 

FIFTH SITTING 

SATURADAY, MARCH 22, 1980 — 9-00 P. M TO 12-30 A. M. 

This sitting was presided over by Maulana Ghulam Allah. After the 
recitation of the Holy Quran, Maulana Muhammad Farouq Mir Wa J iz of 
Kashmir, speaking fervently, said that the Dar al-Ulum is a lighthouse and 
it is impossible to deny its services. 

Simultaneously the turbans of proficiency were also being distributed. 
Some Arab gentlemen also delivered speeches. Besides these, some 
messages were also read out. Some gentlemen, impressed by the success 
of the centenary session, huge gathering and the elders of the Dar al-Ulum, 
read poems. 

The speeches of the Chief Mufti of the Oman Government, the leader 
of the Iraqi delegation Honourable Shaikh Abd al-Aziz al-Falah and 
Shaikh yusuf al-Sarkhavi were specially remarkable. 

The stage was being graced by the presence of Hakim al-lslam 
Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib and other elders of the Dar al-Ulum, 
national and foreign teachers and dignitaries. 



GENERAL SESSION 

CONCLUDING SITTING 

SUNDAY, MARCH 23, 1980 — 8-30 A. M. TO 1-30 P. M. 

The proceedings started with the recitation of the Holy Quran. This 
time also, a number of gentlemen, impressed by the grand success of 
the centenary session and the historical services of the Dar al-Ulum, read 
poems. The Hakim al-lslam addressed the participants of this historical 
and epoch-making session in an effective and philosophic manner. 
Maulana Sayyid As'ad Madani and the Muhtamim of the Madrasah of 
Sahiwal (Pakistan) also spoke. 

A delegate from Russia read out a statement. Mr Jagjivan Ram, the 
Ex-Deputy Prime-Minister of India, also delivered a speech. And those 
important and historical resolutions which are the very soul of this 
whole programme of the session were also read out. 

In these resolutions there is realistic acknowledgement of the 117-year 
old glorious human, academic, communal, missionary, national and 
reformative achievements and services of the Dar al-Ulum as well as 
abundant tribute to its academic, practical, reformative, educational, 
authorial services and undeniable exploits in the fields of sermonising, 
inculcation, preaching and guidance. There is also mention of firm and 
feasible plans for guidance to the world Islamic community (Millat), 
propagation of Islam, codification of the Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), 
disquisition and research on different academic topics, preparation of 
literature in harmony with the Zeitgeist, arrangements for the training of 
Arabic teachers, organisation of Islamic-Arabic madrasahs and their 
federation and rapport with other academic institutions, training and 
organisation of the imams of mosques, and provision and supervision of 
Arabic education for the young graduates of universities. There is sincere 
expression of thought on the bleeding gash in the chest of the Islamic 
millat — the Jews' imperialistic domination over the First Qiblah and their 
savage, cruel and outrageous treatment with hundreds and thousands 
of victimised Arabs of Palestine — as well as a forceful demand for the 
recovery of the First Qiblah and restoration of human rights to the 
Palestinians. There is a strong protest over the recent aggressive and 
inhuman acts of tyranny perpetrated in Afghanistan as well as spirited 
admission of the magnificent sacrifices of our high-minded and brave 
Afghan brethren, along with the demand that this foreign aggression 



373 

must be immediately vacated from Afghanistan. These resolutions also 
include the one regarding the reorganisation of the former graduates and 
old boys of the Dar al-Ulum on firmer basis — the programme that had 
been started in the Dar al-Ulum long back. (The complete texts of the 
resolutions are being given later). 

The synopsis of Mr Jagjivan Ram's speech made in this final sitting is 
that Islam has given the lessons of peace and equality to the world and 
the Dar al-Ulum is a centre of Islamic teachings where men are human- 
nized and their morals and character are built. This is an institution 
which is a source of pride and the example whereof is difficult to find. 
Islam has kindled the lamps of justice and equity and humanism in the 
darknesses of tyranny and ignorance. He said: "With great reverence I 
have come here to pay a tribute to the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and with 
extreme respectfulness and veneration I offer congratulations to you all 
on the historical occasion of this magnificent gathering". 

In his speech, Maulana Sayyid As'ad Madam, president of the Jami'at 
al-Ulama-e Hind, called the Dar al-Ulum a splendid centre of knowledge 
and spiritualism, and said; "This institution is our last centre and the 
light of those spiritual and academic lamps that are lighted here 
spreads, rather has already spread, throughout the world". In the end he 
said: "We should thank Allah that He bestowed upon us the honour of 
attending this grand gathering". 

In this terminal sitting Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib 
delivered a very effective and concise speech. He said that this gather- 
ing is an object-lesson as regards the popularity of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, and its honour and greatness in the hearts of the people. 
"Indeed, all of you have come in such large numbers from far off 
places, suffering great inconveniences, only on account of your Islamic 
sentiments and for the love of the Dar al-Ulum. In connection with this 
session the entire community helped us with great sincerity and selfless- 
ness. This gathering is a wonderful gathering. I have never seen such a 
great gathering. The representatives of the whole world, particularly of 
the world of Islam, came here and thus this gathering became an inter- 
national gathering. It is sheerly Allah's favour and obligation that He 
made arrangements for this gathering as well as brought it to an end 
with every good, happiness, peace and welfare. I, on behalf of myself 
and on behalf of the Majlis-e Shura, the magistral and non-teaching staff 
and particularly on behalf of the organisers of this session, thank you 
all." 



374 

Continuing, he said: "The responsibility for the arrangement of this 
session had been charged to Maulana Muhammad Aslam 1 . He supervised 
the whole arrangement. Forming different committees for different works, 
he entrusted the task to his colleagues. 

Since it was the last sitting of the session and Maulana Qari Muhammad 
Tayyib was giving the valedictory address, the hearts of the people were 
brimming with joy and elation and the whole atmosphere was reverbera- 
ting with the sky-piercing slogans of "Allah is Greatest", "long live the 
Dar al-Ulum JJ , "long live the elders of Deoband" and "long live Hakim 
al-lslam"; and the entire milieu was immersed in an imperishable and 
ineffable thrill and trance. 

There was before the eyes the awesome and handsome personality of 
the Hakim al-lslam, conducing tranquillity and repose to. the heart and 
eyes, rather to the soul itself. His is a pre-eminent personality, a paragon 
of virtues, about whom this compiler himself had very reverentially said 
scores of years ago:- 

"O thou the light of whose forehead is from end to end the exposi- 
tion of abstinence. O thou, as grand as the sky, thou art the proof of 
the beauty of piety. O thou whose person is the depository of that 
precious guidance wherefore the forehead of truthfulness is radiant and 
resplendent." 

1. The fact is that it was a sargantuan task the responsibility for which had been 
charged to Maulana Muhammad Aslam and he, with extreme sincerity, selflessness, self- 
effacement, foresight, discernment, sedateness and vigour, acquitted himself so admi- 
rably well that one could expect such things from an experienced hand only. It was a 
small caravan of thought and action that had to pass through mazy and difficult 
passages and staggering stages and had to be piloted by Maulana Muhammad Aslam, 
who, armed with a prudent emotion of action, sincere attitude and behaviour, staidness, 
politeness and a tolerant cast of mind, and more than these, with the support of inner 
filiation with Hujjat al-lslam Maulana Muhammad Qasim (Allah's mercy be on him IX was 
leading it with great understanding, circumspection and full sense of delicate 

Day and night he was seized with the thought and worry of this Herculean task so as 
not to overlook any shortcoming or miss anything desirable. But then the strain of this 
mammoth and strenuous task at last began to tell on him and on the very first day of 
the session he had a nervours breakdown. Due to stress and strain and extraordinary 
fatigue he swooned but no sooner he came to himself than, inspite of the doctors' and 
family-members' insistence to have bed-rest, he rushed towards the place of function 
and began his activities as usual. 



375 

It is a reality that in all the great programmes and extensive works of 
the centenary session the organisers and workers of the session were 
receiving, at every step, the ardour for action, encouragement and spirit 
from the Hakim al-lslam's outstanding spiritual personality; they were 
deriving firmness of ambition and strength of intention from him; and 
getting guidance in many heart-rending stages from his serene and 
dignified person. 

In the end the respectable vice-chancellor (may his shadow never 
grow less!) thanked all those gentlemen who keenly and actively 
participated in the task of collecting funds for this important and 
auspicious session. He also thanked those gentlemen who extended co- 
operation in any way in the works connected with the session. He 
prayed to Allah Most Glorious to bless them all with great rewards and 
bounties of both the worlds. Then all the audience joined him in pray- 
ing with moist eyes and utter humility and self-effacement and thus the 
proceedings of this history-making centenary function drew to a close in 
an atmosphere of effectiveness and ecstasy. 

A HISTORy-MAKING SESSION 

EPOCH-MAKING AND CONSTRUCTIVE RESOLUTIONS 

Of the several resolutions passed by a gathering of fifteen to twenty 
lakhs of people in this centenary session of the Dar al-Ulum one apper- 
tains to the world organisation of its graduates and old alumni. 

The fact is that 29 years ago when the idea of holding a convocation 
was mooted, it had been decided to organise the graduates of the Dar 
al-Ulum and establish their rapport with their alma mater. Accordingly, 
this organisational work had been started and committees for this work 
had been formed in several regions in and outside India and in certain 
states of the country state-wise gatherings of the graduates of the Dar 
al-Ulum had been held. 

For doing the work of religious and social training and reformation 
through the same organisational committees a booklet entitled "Prog- 
ramme Dini-Samaji Tarbiat" had been published in AH. 1391. 
Accordingly, when an office and a new programme was started for the 
centenary session, the same old record of the organisation of the old 
list of graduates prepared by this branch was utilised at the time of 



376 

resuming the same work. On the occasion of this historical session when 
this valuable resolution was passed in the midst and presence of nearly 
two million people, including the old alumni and men of light and lead- 
ing, it was but natural to expect that the dear sons of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, would establish stronger, firmer and more lasting relation with 
their alma mater and thus, under an organised programme, would fill 
colours of religion, piety, guidance and instuction in the different 
corners of the Muslims' lives, and, pulling them out of the morass of 
ignorance, deviation, polytheism, innovation, ignorant customs and con- 
ventions, and disunity and dispersion, would try their best to acquaint 
them with the neat and clean Islamic way of life, and inclucate upon 
them to conform to the sacred and beautiful pattern of the Illustrious 
Master and Superior of both the worlds, the Holy Prophet (Allah's 
peace and blessings be upon him!). 

The centenary session has made it fully clear that all the individuals 
of the "Qasimi Fraternity", in accordance with the resolution of the 
session, establish their organisation and, under the auspices and supervi- 
sion of their spiritual centre and alma mater, the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
execute the programme of reforming the society; and that it would be 
an important work if they pay special attention in this regard, as then 
only the important and sacred duty of reforming Muslims and publishing 
and preaching Islam throughout the world, without which the colour of 
our community life is fading and the note getting dullish, would be 
discharged. 

It has been said in the resolution and rightly so that the vice- 
chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, will be the president of this 
organisation and its centre will be at the Dar al-Ulum because it is a 
reformative, academic and educational work which a central educational 
institution like the Dar al-Uium alone can execute in a better way. 

The religious, academic and practical services of that universal 
Islamic ideal, religious and reformative movement which had been 
started exactly 177 years ago by Hazrat Qasim al-Ulum Hujjat al-lslam 
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi is today — praise be to Allah! — 
receiving tributes from the whole world. The whole world is constrained 
to admit that the tiny plant of religion and Shari'ah, Islamic thought and 
the Wali Allahian tack that had been planted with boundless sincerity 
and prolific sentiments, under the pomegranate tree, in the Chhatta 
Mosque, has — praise to be to Allah! — grown today into a stout, ver- 
dant and wide tree the branches and fruits of which have spread 



throughout the world. 

'Rise up, for the attitude of the assembly of the world is something 
different. There is the beginning of your era now in the east and the 
west.' 

The Qasimi caravan, taking the lamp lighted 117 years ago, under 
Hazrat Nanautavi's spiritual filiation and under the presidentship and 
leadership of the trustee of his sciences, Hakim al- Islam Mauiana Qari 
Muhammad Tayyib, is embarking on the journey with a new ambition and 
spirit, and, Allah willing, the sacred programme for the knowledge and 
publicity of religion will, through the Qasimi fraternity, step forth on new 
thoroughfares, level new grounds and enkindle the resplendent lamps of 
knowledge and action. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SERVICES 

This magnificent session acknowledges the unforgettable, historical 
and extraordinary services of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, which it 
rendered for more than a century. The Dar al-Ulum, inspite of difficulties, 
unfavourable circumstances, the Englishmen's opposition and financial 
stringency, prepared such individuals for the different angles of 
knowledge and research, missionary work and mystical path, and arts and 
sciences, the examples whereof are difficult to find. The Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, has affected every stratum of the ulema, men of knowledge, 
intelligentsia and the commanlty, and has infused into them the sympathy 
and eagerness for religion, the sentiment for self-culture and reformation 
of society, and the ambition to accept and spread the genuine belief. 
The presence of millions of men in this session is in fact a remarkable tri- 
bute of appreciation to the Dar al-Ulum and an undeniable proof of their 
love for and attachment with it and its uncommon public rapport. This 
session feels that the coming of thousands of ulema from India, Pakistan 
and Bangla Desh infact indicates the vastness of the service of the Dar al- 
ulum, Deoband, in the subcontinent; and it becomes certain that the Dar 
al-Ulum, during the last one hundred years, has, with consummate sincer- 
ity and confidence, knowledge and cognition, rendered the matchless 
service of propagating religion and bringing into currency the right belief 
in the subcontinent, and has influenced all the parts of arts and sciences. 

TRIBUTES OF PRAISE 

This magnificent historical session offers tributes of praise to the Dar 
al-Ulum for its glorious services, and to its old graduates and its teachers,- 



378 

and pays tributes of homage with full reverence to its deceased dons 
and founders who irrigated this rose-garden of the knowledge of 
religion; and this session believes that the present generation of the Dar 
al-Ulum will prove to be the true representative and academic interpre- 
ter of the magnificent traditions-of the past, and will continue to render 
all-sided service to the Islamic community. 

DETERMINATION AND ACTION 

This session feels that, for the revival of Islam, call of Islam to the 
whole world, solution of the modern problems confronting the world, 
and in the vast arena of struggle for the elevation of Allah's Word, there 
is urgent need of such ulmea who, along with proficiency in the 
prophetic sciences, may command deep insight in the evolution of 
science and technology, the changed cultural, moral and economica 
values, as also the present-day difficulties so that they may be able, 
with staunch faith, resolute ambition and genuine concern, to discharge 
the duty of academic, religious and social leadership of the ummah in 
the coming century In view of the above-mentioned objective this ses- 
sion resolves that : — 

PROGRAMME FOR THE SPLENDOUR OF ISLAM 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, institute a department to be called 
"Kuliyat al-Da'wat wal-lrshad" with the objective of preparing, through 
a curriculum, within a reasonable course of time, such individuals who, 
in the light of comparative study of the ancient religions, modern 
thoughts and the present-day movements, may positively show the 
world that the religion of the coming century and the system of life that 
can bring absolution to mankind can be "Islam" alone. 

MISSIONARY CENTRES 

The Dar al-Ulum, keeping its missionary service in view, should 
establish missionary centres of Islam in different parts of India, where its 
graduates specializing in the missionary work may be employed for the 
call to Islam as well as for reforming, preaching, teaching and fetwa- 
issuing in order to stabilize the Muslim population on the path of Islam. 

CODIFICATION OF THE ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, should establish a department for 
specialization in Islamic jurisprudence for creating the ability to apply 



379 

the Islamic jurisprudence in the changed conditions of human life and 
to solve modern propositions in the light of the Islamic jurisprudence, 
sources of the law of principles of jurisprudence, philosophy of law 
rules and generalities of religion, and comparative study of the manners 
of ratiocination of various imams of Fiqh. 

RESEARCH AND DISQUISITION 

The Dar al-Ulum should establish under its supervision a department 
for research and writing which may survey the different present-day 
movements, questions rising in the modern age and the political and 
economical theories, and do research on such academic, historical, 
juristic, political and economical topics, and make arrangements for the 
publication of the results of such research. 

NECESSITY OF MODERN RELIGIOUS LITERATURE 

This session feels that today, in the field of calling and guiding 
people to Islam, there is urgent need of literature that may be prepared 
on the right lines with due regard to the Islamic call and wisdom and in 
which, at the same time, such styles of expression may have been used 
which are understood and appreciated in this modern age. Morever, this 
session also feels that the ulema of the whole world have a right upon 
the sciences and academic disquisitions of the great ulema of India; to 
translate these disquisitions into other languages is a great religious 
service. At the same time it would be a remarkable service to render 
into Urdu the Islamic books that are being published in different parts 
of the world. Hence this session decides that, in view of these objec- 
tives, the Dar al-Ulum establish a great publishing house to publish 
books, on important topics, in Urdu, Arabic, English, regional languages 
of the country and different languages of the world. This magnificent 
centenary session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, resolves that a specia 
department of Theology be established in the Dar al-Ulum for those uni- 
versity graduates who may have passed M A. in Theology or Arabic and 
possess religious zest and aptitude; and through this department these 
students may be taught Arabic Literature, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh, 
Dialectics, Hadith and Tafsir (Quranic Exegesis ) and insight in religious 
sciences may be cultivated in them,- and their hearts and minds may be 
purified through good companies and the assemblies of the righteous 
men so that they may be enabled tg dischage the duty of preaching 
Islam jn different parts of the world. 



TRAINING CENTRE 

IN view of this fact that there is at present a great shortage of 
trained teachers and professors, (although intelligent and capable stu- 
dents are graduating every year from our madrasahs even now, their 
capabilities are being wasted for want of training and academic milieu, 
and, on the other hand, the masnads of our old professors are falling 
vacant), the session, in the circumstances, considers it necessary that the 
Dar al-Ulum establish under its management a "Kuliyat al-Tarbiat" with 
provision for the academic and practical training of capable graduates 
to acquaint them with the Principles of Education, Psychology of Educa- 
tion and the advanced or up-to-date Method of Education. Thus it is 
believed that in near future this vacuum would be filled up and the 
Arabic religious madrasahs would find good, able teachers. 

This session, acknowledging the glorious services of the madrasahs 
spread throughout the length and breath of the country, also considers 
it necessary to point out that due to want of rapport and lack of mutual 
organisation among them their utility is gradullay diminishing. 

FEDERATION OF THE ISLAMIC MADRASAHS 

There is at large neither any rapport between madrasahs nor any 
uniformity in the curricula nor any coherent system of examination, as a 
result of which the standard of education is falling lower and lower. 
Since these madrasahs are the feeders for the Dar al-Ulum, their decline 
inevitably affects the standard of education of the Dar al-Ulum also. 
Hence this session considers it necessary that these madrasahs should 
be organised and such a federation of the Islamic madrasahs should be 
prepared under the supervision of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, that it may 
take useful and necessary steps for the improvement and uniformity of 
curricula, organisation of examinations, supervision of education, and the 
academic and intellectual development of the students. 

ORGANISATION OF THE GRADUATES COLD BOYS) 

This magnificent session of the Dar al-Ulum resolves that in order to 
widen the blessings of the elders of the Dar al-Ulum and extend the fruits 
of the Dar al-Ulum the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum should be organised. 
Its centre should be at Deoband and its branches be established at cent- 
ral places in and outside India. These branches of the Dar al-Ulum may 
organise the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum in their respective circles, 



381 

establish rapport among them and hold from time to time such func- 
tions by which the objectives of the Dar al-Ulum may be publicised and 
the people of that region may get the opportunity to benefit more and 
more from the academic and religious graces of the elders of the Dar 
al-Ulum. The vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, should be the 
president of this organisation. 

POPULARIZATION OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE 

This session feels that it is necessary to popularize the Arabic 
language on a public plane for deep and true attachment to Islam and 
for the correct understanding of the Quran. Hence such institutions be 
established in different parts of the country for the propagation of the 
Arabic language and literature that they may make arrangements for the 
teaching of Arabic on linguistic bases. 

APPEAL TO THE CIRCLE OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

This session appeals to all the ulema, graduates and adherents of the 
Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, who have spread to different parts of the world 
that they render the service of call towards Allah with all the force, 
courage and spirit at their command, accelerate the pace of missionary 
work, and accept the delicate responsibility of the ideal and academic 
training especially of the new generation. This new generation is that 
valuable capital of the ummah upon which all the responsibilities of the 
future are to devolve. To save it from practical worthlessness and ideal 
renegation is a great service. 

ORGANISATION OF MOSQUES 

This session intensely feels this need that mosques are the basic 
fulcrum of the Muslims' life, and they have also been the centre of 
thought and action of the Muslims' social life during the prophetic era 
and the period of their ascension. But now the imams of the mosques 
are not finding themselves that effective on the Muslims' collective 
affairs the cause of which is inadequacy of the knack of calling to reli- 
gion and the right training. Hence there is need of stabilizing the 
organisation of mosques throughout India and of establishing the system 
of organising mosques and training of the imams. This session considers 
it necessary to draw the attention of all the ulema and imams of mos- 
ques scattered all over the country to this important need. 



APPEAL TO MADRASAHS 

This session appeals to all the madrasahs and religious centres of India 
that they, in order to extend the works of call to religion and for serving 
Islam in accordance with the demands of the present age, prepare such 
ulema who may be proficient in the old sciences and at the same time may 
also have comprehension and perception of the modern sciences, 
changed circumstances and the spirit of the age. For this objective it is 
necessary that necessary changes be made in the curriculum and such 
syllabi be introduced in the religious educational institutions by reading 
which one may acquire profound knowledge of the Islamic sciences and, 
along with abundant interest in Islam, become well-informed as regards 
the needs and movements of the present age. 

RAPPORT WITH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

To create rapport and harmony between the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
and the various educational and religious institutions of the world, this 
session considers it necessary that the different educational institutions of 
the world recognise the sanads (degrees, certificates) of the Dar ai-Ulum 
and accord the same facilities to its graduates that are given to the 
graduates of other educational institutions, so that the graduates of the 
Dar al-Ulum may be able, in accordance with their wisli, to maintain the 
academic course and educational career, and may thereby become the 
best means of fraternal relations between the Dar al-Ulum and other 
institutions. 

THE PROBLEM OF PALESTINE 

The Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, has frequently expressed its stand over the 
question of Palestine and today also this represertative centenary session 
of the Dar al-Ulum declares that the Bayt al-Muqaddas and Palestine are 
for the Palestinians. The establishment of the Israelite state on Arab land 
is a heinous crime of the super powers which can be compensated only 
by bringing the state of Israel to an end. As regards the question of 
Palestine, India has always sided with the Arabs and today also reassures 
the Arabs of its help and support, and prays in the Divine Court that He 
solve the probelm of Palestine with the return of the immigrants to their 
native-land. Amen! 

RESOLUTION REGARDING AFGHANISTAN 

This historical session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, considers the 
Russian interference in Afghanistan and the presence of Russian troops 



383 

on the Afghan soil absolutely contrary to human rights and democratic 
demands. This military operation of Soviet Russia is an open challenge to 
the independence of weak countries and world peace. This session 
considers it necessary that the Russian armies vacate Afghanistan uncondi- 
tionally as soon as possible, and demands it from the Indian Government 
that using its influences it try staunchly for the withdrawl of the Russian 
armies and solution of the Afghan problem; and level there the ground for 
the establishment of a republic. This session also considers it necessary 
that other super powers like America, China, etc., by interfering in the 
affairs of Afghanistan, should not become a hindrance in the solution of 
the question of Afghanistan. 

This representative session fully appreciates the sentiments of faith 
Oman) of the temerarious mujahids (crusaders) and brave people of 
Afghanistan who are waging a jihad for the independence of their 
country and the survival of Islamic values, and are thus reviving the 
memory of the glorious heroic traditions of the past. 

This session pays a tribute of homage to all those martyrs who, for the 
sake of the glory of Islam, the liberty of their country .and the right of 
ndependence, have tasted the cup of martyrdom; and prays that Allah 
Most Glorious elevate their ranks and restore the independence of 
Afghanistan. 

This session appeals to all the peace-loving men and justice-loving 
institutions and governments of the world to extend financial and moral 
help and support to the Afghan crusaders and the lacerated Afghan 
public, and co-operate fully with them in all their affairs. 

ACADEMIC EXHIBITION 

Even as the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, is an outstanding and unrivalled 
institution in its individuality and greatness and in respect of its histori- 
cal services and method of teaching and education, so also — Allah be 
praised! — is its library. It contains a magnificent collection of old 
manuscripts and valuable academic books on numerous arts and sci- 
ences. When a man interested in any subject like faith and religion, 
history and biography, geography and science, logic and philosophy, 
literature and belles-letters, enters this library, he feel as if he has 
come into a beautiful fragrant garden where every flower and every bud 
are perfuming his soul and every beam of light is brightening his 
thought and insight. 



384 

In connection with this session this "academic treasure" (library) of 
the Dar al-Ulum had been tastefully rearranged and some costly and eye- 
catching additions had been made to its buildings. A wide gallery had 
been added on all the four sides of the library building and an academic 
exhibition had been arranged in this gallery every corner of which was 
introducing the 117-year old academic and practical services of the Dar 
al-Ulum, Deoband, in a cogent style. 

The entrant first passed through the "Babe Qasim" like which there 
were six other important doors, namely, Bab-e Rasheed, Bab-e Mahmud, 
Bab-e Anwar Shah, Bab-e Ashraf Ali, Bab-e Madam and Bab-e Tayyib. The 
biographical sketches and achievements of these great personalities had 
been written on these doors in bold letters. On the walls in the inner 
galleries were hanging maps of all the states of India, showing the 
district-wise number of the graduates of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 
Below them were fixed many charts respectively. Reading the names of 
"experts" of various sciences in these charts one felt that the Dar al- 
Ulum is an ocean in which pearls of various hues have been and are 
still being reared. In front of the turn where these scenes of the 
academic exhibition came to a close, the magnificent library of the Dar 
al-Ulum, consisting of more than a lakh of books, was spectacuiariy 
inviting the visitors, but before they entered the library they fixed their 
gaze at a map which related the whole history of the "Movement of the 
Silken Letters". In this map the Dar al-Ulum was shown inside a sun the 
rays of which were falling upon India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Afghanistan 
and Burma and were introducing the active warriors of this movement in 
each country. This map was so magnetic that the people stopped short 
before it involuntarily. This academic programme had been arranged by 
Maulana Zafeer al-Din and Maulana Abd al-Ra'uf A'ali; it was a fine 
picture of their academic taste. 

SEMINAR 

On this occasion of the centenary session a seminar was held on the 
topic of "Religious Education and Demands of the Present Age", and 
was presided over by the famours research-scholar of the country. Prof. 
Maulana Sa'eed Ahmed Akbarabadi, member of the Majlis-e Shura. 

The first sitting of this seminar was held on 22 March at 3-00 p.m., and 
the second after the Isha prayer. Some able authors of the country took 
part in this seminar and read their thoughful and scholarly dissertations. 
Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi presided over the second sitting. 



385 

The duties of conducting the seminar were discharged by Maulana Qazi 
Zayn al-A'bidin, member of the Majlis-e Shura. The spacious hall of the 
Dar al-Hadith in the Dar al-Ulum was packed to capacity with men of 
knowledge and taste. 

ASIA, AFRICA, EUROPE & AMERICA 

DELEGATIONS AND REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE ARAB LANDS, 

THE WORLD OF ISLAM AND OTHER COUNTRIES 

From King Khalid and other organisations and universities of Saudi 
Arabia had come five respectable delegations consisting of reputed 
academic, religious and official personalities. One of these delegations 
had been especially nominated by His Majesty the King. Its leader was Dr 
Abd Allah Abd al-Mohsin Turki, chancellor of Imam Muhammad bin Sa'ud 
University (Riyadh). He was representing the Saudi Government. The other 
four delegations were from Rabeta-e A'lam-e Islami, Riyadh University, 
Madina University and other institutions like Jamia-e Malik Abd al-Aziz 
and Idara-e Da'wat wa Irshad (Riyadh). 

Shaikh Yusuf Jasam al-Hajji, Minister of Awqaf, Kuwait, was the head 
of the delegation of his country Besides these, respectable and pre- 
stigeous delegations came from Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Libya, Iraq, 
Jordan, Syria, Iran, Pakistan (special representative of President Zia al- 
Haq, Justice Muhammad Afzal Chima, and the president's adviser, Hakim 
Muhammad Sa'eed Dehlavi, are noteworthy), West Germany, England, 
France, America, Banglas Desh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, South Africa, 
North Africa, Reunion, Kenya, Mauritius, Palestine, Qatar, Oman, 
Superintendent of the Masjid-e Aqsa of Palestine, Imam of the Ahmed 
bin Hanbal Mosque of Aleppo, Ex-Minister of Kuwait yusuf al-Rifa'i, 
superintendent of Sh'ion-e Islamia Shaikh Abd Allah al-Aqeel; an able 
professor from the Damascus University who had come with his wife 
and was very much pleased with the greatness and importance of the 
session; Chief Mufti Shaikh Kaftaru, the distinguished religious divine of 
Aleppo Abu Sauleh al-Harooni, and Maulana Muhammad Shamim, the man- 
ager of Madrasa-e Sauiatia, Mecca; Shaikh al-Hadith Maulana Muhammad 
Zakariya's son Maulana Muhammad Talha, and the director of the Tabhgh 
Party Maulana In'am al-Hasan Kandhlavi had also come to attend the 
session. 



THE SACRED GIFT OF THE BUKHARI SHARIF 

FROM THE RUSSIAN MUSLIMS 

The members of the Russian Muslims' Delegation that came to attend 
the centenary session had brought a big and costly Russian carpet and 
three copies of the Bukhari Sharif for the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. The 
leader of the delegation presented these gifts to the vice-chancellor. 

THE DIGNIFIED DELEGATIONS AND REPRESENTATIVES 
FROM ARABIA 

Six delegations of Saudi Arabia consisting of high ranking academic 
and official personalities. 

SAUDI ARABIA: 
DELEGATION 1.:— 

Special representative of His Majesty 

King Khalid bin Abd al-Aziz and 

leader of the delegation Dr. Abd Chancellor Imam Muhammad 

Allah Abd al-Mohsin Turki : bin Saud University (Riyadh) 

Dr. Abd al-Rahman Rasi. 

Dr. Sauleh al-Sadani : Professor, Faculty of Agriculture. 

Prof. Waleed Umar. 

DELEGATION 2. :— 

Shaikh Usman al-Sauleh, Editor "Al-Bahuth al-lslamiyya". 
DELEGATION 3. :— 

Madina University (Saudi Arabia): — 

Leader of the Delegation : Dr Abd Allah al-Za'id, vice-chancellor 
Madina University, Madina. 

Members : Shaikh Abd Allah al-Fawzan, second vice-chancellor, 
Madina University. 

Shaikh Abd al-Samad al-Katib, Professor 



DELEGATION 4.: 

IDARAT AL-BAHUTH AL-'ILMIYATA WAL-IFTA WAL-DAWAT WAL-IRSHAD 
(RIYADH) 

Muhammad bin Ibrahim Director, External 

al-Qa'ud : Missionary Affairs. 

Abd al-Aziz bin Director, Maktab 

Nasir bin Baz : al-Ra'ees al-A'am. 

DELEGATION 5. : 

RABETA-E A'LAM-E ISLAMI : 

Shaikh Ali Muhammad Mukhtar Assistant General Secretary, International 

Supreme Council for Mosques. 
Muhammad Mahmud Hafiz : Head, Dept. of Journalism, 

Rabeta-e A'lam-e Islami. 



DELEGATION 6. : 

Jamiat al-Malik Abd al-Aziz (Jeddah) : 

Dr Kamil Salamah : Professor, Dept. of Islamic & 

Literary Sciences. 

S'a Kh Ibrahim Representative, 

'■■--ammad Sarseeq : "Al-Madina" Journal. 

:-3nourable Shaikh Muhammad Hafiz al-Qazi, Chief Justice, High Court, 
.waaina. 

KUWAIT GOVERNMENT 

te3c:e- of the Delegation : Honourable yusuf Jasam al-Hajji, Minister of 
Awqaf-e Islami, Kuwait. 

we-oers of the Delation : Shaikh Abd Allah al-Aqeel, Director, Islamic 
Affairs concerning the Ministry. 

•" -d sa a -Muqhavi, Director, Maktab al-Vazier. 



Leader of the Delegation : 

Yusuf al-Sayyid al-Hashim al-Rifa'i, Head, "Ma'had al-lman", 

Aud AM al-Khamees, 

Abd al-Lateef, 

Imam e Masjid al-'Alban, 

Anwar Ibrahim al-Rifa'i. 



Prof. Abd al-Aziz al-Falah, representative of "Jami'at al-lslah al-ljtema'i". 

REPUBLIC OF SYRIA:— 

Mufti Ahmed Kaftaru, Chief Mufti of the Republic of Syria and head of the 
Supreme Council of the Court. 

Prof. Mahmud Kaftaru, head of the Islamic Mission 

Dr Adrian Zarzor, Kuliyat al-Shari'ah University, Damascus. 

Dr Aqbalat al-Dactoor Zarzor. 

Shaikh Badr al-Din Abu Sauleh, Imam of the Ahmed bin Hanbal Mosque, 
Aleppo. 

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ: 

Nuri Mulla Huwaish, President Rabeta-e Ulama. 

Shaikh Sa'di Yasin. 

Representative of the Iraq Embassy. 

THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN • 

Shaikh As'ad Bayuz al-Ta'mimi, Assistant Manager, Masjid-e Aqsa. 
Prof. Khan Taisir al-Zabyan, Editor, 'Al-Shari'ah" journal. 

SULTANATE OF OMAN :— 

Al-Mufti Ahmed bin Muhammad al-Khalili, Chief Mufti, of the Sultanate of 
Oman. 

Al-Shaikh Abd Allah bin Samad bin Saif al-Bu Sa'eedi. 

Shaikh Salim Sa'eed al-Hajari,- Third Secretary, Embassy of Oman. 

Shaikh Husain Abd Allah Mulhiq Dalumasi, Embassy of Oman. 



SYRIA— DAMASCUS: — 

Al-Haaj Taufiq Rajab. 
ABU DHABI — 

Shaikh Mahmud Ahmed al-Qays, Head of the Training Centre of the 
Family of the Amir of U. A. E 

Maulana Dr Taqi al-Dm, Representative of the Head of the Legal Dept., 
Abu Dhabi 

AL-SHARIQAH (U. A. E.) :— 

Shaikh Ah Bin Sauleh al-Huweiti, Representative, Islamic Mission Centre. 
Shaikh Nakar Idris al-Yusuf, Secretary, Islamic Mission Centre. 
Hasan bin Husain : young member. 

REPUBLIC OF LIBYA: 

Shaikh Kamal al-Muntasir 
Shaikh Doctor Sa'eed al-Lazabi. 



Dr. Yusuf al-Qarzavi, Head of the Dept. of Darasat-e Islamiya, Jamia-e 
Qatar. 

DELEGATION OF THE WORLD STUDENTS 

REPUBLIC OF EGYPT: 

Dr Abd al-Mun'im, Minister of Awqaf of Egypt. 

Shaikh Abd al-Basit Abd al-Samad, World-famous Qari. 

Abd al-Mau'ti Muhammad Beumi, Editor "Mibar al-lslam" journal. 

Dr. Muhammad al-Mahjub, Prof, in Jamia-e Ayn-e Shams, Cairo. 

Abd al-Jalil Muhammad Munir. 

Prof. Kamal al-Faraj. 

Prof. Kamal al-Yumn. 

TASHKENT : 

Dr. Yusuf Khan Shakirov, Vice-chancellor, Religious Institute of Middle East 

and Qazaqistan. 

Shaikh-e Azam Ah Akbarov, Director. 



390 

ENGLAND: 

Member : 

Dr. F. H. Bhatti, Representative, Islamic Centre, London. 

Karamat Shaikh, Markaz al-Nashr al-Buhuth al-lslamiah bil-Kuwait. 

AMERICA :— 

Sayyid Muhammad Ihtesham Kazimi, Representative from U. S. A. 

JOURNALISTS' WELCOME TO THE SESSION 

The newspapers in and out side the country, too, have displayed 
intense concern with and interest in this session. Several esteemed news- 
papers and journals published special bulky editions in a grand style. Of 
these the monthly Tajalli (Deoband), newspaper Da'wat (Delhi), the daily 
Al-Jami'at (Delhi), the daily Qaumi Awaz (Lucknow), the weekly Hujum 
(Delhi), Isha'at-e Haq (Deoband), Nagar Ispat (Deoband), and the 
Deoband Times are noteworthy. The Hindi Dharmayug also published an 
informative article in connection with the history and introduction of the 
Dar al-Ulum. 

The important, famous and esteemed newspapers and journals of the 
Arab world like Al-Balagh, Rabeta-e Islami, Al-Madina (Jeddah), etc, 
also published articles regarding the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, and its 
centenary session. The newspapers of Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Calcutta, 
Hyderabad, Bangalore, Bihar, Patna, Maharashtra, etc. issued informative 
articles in connection with the Dar al-Ulum. The Times of India (of both 
Delhi and Ahmedabad) had published an article on the Dar al-Ulum as 
well as news of the Indian prime-minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi's 
attendance. 

THE VARIOUS COMMITTEES FORMED FOR THE PREPARATION FOR THE 
CENTENARY SESSION 

1. CORRESPONDENCE COMMITTEE:— 

Convener: Maulana Sayyid Azhar Shah Qaisar. 
Member .Maulana Muhammad Zafeer al-Din. 

2. RAPPORT COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasimi. 

Members : Maulana Waheed al-Zaman, Maulana Badr al-Hasan, Maulana 
Abd al-Khaliq, Maulana Riyasat Ali. 



391 

3. LAND REQUISITION COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Maulana Sayyid Azhar Shah Qaisar. 

Members : Maulana Muhammad Usman, Haji Jameel Ahmed Numberdar, 
Shaikh Muhammad Masoom Nabi, Munshi Nawab Husain, 
Muhammad Azhar Siddiqui, Sayyid Zahid Hasan Munsarim 
of Awqaf, Patwari Khalil al-Rahman. 

4. PANDAL COMMITTEE :— 
Convener : Maulana Waheed al-Zaman. 

Members : Maulana Me'raj al-Haq, Maulana Qamar al-Din, Maulana 
Mahmud Ahmed Gul, Contractor Abd al-Hameed. 

5. CAMPING COMMITTEE :— 

Convener : Maulana Khurshid A'lam. 

Members : Maulana Muhammad Husain Bihari, Maulana Waheed al- 
Zaman, Maulana Shakil Ahmed, Maulana Sa eed Ahmed 
Palanpuri, Qan Abd Allah Saleem. 

6. PROGRAMME COMMITTEE :— 

Convener ■ Maulana Me'raj al-Haq. 

Members : Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasimi, Maulana Anzar Shah, 

Maulana Waheed al-Zaman, Maulana Badr al-Hasan, Maulana 

Azhar Shah Qaisar. 

7. FOOD COMMITTEE :— 

Convener : Maulana Qamar al-Din. 

Members :Mau. Muhammad Husain Bihari, Mau. Khurshid A'lam, Mau. 
Abd al-Haq Peshkar, Mau. Muhammad Zafeer al-Din, Mau. 
Shakil Ahmed, Mau. Mahmud Ahmed Gul, Mau. Sa'eed 
Ahmed Palanpuri, Munshi Irfan al-Hasan, Munshi Mazhar al- 
Haq, Hafiz Akhlaq Ahmed. 

8. RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Mau. Waheed al-Zaman. 

Members: Mau. Me'raj al-Haq, Mau. Muhammad Na'eem, Azhar 
Siddiqui, Mau. Bilal Asghar, Contractor Abd al-Hameed 



392 

9. LODGING COMMITTEE (FOR FOREIGN GUESTS) :— 

Convener : Mau. Azhar Shah Qaisar. 

Mau. Muhammad Aslam Qasirni, Mau. Abd Allah Javed, Muhammad 

Azhar Siddiqui. 

10. TURBAN-PREPARATION COMMITTEE :- 
Convener : Mau. Khurshid A'lam. 

Members: Mau. Muhammad Na eem, Mau. Abd al-Haq Peshkar, Mau. 
Mufti Zafeer al-Din. 

11. PRINTING COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Mau. Badr al-Hasan. 

Members: Mau. Riyasat All, Maulavi Muhammad Islam, Mau. Abd al- 

Ra'uf A'ali, Munshi Muhammad Atiq, Mau. Abd al-Khaliq, 

Mr Nasim Parveez. 

12. ORGANISERS OF THE CENTENARY SESSION:— 

Mau. Muhammad Aslam Qasirni, Chief Orsaniser. 

Mau. Azhar Shah Qaisar, Organiser. 

Mau. Abd Allah Javed, Orsaniser. 

Mau. Waheed al-Zaman, Organiser. 

Mau. Muhammad Salim Qasirni, Organiser. 

Mau. Khurshid A'lam, Organiser. 

Mau. Qan Abd Allah Saleem, Organiser. 

Mau Qamar al-Din, Organiser. 

Mau. Badr al-Hasan, Organiser. 

Mau. Mahmud Ahmed Gul, Organiser. 

Mau. Zafeer al-Din, Organiser. 

Mau. Azhar Siddiqui, Organiser. 

13. SUPPLY COMMITTEE :— 

Convener : Mau. Mahmud Ahmed Gul. 
Members : Azhar Siddiqui 

Babu Naresh Kumar 

Thakur Shiyam Kumar 

ishrat Rahmani Usmani 

Arshad Hasan Usmani 

Abd al-Aleem Khan 



14. DINING HALL COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Qari Abd Allah Saleem. 

Members: Mau. Rahat Hashlmi, Azhar Siddiqui, Maulavi Dilshad 
Ahmed, Mr. Qamar A'lam Kazmi, Sayyid Zahid Hasan 
Munsarim, Maulavi Muhammad Safian Qasimi, Hafiz Adnan 
Qasimi. 

15. SEMINAR COMMITTEE:— 

Convener :Mau. Abd al-Khaliq. 
Member :Qan Sa'eed A'lam. 

16. ARRANGEMENT FOR THE FOOD OF NON-MUSLIMS:— 

Convener : Mau. Shakil 

Member :Hamid Tehsin, Babu Shiyam Kumar, Babu Naresh Kumar. 

17. ELECTRICITY, LOUD-SPEAKER & WATER ARRANGEMENT:— 

Maulavi Irshad Ahmed Usmani, Munshi Fzal llahi. 

18. ARRANGEMENT FOR THE STAY OF AFRICAN GUESTS:— 

Mau. I'jaz Ahmed Qasimi, Mau. Mahmud Ahmed Gul. 

19. VOLUNTEERS COMMITTEE:— 

Mau. Muhammad Salim Qasimi, Mau. Muhammad Na'eem. 

20. TRANSPORT COMMITTEE :— 

Convener : Mau. Shakil Ahmed. 
Member : Mau. Nisar Ahmed. 

21. PRESS COMMITTEE:— 

Convener : Master Tufail Ahmed, Principal, Islamia School, Deoband. 
Members :Mau. Abd Allah Javed, Thakur Shiyam Kumar, Mr Hamid Tehsin. 

22. DAR AL-ULUM PRESS :— 

The workers of the Dar al-Ulum Press also worked sincerely day and 
night in printing receipt-books, booklets, envelopes, hand-bills, cards and 
other necessary papers like letter-pads, etc. and did not let any work to 
be delayed at any cost. In this connection it would amount to usurping a 
right not to admit that Mau. Muhammad Aslam Qasimi co-operated in 
time and did not in the least hesitate in providing all sorts of facilities. 



DISPATCH OF INVITATION CARDS TO THE GRADUATES 

The entire work of dispatching invitation cards to thousands of 
graduates in time, the entry of their new addresses in the registers and 
the sifting of various details and matters in this connection, and, 
moreover, the arrangement and preparation of new lists and the printing 
of envelopes etc., was all done under the supervision of Muhammad 
Azhar Siddiqui, manager of the Dar al-Ulum Press. Thank Allah that He 
bestowed upon the present compiler the grace to remain engrossed in 
the works of the Centenary Session day and night to the exclusion of 
every other work from his mind. The packing and dispatch of posters 
and all relevant literature through post was also done under his 
supervision. 

OTHER IMPORTNT MATTERS 

This is also Allah's special favour that He caused the present- 
- compiler to execute several other works in connection with the Cente- 
nary Session; e.g., the efforts of this humble self in obtaining diesel, 
petrol, kerosene oil, sugar etc. from the U.P. Government at control rates 
were made successful by Allah Most High. Through the extremely 
sincere co-operation of Mrs Rita Sharma, Mr S. K. Mukerji, Mr Nandji Ram 
and Mr Subramaniam, secretaries of the Food Supplies Department, 
essential articles had been made available so abundantly in the whole 
district that there was not felt shortage of anything and for the require- 
ment of the Dar al-Ulum also sugar, ghee, diesel etc. .could be had at 
control rates in abundant quantities. 

Similarly the Electric Board had demanded Rs. 538,000 for supplying 
electric connections upto the place of function and to get the Dar al- 
Ulum exempted from this a good deal of effort was made. The then 
Power Minister had also issued orders but, at last, it was through the 
effort of this humble self that Mr Pant, S. E., Dist. Saharanpur, was made 
to order on 16 March and Mr Pant, with sympathy and interest, got this 
work of the Dar al-Ulum accomplished. The truth is that all the above- 
named persons and officers of the district deserve to be thanked pro- 
fusely that they co-operated with the Dar al-Ulum and its affairs with 
extreme sincerity. 

MEMBERS OF THE PRESENT MAJLIS-E SHURA OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

Praise be to Allah that the Majlis-e Shura of the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, consists of distinguished thinkers, men of accomplishments 



395 

and members of the group of ulema of the country. The names of these 
respectable members of the Majlis whose counsels and plentiful senti- 
ments are also certainly included in the holding of this Centenary Session, 
are as follows : — 

1. Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Deoband 

2. Mau. Mufti Atiq al-Rahman Usmani, Delhi. 

3. Mau. Dr Mustafa Hasan Alavi, Lucknow. 

4 Mau. Habib al-Rahman A'zami, Azamgarh. 

5. Mau. Sa'eed Ahmed Akbarabadi, Aligarh. 

6. Mau. Sayyid Minnat Allah Rahmani, Monghyr. (Bihar). 

7. Mau. Qazi Zayn al-A'bidin Meeruthi, Meemt. 

8. Mau. Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi, Bombay. 

9. Mau. Marghub al-Rahman, Bijnor. 
10 Mau. Mufti Abu Sa'ud, Bansalore. 

11. Mau. Manzoor Naumani, Lucknow. 

12. Mau. Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi, Lucknow. 

13. Mau. Muhammad Sa'eed Suzurg, Surat. 

14. Mau. Abd al-Qadir, Malegaon 

15. Mau. Abd al-Haleem, Jaunpur. 

16. Mau. Hakim Muhammad Zaman, Calcutta. 

17. Mau. Hakim Ifham Allah, Aligarh. 



THANKSGIVING 

The interest the Urdu and English Press of India and Pakistan evinced 
in the proceedinss of the Centenary Session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
the care with which they published its news, acd the forceful style in 
which they commented upon the proceedings and expressed their joy on 
the success of the session are all extremely pleasurable and thanks 
worthy, and are sratifying not only to the workers of the session but also 
to all the well-wishers of the Dar al-Ulum. 

After the session was over, Hakim al-islam Maulana Qari Muhammad 
Tayyib addressed a dignified gathering of the citizens of Deoband, the 
magistral staff and students of the Dar al-Ulum and the organisers and 
workers of the session in the hall of the historical Dar al-Hadith and 
thanked all those persons who extended their co-operation in this 
important, epoch-making session and discharged the dues of hospitality. 

Speaking with a voice choked with the sentiments of spiritualness and 
sincerity, he said ; "The sincerity and cheerfulness with which the citi- 
zens (irrespective of their religion and community) discharged the dues 
of hospitality for the visitors and reserved every house for the guests of 
the Dar al-Ulum, are far above the formal thanksgiving,- words cannot 
express the extent of thanks. We are all grateful from top to toe for this 
and with utmost sincerity pray that Allah Most High may favour all those 
persons who have served and helped the Dar al-Ulum in any way, with 
every kind of success!" 

He further said : "While this momentous gathering has added to the 
greatness of the Dar al-Ulum and augmented its fame, and has given it a 
new life and its academic and practicai achievements and its religious, 
social and reformative services have been talked about in all the corners 
of the world, it has at the same time exalted Deoband, the citizens of 
Deoband and the whole of India as well and has boosted the prestige 
and reputation of its inhabitants." 

STATEMENTS OF THE JUDICIOUS 

The honourable Mr Shaikh Muhammad Abdullah, chief-minister of 
Jammu & Kashmir, writes in a letter he addressed to the vice-chancellor, 
Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, as follows: — 

"In my view the Dar al-Ulum is not merely an educational institution,- 



it is rather a vital Islamic movement. This movement has guided us not 
only in the past but it can also help us in clarifying the designs of the 
future. I have obtained details of the functions of the centenary celebra- 
tion throush various means, and the more I have known these the more I 
have felt spiritual and hearty pleasure. This is indeed the result of the 
individual and collective efforts of your own respectable self and your 
colleagues that these celebrations organised on such a large scale 
ended so nicely. Kindly convey my compliments and congratulations to 
all your colleagues. 

The Minister of Awqaf of Kuwait, on reaching Kuwait, told the news- 
papermen there that this session was a grand demonstration of the 
prestige and honour of the Indian Muslims and the Dar al-Ulum, 
Deoband, in the entire Islamic world; and it was providing an adequate 
proof of the fact as to what good condition our Muslim brethren are in 
in India and what glorious services they ere rendering to Islam. 

The famous newspaper of the Arab and Islamic world, Al-Balagh, 
wrote in its latest issue that 

"the huge number of Muslim ulema, scholars and savants who 
participated in the centenary session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, 
shows as to what the rank of the 117-year old religious services of the 
Dar al-Ulum is and what a high position and rank they have in the heart 
and mind of the Muslims of the world". 

THE CO-OPERATION OF THE OFFICERS AND 

ADMINISTRATORS OF SAHARANPUR DISTRICT 

The district magistrate of Saharanpur and the S. D. M of Deoband 
and all other officers were very kind in extending the fullest co- 
operation in all the works connected with the centenary session. The 
Municipal Board of Deoband, officers of the Electric Department and all 
other officers deserve thanks from the Dar al-Ulum. 

On the occasion of the session the Health Department also worked 
appreciably well. Mr Gupta, C. M. O., Saharanpur, Dr G. R. Sharma, 
Medical Officer, Saharanpur, and all their doctor-colleagues, deserve our 
heartfelt thanks for their unremitting labour and earnestness day and 
night. 



398 

A FIFTY-YEAR PERIOD OF ADVANCEMENTS 

THE PRESENT VICE-CHANCELLOR OF THE DAR AL-ULUM 

HAKIM AL-ISLAM HAZRAT MAULANA QARI MUHAMMAD TAYYIB 

It is a matter of great pleasure and gratification that during this de- 
generating period when moral and spiritual values are being adversely 
affected by the revolutions of time and the world is getting the poorer 
by the demise of great academical and religious personalities, the 
office of the vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum is being graced by 
such an outstanding and respectable, great and holy personality whose 
eruditition, morals and nobleness, administrative abilities, and spiritual 
glory and holiness are acknowledged and witnessed by millions of 
men. 

Indubitably Hazrat Halqm al-lslam Maulana Qan Muhammad Tayyib, 
vice-chancellor of the Dar aMJIum, Deoband, is a great embodiment of 
knowledge and action, religion and rectitude. He is a depository of the 
glories, knowledge and academic attainments of his ancestors. In and 
outside India he commands a wide domain of acquaintanceship and a 
high position due to his remarkable influences. He is at present con- 
sidered a nonpareil, top-notch and stylish orator in the Islamic world. 
There is in his language an absorption, an effect — such an effect that 
every word that comes out of his graceful tongue goes on sinking into 
the hearts of the audience. A silver tongued speaker as he is, his sweet, 
subtle and light tone and his internationally great personality dominate 
over any gathering however big it may be. He is the author of more than 
one hundred important and useful academic books. 

To turn the thorny field of discord and dissension and the bitterness 
of mutual contention into an atmosphere of accord and unity through 
his sweet words and lofty character is his distinguishing feature. A 
whole world is convinced of his sanctity and greatness and all — the 
antagonists as well as the concordant — feel constrained to admit the 
fact that the Hakim al-lslam has attained to that lofty position of for- 
bearance, nobleness, simplicity, humility, simple-mindedness, harmless 
method of work, tolerance and clemency where every one cannot afford 
to reach. Persian couplet: 

'This felicity is not achieved through the power of the arm (i.e., 
physical exertion) — as long as the Munificent Lord may not bestow it'. 



399 

It is a special favour and obligation of the Real Doer of works that, 
in this delicate, rather burning and smouldering period, this great institu- 
tion is lucky in being headed by a guide who, in these unfavourable 
conditions and from the mid-stream of disaccord, has piloted the boat 
of this establishment of knowlege towards the shore of progress, has 
rendered glorious exploits for its development and advancement and 
made a history with his determination and action, sincerity and self- 
denying. It is a history which bespeaks self-evidently that to discharge 
one's duties efficiently, large-heartedly and cheerfully in the midst of the 
crowd of roughs and smooths, bitternesses and unpleasant happenings 
is the work of that great personality whose illustrious name is Maulana 
Qari Muhammad Tayyib and whom the world of Islam takes pride in 
remembering as Hazrat Hakim al-lslam. Urdu couplet: 

'Though the wind is swift and violent, he has kept his lamp alight — 
that dervish-man whom God has endowed with royal manners'. 

He has vowed allegiance at the Truth-adoring hand of Hazrat Shaikh al- 
Hind Maulana Mahmud Hasan, the detenue of Malta, and is one of the 
well-guided successors (khalifas) of Hazrat Hakim al-Ummat Maulana As- 
hraf Ali Thanvi (may his secret be sanctified!). Thousands of the slaves of 
Allah in India and Pakistan have vowed allegiance on his Truth-adoring 
hand and are benefitting from his spiritual graces and blessings (barakat). 

Besides India and Pakistan the gamut of his influence extends upto 
Afghanistan, Burma, the holy Hejaz, Jordan, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Aden, 
Rhodesia, Tanganiyka, Zanzibar, Madagascar, Reunion, Ethiopia, East 
Africa, South Africa and to the far off lands and countries like England, 
France and America. He has travelled to all these countries and has 
acquainted millions of men to the Dar al-Ulum. During the auspicious te- 
nure of his office the message of the Dar al-Ulum reached upto England 
and America; he made trips to these countries and received financial 
a-d (from the people) for the Dar al-Ulum. From amongst the authorities 
of the Dar al-Ulum Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib is the first august 
idO who has travelled to so many countries and has, during his peregri- 
"■anons, acquainted the peoples thereof with the religious and academic 
services of the Dar al-Ulum. 

Every page of the history of the last fifty years is admitting the fact 
tnat during the tenure of office of Hakim al-lslam Maulana Muhammad 
a.*- □ Qasimi there have been phenomenal and appreciable progress 
3"Q advancements in every field and every aspect of this establishment 



400 

of knowledge and gnosis, this headspring of light and wisdom — the 
strength of students, the figures of aid to students, the building of addi- 
tional rooms in the students' hostel alone, sufficient addition in the 
number of lecture-halls, the beginning and then the continuous addition 
in the facilities for supply of light and water. Besides this, this too is a 
bright aspect and constructive section of Hazrat Hakim al-lslam's resplen- 
dent regime that the Jamia-e Tibbia came into being drumg his tenure. 
Graduates of the Dar al-Ulum are taught and trained here without being 
charged any fess in the Unani and the English systems of medicine and 
after being given the due clinical training and exercise in the art of heal- 
ing they are made such accomplished physicians who can easily treat 
patients and thus provide for themselves a reasonable and respectable 
means of livelihood. There are today countless young men who, having 
received education and training in the art of medicine from the Jamia-e 
Tibbia of the Dar al-Ulum, are rendering the most excellent services to 
the creatures of Allah as experts in the science of feeling the pulse and 
as skilful physicians. 

Similarly, the holding of the present session of the Dar al-Ulum during 
his period of vice-chancellorship is such a history-making and epochal 
event that its utility has been felt in the entire Islamic world; and which 
has prepared new roads for the unity of the millat and propagation of 
Islam and has bestowed upon this institution such a lofty position in the 
whole world that its effects, Allah willing, will be very far-reaching and 
durable. 

Hazrat Hakim al-lslam is not only the head of the Dar al-Ulum but is 
also the founder 'and animus of hundreds of religious and Arabic 
madrasahs. He is a patron and member of many important educationa 
institutions. He was a member of the Muslim University Court and has 
been a member of the Sunni Central Waqf Council for a long time. 

At no time he has given up his line of teaching, his innumerable 
preoccupations notwithstanding. Important books of different subjects 
are always being taught by him. During his stay in Deoband he regularly 
benefits the students, in his sagacious manner, with the sciences of the 
Quran and the Hadith.' 

TOUR OF ARAB COUNTRIES 

A delegation under the leadship of Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasimi, 
professor of Hadith and Tafsir in the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, touring the 



401 

Arab countries and certain states of the Arab Emirates, acquainted the 
people with the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. The delegation met the dignified 
and distinguished personalities, statesmen and politicians, and men of 
knowledge and accomplishments of these countries and invited them to 
attend this international session, explaining to them in a dignified manner 
its importance and utility. This delegation went to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, 
Qatar and several other states of the United Atab Emirates and was 
warmly welcomed everywhere. Newspapers and periodicals published 
Maulana Muhammad SalirrTs interviews and statements. Similarly, the 
details of the coming of the delegation of the Dar al-Ulum, and news, 
features and interviews comprising the glorious services of the Dar al- 
Ulum, Deoband, were broadcast in those places on radio and television. 
In this tour of the Arab countries Maulana Badr al-Hasan, editor of the 
newspaper al-Da'i and a don of the Dar al-Ulum, accompained Maulana 
Muhammad Salim. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, WATER & LOUD-SPEAKER 

To make suitable arrangement of light in such a magnificent, wide and 
spacious pandal, forty camps, bazars, hotels, book-stalls, camps and 
tents of various departments, etc., extending over a vast area,- and a 
proper arrangment of water for as many as twenty lakhs of people was 
no less important work. Similarly, the arrangement of loudspeakers over 
such a vast area whereby people staying at distant places may easily hear 
the proceedings of the function was a very difficult, arduous and soul- 
consuming task. But a sincere worker of the Dar al-Ulum, Maulavi Irshad 
Ahmed Usmani (Electric Department), along with his compeers like 
Munshi Fazl llahi, etc., executed these lengthy works lightsomely and skil- 
fully, labouring day and night. It was as a result of his hard working that 
the arrangement of light and water and loud-speakers in the general 
camp, place of function, camps of the graduates, the spacious dining- 
hall, and in all other lodges, buildings and rooms was satisfactory, rather 
praiseworthy. 

RAILWAY HALT 

As a result of Maulana Muhammad Aslam's and Maulavi Abd Allah 
Javed's efforts and painstaking the Central Railway Ministry also fully co- 
operated with the centenary session. It issued orders to issue railway 
concession tickets to the graduates and other guests. Similarly, the Rail- 
way Department built a temporary railway halt which greatly facilitated 
the arrival of the guests, adjoining the Qasimpur railway-crossing, near the 
pandal and camp of the centenary session. 



402 

A number of booking-offices were opened at the Deoband railway- 
station where tickets were available all the twenty-four hours. Besides this 
the railway department also made this arrangement that it assigned duty 
to its staff in the camp itself so that ascertaining from the people they 
could prepare single tickets for groups of ten and twenty persons and 
thus the latter could get the tickets conveniently. 

ISSUE OF A COMMEMORATIVE POSTAL STAMP 

This historical commemorative of this historic session is also particu- 
larly noteworthy that as a memorial on this occasion of the centenary 
session of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, the Government of India issued a 
special postal stamp. This commemorative stamp on which there is a 
beautiful picture of the grand and stately building of the Dar al-Hadith 1 in 
the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, was released on the first day of the session at 
8-00 a. m. in the historical building of the Navdarah, which is the earliest 
auditorium of the Dar al-Ulum, at the auspicious hands of the respectable 
vice-chancellor. 

INTRODUCTORY LITERATURE 

On this occasion the Printing Committee appointed by the Centenary 
Session Office got printed, with great care, nearly 150 brochures in which 
the services of the Dar al-Uium, Deoband, have been mentioned under 
different captions. This literature was published in Urdu, Arabic, English 
and Hindi and on the occasion of the session was especially presented 
to all the graduates. 

THE CENTRAL RAPPORT COMMITTEE, DELHI 



Patron : Maulana Mufti Atiq al-Rahman Usmani. 

Member : Muhammad Shafee Quraishi, Ex-minister for Tourism and Navy. 

Muhammad Yunus Saleem, M. P. 

Sayyid Shahabuddin, M. P. 

Maulana Sayyid Ahmed Hashimi, M. P. 



1 It is a fine co-incidence that the directors of the Sahitya Mudranalaya, Ahmedabad, Mr 
Vishnu S. Pandya and his two sons, Shreyas and Yagnesh, as well as the artist of the said 
press selected the picture of the same building for the covef of the first volume of the 
History of the Dar al-Ulum Deoband. (Translator). 



403 

Members : Maulana Imdad Sabiri, Deputy Mayor, Delhi. 

Al-Haaj Qari Muhammad Idris, Khateeb and Imam, 
Jam'e Masjid, Parliament Street, New Delhi. 

Sayyid Sa'eed Murtaza, M. P. 

Rasheed Mas'ud, M. P. 

Maulana Akhlaq Husain Qasimi. 

Maulana Faqihuddin, Municipal Counciller, Delhi. 

Maulana Mufti Zia al-Haq, Manager Madrasa-e Ammia, Delhi. 

Nawab Zafar Jung, Delhi. 

Maulavi Sayyid Rahat Ali, Graduate of Deoband. 

Sayyid Ijaz Ahmed, (Convener, Rapport Committee, Delhi). 

FUND-COLLECTION FOR THE CENTENARY SESSION 

In connection with the centenary session the most arduous and 
important work was that of fund-collection. When Maulana Muhammad 
Aslam Qasimi was made manager for the arrangements of the centenary 
session, there was not even an ordinary capital in the Centenary Session 
Fund. He, therefore, borrowed a sum of fifty thousand rupees from the 
Dar al-Ulum for the session and started the work with the Name of the 
Eternal Lord. First of all some teachers of the Dar al-Ulum embarked on 
journey and started collecting contributions for the session with great 
labour and earnestness. 

Ordinarily there are innumerable sincere co-operators and well- 
wishers of the Dar al-Ulum who very sincerely collected contributions 
for this historic session and every man, according to his own aspiration 
and high-mindedness, gave more and more contribution, but there are 
also those people who fully co-operated with the teachers of the Dar 
al-Ulum etc. in raising funds in their respective circles of influence. All 
such gentlemen too deserve thanks from the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, the 
Deoband group and all the workers of the centenary session. Allah 
willing, they will all be awarded with great recompense, reward and 
prosperity in both the worlds from the Court of the Lord of Honour! 

Here are being mentioned the names of only those gentlemen who 
undertook travels on behalf of the Dar al-Ulum and collected lakhs of 
rupees from different resions. May Allah Most Glorious bestow upon all 
of them the choicest great rewards! 



404 

Hazrat Hakim al-lslam Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib unay his 
shadow never grow less!), vice-chancellor of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband. 
Maulana Naseer Ahmed Khan ; Maulana Sayyid As'ad Madani; Maulana Abd 
al-Ahad, Maulana Sayyid Irshad Ahmed, the chief preacher of the Dar al- 
Ulum; Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasimi; Maulana Muhammad Husain 
Bihari, Professor of Hadith and Tafsir; Maulana Waheed al-Zaman, professor; 
Maulana Me'raj al-Haq, professor, Maulana Anzar Shah, professor, Maulana 
Shakeel Ahmed, professor,- Maulana Qamaruddin, professor; Maulana Zuber 
Ahmed; Maulana Luqman al-Haq, professor; Maulana Saif Allah; Maulana 
Muhammad Khalid Balliavi; Maulana Muhammad Na'eem,- Maulana Aziz 
Ahmed Qasimi, B. A., ; Maulana Muhammad Isma'il, Maulavi Muhammad 
Yahaya, Maulana Qari Abdullah Saleem,head of the department of Tajvid; 
Maulana Zafeer al-Diri; Maulana Jameel Ahmed, teacher; Maulana Sharfud- 
din, envoy,- Maulana Bilal Asghar, preacher. 

INCOME & EXPENDITURE 

It should be adjudsed a great success of Maulana Muhammad Aslam 
Qasimi, the chief organiser, and other managers of the centenary session 
that in connection with such a gigantic work they did not let the real 
subscriptions of the Dar al-Ulum to be affected by it and continuously 
went on struggling to have so much income for the centenary session that 
after meeting all the expenses a sufficient balance might be left for the 
Dar al-Ulum. 

Praise be to Allah that as the result of this effort, endeavour and 
action the total income through the Centenary Session Office upto the 
middle of Rajab, A. H. 1400 was 

Rs. 8,692,497-00. 
Expenditure : Rs. 3,293,094-00. 

Balance : Rs. 5,399,403-00 

No doubt it is through the support of the infinite Mercy of that 
Magnimmous and Helpful Lord trust and reliance on Whose Holiest 
Being is the real capital of the Daral-Ulum. It is a reflection of the 
special invocations and spiritual concentrations of venerable august men, 
accomplished saints and men of sincerity, who remained busy day and" 
night in concentrating upon and invoking for this institution and the 
centenary session. And it is also a good fruit of the sincerity of intention 
of those workers of the said session who, from the very first day of 
inception, spent their best abilities on this that the expenses should be 



minimum and income be maximum so that it could be utilised also for 
the future works and projects of the Dar al-Ulum. 

DECORATION OF BUILDINGS & CONSTRUCTION-WORK 

A committee named "Decoration Committee" had been formed under 
the convenership of Maulana Waheed al-Zaman, a professor in the Dar al- 
Ulum. 

The work of decoration, cleanliness, change and construction in the 
buildings of the Dar al-Ulum was executed skilfully through this commit- 
tee. Maulana Waheed al-Zaman himself worked so strenuously day and 
night that it told upon his health; nevertheless, he kept working twenty 
to twenty-two hours daily, supervising different works. Hundreds of 
masons and labourers were busy in this work as the result of which 
many magnificent buildlings were constructed. The upper floor of the 
magnificent mosque of the Dar al-Ulum was built in modern style and a 
fine, imposing and high gate was built for this mosque which, due to its 
attractiveness, absorbs the people's attention and gives pleasure to look 
at. The construction of spacious galleries in the library-building, new 
construction of main gate of the Dar al-Ulum, addition of a number of 
new rooms in the hostel and several new auditoriums, are also valuable 
and prasieworthy. Similarly, addition in the height of the historical dome 
of the Dar al-Tafsir, construction of new turrets and suitable changes 
and additions in the old buildings and compounds, have all been 
appreciated and praised. Through, the special attention of the vice- 
chancellor and members of the Majlis-e Shura, and on account of 
Maulana Waheed al-Zaman's assiduousness, labour and aspiration, these 
gigantic works on which nearly 16 lakhs of rupees were spent could be 
accomplished and which, Allah willing, will be looked upon as an 
important memorial of the centenary session for a long time. 

THE LAST WORD 

This is a very short and brief report in which many things have been 
mentioned only briefly. It is hoped that, Allah willing, all the details that 
are not here will be included in the complete detailed report. It also 
needs to be mentioned here that in the foregone pages of this report 
there have appeared names of many such gentlemen who gave co- 
operation in different ways in the works of the session, but it should not 
be deemed that, besides them, other people are not worth mentioning. 
The fact rather is that all members of the magistral staff, all the 



functionaries of the Dar al-Ulum, all the students and all the helpers ana 
graduates of the Dar al-Ulum, deserve to be thanked in this connection 

May the Lord of Honour accept the services of all the people and 
bestow prosperity, success, honour and exaltation upon all of them in 
both the worlds — for the sake of the Chief of Apostles (on whom be 
Allah's peace and blessings!). Amen! 



Aal-e Hasan, Mau,, 360 
Abban, Shah, 23 
Abbasi, Farid Ahmed, Hakim, 24 
Abd al-Ahad, Maulana, 59, 404 

al-Ali, Mau., 28, 53, 184 

Lakhnavi, Hakim, Dr., 

Mau., 79 

Meeruthi, Mau. 26 

ftampuri, Mau., 27 

Allah al-Aqeel, Shaikh, 366, 385, 387 

al-Fawzan, Shaikh, 386 

al-Zaid, Dr., 367, 369 

Abd al-Mohsin Turki, Dr., Shaikh, 

357, 361, 362, 385, 386 

Ansari Anbathvi, Mau , 16, 37, 

127^ 

, Qari, 33. 

bin Samad bin Saif al-Bu 

Sa'eedi (Oman), 388 

Gangohi, Mau., 81. 

Javed, Mau., 353, 392, 393, 401 

Saleem, Mau., 353, 391-393, 404 

, Shaikh (Chief Minister, Jammu & 

Kashmir), (See Muhammad) 

, (9th Century hijri), 198 

Aziz al-Falah (Oman), Shaikh, 371, 388 

bin Nasir bin Baz 

(S. Arabia), 387 

Gujranwalvi, Mau, 59,99. 

Khan Lakhnavi, Hakim, 48 

Muhaddith Dehlavi, 

Shah, 4, 30, 115, 233 

Bari Farangimahli, Mau., 141, 262, 274, 

35o! 

Nadvi, Mau., 350 

, Qazi, 115. 

— Basit Abd al-samad, Qari (Egypt), 362, 

370, 389. 

— al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, Shaikh, 8, 264, 

300. 
■ Udah, Shaikh, 288 

— al-Ghaffar, Mau , 72, 88, 160. 

al-Ghafoor, Su'wati, Mau., Shaikh, 12 

al-Ghani Mujaddidi Dehlavi, Shah, 

126, 167, 169. 

Phulpuri, Mau 55, 82. 

Hafeez, Dr., 358, 

— — Hak Hamid (Turkish Consul), 293. 

Haleem Mahmud, Shaikh, 265, 312 

Halim, Mau., 238. 

— Hameed (contractor), 391. 

, Hakim (Hamdard Dawakhana 

Waqf, Delhi), 266, 317. 



Khan, Sultan (of Turkey), (see 

Khan) 

- Haq, Hafiz, 123. 

- Maulavi (Baba-e Urdu), 15. 

Haqqani (Akoda Khatak), 357, 

368 

- Khairabadi, Mau., 59, 55. 

- Muhaddith Dehlavi, Shaikh, 199. 

Peshkar, Mau., 6, 118, 353, 391, 

392 

- (Mau. Sindhi s emissary), 147, 

148. 
Pur Qazvi, Mau., 15, 16, 127. 

- al-Hayy Farouqi, Khwaja, 77, 116. 
Lakhnavi, Sayyid, Mau., Hakim, 

79, 197 232, 350, 351. 

- al-Jalil, Mau., Hakim, 37. 

Muhammad Munir, 389 

- al-Kafi, Maqbool, 266, 318. 
■ al-Karim, Sayyid, 74, 158. 

■ Dr. Julius Germanus, 263, 

277. 

■ Farogh, Mau., 392, 323, 350. 

al-Khaliq, Hafiz, 161 
■ Deobandi, Mau., 78, 392, 



Abdul Khaliq, Tan Sri Haji (High Commis- 
sioner), 265, 311 

Hamadani, 265, 310. 

al-Lateef or Latif, Mufti, 121. 

(Kuwait), 388 

, Hafiz, 15. 

(Burmese Minister), 

264, 291. 
Azami, Mau., Mufti, 



58. 
d Khan Dehlavi, Hakim, 31, 36, 



gl-Momin Deobandi, Mau., 35, 115 
al-Muizz Abd al-5attar (Qatar), 266, 

314. 
sl-Munim aUNamar, Shaikh, 357, 361, 

389. 
sl-Qadeer Deobandi, Mau. 23 
al-Qadir Amrohi, Hafiz, 117, 162 
Badauni (historian), 198, 199, 

351. 

Jilani Baghdadi, Shaikh, 348 

Maieganvi, Mau., 238 

Raipuri, Shah, 118. 

il-Qayyum Bhopali, Mau., 23. 



-, Shaikh, 147, 148. 

- Lajpuri, Sayyid, Mufti, 67. 

- Raipuri, Mau., 192, 340 

- Saharanpuri, Shaikh, 12 
i, (Editor, Kuwait), 313. 
-, Mufti, 193. 

-, Qari, 33. 

- Amrohi, 32. 

- Campbellpuri, Mau., 86 

- Khan Shatcir, 321 

- Rasi, Dr., 386 



-Ra'uf A'ali, 15, 353, 384, 392. 
-Razzaq, Hafiz, 13. 

Peshawari, Mau., 60. 

-Salam Israili, Mau., Mufti, 58. 

-Samad al-Katib, Shaikh, Prof., 386. 

-Sam'ee Deobandi, Mau , 59 

-Shakoor Deobandi, Mau., 78, 79. 

-Vahid, 262, 268. 

-Waheed, Qari, 33 

-Wahhab alias Hakim Nabina, 40. 

al-Najjar, 263 279 

Bihari, 61, 191. 



Abdullahpur (Dist. Meerut), 26. 
Abid Husain, Haji, 237. 
Abrar al-Haq, Mau., 360. 
Abu al-Nasr, Sayyid, Hakim, 84. 

Ayyub Ansari, Hazrat (Companio 

Hanifa, Imam, 4, 134, 192. 

Reesha, Omar, 265, 304 

Sa'ud, Mufti, Mau., 238, 395. 

■ Sauleh, Badr al-Din, Shaikh, 



Afriqi Building, 359. 

Afzalgarh (Dist. Sijnor), 1B9. 

Afzal al-Madaris (Shahjahanpur), 64 

Agra, 96, 112. 

Ahl-e Hadith Press, 45. 

Ahmedabad (Gujarat), 141, 390. 

Ahmed Ali Amritsari, Mau , 45 

— Saharanpuri Muhaddith Mau., 

23, 27, 31, 321. 
Allah Amritsari, Mau., 45. 

- Randeri, Mau., 67. 

- Shaheed, Qazi, 115 
-Amin, 209. 
-Ashraf Randeri, Mau., 67, 95. 

- Buzurg Surti, Mau., 66. 

- Ebrahim Bemaat, Mufti, 193. 

- Hasan, Hafiz, 1 1 
—Amrohi, Mau., 11, 21, 23, 26, 

32, 37, 47, 58, 

127, 170. 

Kanpuri, Mau, 43, 45, 55, 

133. 
— Simlaki, Mau., 67. 
I al-Din, Dr., 263, 284. 
meel, Mau., 401. 
n, Sayyid, Sir, 16, 232. 
n, Sayyid, Mau , Mufti (Nagpur), 

193. 

(See Ansari). 

- Reza Khan Bareillvi, Mau. 16, 43. 

- Sa'eed Dehelvi, Mau 54, 97. 

- al-Qays, Mahmud, Shaikh (U A.E.),, 
389 



bin 






(se 



Badr 



-Din). 



■ Tahir Kurdi, Shaikh, 200. 

Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi, Sayyid, Mau., 

80, 238, 351, 358, 367, 368, 384. 

Kalam Azad, Mau., 64, 71 , 1 07, 264, 290. 

Ma'ali (saint), 17. 

Achcharyan (Dist. Hazara), 67, 68 

'Adad, Qazi, 198, 199. 

Adam Binnori, Sayyid, 121 

Aden, 97. 

Afghan Govt., 63, 69, 72. 

Afghanistan, 21, 44, 47, 60, 63, 67, 72, 87, 

97, 127, 136, 138, HO, 

147,150, 177, 222, 248, 260, 

263, 264, 285,297, 290, 292, 

302,307, 372, 373, 382, 384. 

Africa, 11, 73, 98, 113, 160, 291, 360, 362. 

-, East, 97. 

, North, 359. 

, South, 66, 97, 103, 111, 150, 177, 

263, 276, 294, 359 



(Oman), 388 
Aftab, Sahibzadah, 256 
Akhlaq, Hafiz, 391. 
Dilshad, Mau., 393, 
Fakhr al-Din Ali, Presided 



266. 

Ghulam {Mujaddidi Naqshbandi 

Kabuli), Hazrat, 296. 
I'jaz, Sayyid, 403. 
Irshad, Sayyid, Mau., 404. 
Jameel, Haji (Numberdar), 391. 

, Mau., 404. 

Mukhtar, 358. 

Mushtaq, Hakim, 12. 

Nihal, Shafkh (see Nihal),12 

Nisar, Mau., 393. 

Sa'eed (American Neo Muslim), 303. 

(Pafanpuri), 391. 

Sayyid, Mau., 57, 58. 
Shakil, Mau., 391, 393, 404. 
Siddiq, Mau., 360. 
Tufail, Master, 393 
Zuber, Mau., 404. 



409 



Aibak, Qutb al-Din (King of Delhi), 86. 

Ajmal Khan Dehelvi, Muhammad, Hakim, 

Masih al-Mulk, 21, 36, 44, 8Q, 142, 262, 273. 

Ajmer, 74, 126, 158. 

Akbar (Mughal Emperor), 23, 199, 200. 

Akbarov, AM, Shaikh-e A'zam, 389. 

Akhtar Shirani (Urdu Poet), 83 

Alam, Sayyid, 74, 158 

Alavi, Mustafa Hasan, Dr , 90, 238, 395 

Aleem Allah, Mau , 26 

Aleppo (Syria), 311, 388. 

Ali Ameer Muizz, 264, 289 

— Asghar Hekmat (Iranian ambassador), 
264, 292. 

— bin Sauleh al-Huwaiti, Shaikh, 
■-- Brothers, 77, 

--- Muhammad Mukhtar, Shaikh, 364, 366, 
387 
— , Rahat, Sayyid, Maulavi, 403 
— , Riyasat, Mau. (see Riyasat). 

— al-Khamees Aud, shaikh, (see Aud). 
Aligarh, 17, 113, 119, 142, 231, 255, 395 
Allahabad, 89, 92, 102, 146, 246. 

Board, 57, 118. 

Allahdadpur Tanda (Dist. Faizabad), 55, 57, 

154. 
All India Dim Talimi Board, 116, 119. 

Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat, 358. 

— Personal Law Board, 123, 

358 

Radio (New Delhi), 361 

Al-Sadi, Ibn Mansoor, Al-Shaikh, 

Al-Sa'ud, Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Shaikh, 

369 
Al-Shankavi, 264, 301. 
Al-Sharaqa (UAE.), 369, 
Aman Allah Khan, Amir, 47. 
Amalia (village), 322. 
Amanat Ah Baghravi, Hafiz, 15. 
Amb (village), 16 

America, 109, 110, 138, 219, 254, 265, 302, 
. 359, 360, 362, 383 
American Ghadr Party, 138. 
Amin, M. A , 264, 288. 
Amin al-din Dehelvi, Mau., 52, 54. 
Amir Hasan, (Dy. collector), 262, 274. 

(America), 303. 

Rasheed, 303. 

Amjad Ah Khan Amrohi, Hakim, 23 

Amntsar, 45, 105, 263, 286 

Amroha, 23 — 26, 47, 58. 

Anas yusuf yasin (Saudi Ambassador), 265, 

304. 
Anbatha (village), 16, 17, 62, 114. 
Andalusia (Spam), 196. 



Andaman — Nicobar Islands, 147, 183, 234 
Anderson, J, D., Prof., 264, 295. 
Andhra Pradesh, 265, 303 
Anjuman-e Arbab-e Adab (Lahore), 82. 

Tabligh al-lslam (Calcutta), 107. 

Ansar Ali, Maulavi, 18. 

Ansari, Abd Allah Anbathvi, Mau., 16, 18, 
62, 116, 170, 230 

, Ahmed Mian, Mau , 16, 116, 230 

, Hameed, 64 

, Mansoor Mian, Mau., 16, 20, 62, 63, 

64, 114, 133, 136, 137, 139, 147. 

, Mukhtar Ahmed, Dr., 21, 40, 142, 

145, 146 
Anwar al-Hasan Sherkoti, Mau , 350. 

al-Sadat (present President of Egypt), 

264, 292, 361, 366. 

Ibrahim al-Rifai, 388 

Pasha, 21, 139, 146, 155. 

Shah Kashmiri, Sayyid (see Muham- 

mad Anwar Shah). 
Anzar Shah, Mau,, 391, 404. 
Arabia, 150, 270, 314, 356. 
Arabian Sea, 179. 
Aristotle, 232. 

Arrah (Shahabad, Bihar), 110. 
As'ad Bayuz al-Tamimi, Shaikh, 388 
Asadi Khatun, 15. 
Asghar, Bilal, Mau , 391, 404 

Gondvi (Urdu Poet), 83. 

Husain Deobandi, Sayyid, Mian, 31, 

61, 133, 144, 187, 350. 
Ashiq llahi Meeruthi, Mau., 36 
Ashraf A'lam, Mau., 60, 191. 

Ali Kamariai, Mau., 124 

Thanvi, Mau,, 14, 26, 32,36, 81, 

127, 128, 130 

al-Matabe (Thana Bhavan), 82. 

Asia, 4, 9 — 11, 57, 73, 113, 160, 260, 291, 
36C, 362. 

- Central, 127, 216, 5<30, 307. 
— -, South-east, 306. 

Assam, 61, 191, 276. 
Asthanwa (village), 84. 
Atala Masjid, 61 

Athar Ah Bengali, Mau., 101, 102 
Aud Ali al-Khamees, 388 
Auranabad or Awrangabad (Deccan), 52, 
563, 279 
Awrangzeb A lamgir (Mughal Emperor), 245 
Azad Hind Fauj, 141 

Hukumat-e Hind, 141. 

Azamgarh, 392, 395. 

A'zami, Habib al-Rahman, Mau., 58, 88, 112, 
395 



Aziz Allah, Shaikh, 198 

— al-Rahman Bijnori, Mufti, 156 193. 
Usmani Deobandi, Mufti, Mau., 

28 — 30, 65, 68, 103, 106, 

115, 127, 168, 174, 179, 180, 

183 — 185, 188, 242. 

— Imam (MP), 370. 

--- Azurda, Sadr al-Dm Dehelvi, Mufti (also 

an Urdu poet), 130, 169. 
Azz al-din Abd al-Salam, Shaikh, Sultan al- 



Ulam 



153. 



Bachcha Saqqa, 63. 
Bachchrayun (Oist. Moradabad), 112. 
Badaun, 102. 

Badaun i, (Abd al-Qadir— historian) See Abd) 
Badr al-Hasan, Mau., 369, 370, 390 — 392. 
Badr al-Din Abu Sauleh, Shaikh, 388. 
Badr-e A'lam Meeruthi, Mau,, 102, 103. 
Baghdad, 21, 139, 220, 265, 274. 
Bahadur Shah Zafar (last Mughal Emperor), 
14, 15. 

Yar Jung, Nawab, 263, 581. 

Bahuguna, N. H. 358. 
Bait al-Hikma, 44, 45 
Balakot, 115. 

Balkan, 20, 69, 135, 182, 293 
Balkh, 269. 
Ballia, 72, 159, 160. 
Baluchistan, 21, 124, 139 
Baluch tribes, 53 
Bangalore 387, 390, 392, 395 
Bangar Mau (Dist. Unnao), 55, 57, 154. 
Bangla Desh, 102 127, 222, 244, 359, 360, 
384. 
Bani Abbas, 204. 

Salman, 298. 

Umayya, 204. 

Baqi Billah, Khwaja, Hazrat, 36. 
Baraha Sayyids, 17. 
Barakat Ahmed Tonki, Mau., 84. 
Bareilly, 19, 43, 81, 113, 127 
Barkat Allah Bhopali, 138 
Baroda (Vadodara), 296. 
Basheer al-Din, Mau., 115 

Bashir -, Qazi, Mau., 30, 81, 115. 

Ahmed Saharanpuri, Hakim, 16. 

Bassai (Dist. Bulandshahar), 43, 163. 

(Dist. Sirhind). 43. 

Bay Of Bengal, 179. 

Bayt al-Muqaddas, 382. 

Bayuz al-Tamimi, As'ad, Shaikh (Jordan), 

(see As'ad). 
Beg, Sa'd Allah, 17. 



Benares (Varanasi), 51, 88, 89, 127. 
Bengal, 60, 61, 101, 117, 122, 124, 1B9, 191, 
276 

, East, 102, 182 

Khilafat Committee, 77. 

Berkes, Niyaz (Turkish ambassador), 264, 
293. 
Beumi, Muhammad, Abd al-Mauti, 389. 
Bhagalpur, & Dist., 60, 64, 76, 191. 
8hatti, F H., Dr. (London), 390. 
Bhawalpur, 19, 44, 70, 103, 141, 171, 182, 
191, 192. 
Bhitt (Dist Saharanpur), 123, 161. 
Bhojpur, 11. 

Bhopal & Bhopal State, 14, 18, 107, 130, 

131, 138, 171, 262, 263, 274, 280. 

Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali (President of Pakistan), 

125. 

Bible, 45, 233, 234. 

Bihar, 61, 76, 84, 117, 122, 162, 191, 276, 
390. 

Legislative Assembly, 122. 

Bijapur, 224, 225. 

Bijnar, 26, 27, 68, 178, 395. 



Bikan< 



107. 



Bilali Steam Press (Sadhora), 12. 
Bismillah, Mufti, 94, 95 
Bombay, 21, 32, 41, 91, 98, 102, 140, 141, 
144, 276, 287, 293, 395. 
Bonn (West Germany), 309. 
Bose, Subhash Chandra (famous freedom- 

' fighter), 141. 
British Empire, 21, 141. 

Govt., 4, 20, 38, 44, 47, 60, 72, 83, 

' 135, 137, 139, 140, 143-145, 
147, 148, 171, 220, 223. 
Budapest (Hungary), 262, 277. 
Bukhari, Imam, 135. 

Burma, 93, 97, 177, 222, 246, 276, 285. 
Cairo, 111, 265, 266. 

Calcutta, 71, 76, 77, 106-108, 263, 277, 279, 
390, 395 
California, 138. 
Campbellpur, 86. 
Canada, 113, 

Chandni Chowk (Delhi), 52. 
Chandpur (Dist. Bijnor), 42, 43. 
Chhatari, 31. 

Chhatta Mosque (Deoband), 1,29, 164-166, 
176, 261. 
Chhoti Masjid, 30, 186. 
Chima, Afzal, Justice, 357, 385. 
China, 150, 290, 383. 
Chiragh Muhammad, 59. 



411 



Chishti, Mo'in al-Dm, Shaikh, Khwaja, 348 
College, Bareilly, 169 

, Canning (Lucknow), 80 

, Chief's (Lahore), 141 

, Dayal Singh (Lahore), 82. 

, Gaurmat Missionary (Delhi), 317 

, Government (Ajmer), 126 

, Medical (Lucknow), 80. 

, Missionary (Amritsar), 263. 

, Murray (Sialkat), 347 

, Oriental (Lahore), 68, 96, 102, 112 

, (Srinagar), 104 

, Osmania (Awrangabad), 263, 279 

, St. Stephen (Delhi), 112. 

, Tibbia (Delhi), 36. 

CommissioneKMeerut Division), 273 
Congress (Indian National), 44, 54, 70, 138, 
301. 

Committee (Kabul), 44. 

Connaught Place (New Delhi), 41. 

Constantinople, 139 

Cordova (Spam), 274, 318 

Czar (of Russia), 138, 139. 

Dabhel (Dist Surat), 30, 50, 51, 66, 94, 103, 

111, 121, 15C, 153, 1B0, 187. 
Dacca, 31, 117 
Dagh Dehelvi (famnous Urdu poet), 193. 



Dai r< 



Iflf, 194 



Dalumasi, Mulhiq, Abd Allah, Husam, Shaikh 

(Oman), 388 
Damascus, 99. 

Damiri, Kamal al-Dm, Allamah, 23 
Dar al-Ulum (Karachi), 190 

— Falah-e Darayn (Tadkeshwar, 

Dist. Surat), 193 

— Jasarlakhpur Sr. Madrasah 

(Bangla Desh), 124 

— Nadvat al-Ulama (Lucknow), 

125, 141. 
Darbhanga (Bihar), 42, 72, 96. 
Dard Dehelvi, Khwaja Mir (famous Sufi and 
poet), 130. 
Deccan, 27. 

Dehra Dun, 13a, 265, 306. 

Delhi, 17, 21, 24, 26, 31, 36, 38, 40, 41, 44, 

46, 55, 71, 74, 76, 80, 105, 108, 111, 

112, 126, 129, 130, 142, 157 — 159, 

164, 169, 172, 179, 191, 192, 200 201, 

262, 263, 266, 268, 284, 317, 390 

Dist. Jail, 108. 

Denver (USA), 219 

Deoband, 17, 21, 23, 29 — 31, 35, 38, 39, 
41, 44 — 46, 49, 50, 56, 58, 59, 
61—63, 67, 71, 79, 84, 93, 94, 
97, 106, 110, 123, 127, 137, 140, 



142, 144, 149, 150, 152 — 156, 
161, 64 — 166, 170, 172, 174 
184, 187, 190 — 193, 195, 217, 
222, 230, 258, 263, 264, 269, 
270, 273 — 275, 277, 279, 280, 
284, 286 — 288 593, 297, 303, 
309, 311, 318 — 320, 322, 324, 
326, 344, 351 — 354 356, 357, 
359, 377, 390 

Dera Isma il Khan, Dist., 124, 125 

Desh Bandhu, Lala, 54 

Dewhurst, R P , 262, 270. 

Diban, 320, 323, 326, 328, 329. 

Dinpur (village), 44, 45. 

Dist Bulandshahar, 109. 

Muzaffarnagar, 109 

Durban (S. Africa), 263, 276, 294 

Dutch Indies, 285 

East India Company, 233. 

Egypt, 21, 54, 69, 90, 121, 150, 153, 177, 

196, 265, 277, 285, 305, 314, 318, 

357, 366 

England, 83, 97, 138, 177, 246, 254, 344, 
347, 358, 359, 382 

Etawa Muslim High School, 91 

Ethiopia, 97, 177. 

Euclid, 232. 

Europe, 57, 110, 113, 131, 138, 219, 224, 
233, 278, 281, 284, 302, 360, 362 

Fahd, Prince, 356, 361-363 

Faisal al-Muqhavi, Shaikh, 387 

Faizabad, & Dist., 55, 57, 154. 

Faiz al-Hasan Saharanpuri, Mau., 40. 

Fakhr al-Din Ahmed.-Sayyid, Mau., 20, 55, 58, 
74, 123, 133, 157, 159, 162, 192, 298. 

All Ahmed (President of India), 

266, 316. 

al-Hasan, Sayyid, Mau., 117, 118, 162, 

238, 368 

Gangohi, Mau, 21, 22, 127 

Faqihuddin, Mau., 403. 

Farangimahal, 201, 232. 

Farid Ahmed Abbasi, Hakim, 24. 

-al-Din Mas'ud Ganj-e Shakar, Baba, 16, 

26. 

Faridpur, Dist., (Bangla Desh), 116. 

Farouq Abdullah, Dr, 370. 

Ahmed Chiryakoti, Mau., 72, 160. 

Farouqi, Yusuf al-Zaman, 262, 278. 

Fatahi Abd al-Hameed, 266, 316 

Fateh al-Dm, 263, 281 

-Allah, Mir (Shirazi), 199. 

-Muhammad, Mau., 11, 12. 

Lakhnavi, Mau., 262, 272. 

Thanvi, Mau., 11-14, 32, 127. 



Fatehgarh (Dist. Farrukhabad), 59. 
Fatehpur, 138. 

Talnarja (Dist. A'zamgarh), 91. 

Fatima (daughter of Mau. Qari M. Tayyib), 
17. 
Fazl Allah, Sayyid, Mau., 192. 

— -, -, , , (Aligarh), 237 

al-Rahman, Mau., 39. 

Usmani Deobandi, Mau., 28, 

39, 167, 173, 178, 
183, 537, 320. 

Haq Deobandi, Sayyid, Haji, 166-168, 

170, 237, 338. 

Khairabadi, Mau., 72, 160, £34, 

350. 
Fazl-e Azeem, Maulavi, 322. 

Ilahi (Mayor of Calcutta), £63, 279. 

Rabbi Peshawari, Mau., 71. 

Rahman Ganj Moradabadi, Mau., 115, 

121. 

Vahid, 47. 

France, 47, 97, 135, 138, 177, 358, 382. 

Galen, 932 

Gamal Abdel Nasir, 248. 

Gandhi, Mrs Indira (Prime Minister of India), 

98, 356, 357, 363, 364, 390. 
Gandhiji (famous Indian Leader), 141, 142, 
£97, 301, 303. 
Ganga (river), 90. 
Ganga Singh (see Singh). 
Gangoh, 17, 22, 37, 41, 55, 57, 170, 192, 
194. 
Gangohi, Hazrat, 19, 22, 36, 37, 40, 41, 48, 
49, 51, 55-57, 93, 130, 149, 150, 
154, 155, 170, 190, 192, 193, 216, 
232 
Gaya (Bihar), 174. 
Geneva, 138. 
German Mission, 138. 
Germany, 97, 137, 138, 177, 254, 965. 

, West, 358, 359, 382. 

Ghadr Party, 138. 

Ghalib, Mirza (famous Urdu poet), £1, 92, 
130. 
Ghalib Mama, 63, 137, 139, 143, 146-148. 
Ghalib Pasha, 21, 63, 137, 139, 140, 143. 
Ghazali, Imam, 169, 196. 

, Ali Ubayd Muhammad, 266, 319. 

Ghazi, Hamid al-Ansari, Mau. (see Hamid). 

Ghazipur, & Dist., 36, 40. 

Ghazni, 198. 

Ghiyas al Din Mansoor, Mir, 199. 

Ghulam Ahmed Mujaddidi Naqshbandi 

Kabuli, 296. 
All Azad Bilgrami, Mir, 199, 350. 



- Allah, Shaikh e 



371. 



Ghaus Hazarvi, Mau , 101. (He aiea 

in Pakistan some time in February 
this year at the ripe age of 91 

Husain, 126. 

Kibriya, 72. 

Muhammad Mujaddidi Naqshbanai 

Kabuli, Hazrat, 121. 

Rasool Mehr, Mau., 138, 351. 

Shah Sani, Mau., 104. 

Rasul Hazarvi, Mau. (see Khan). 

■Viran', Hafiz, 17. 

Ghur, 198. 

Giiani (village in Bihar), 84, 86. 

Gorakhpur, 88, 92. 

Gorakhpuri, Majnu, Prof, (see Majnu). 

Govt, of Burma, 291. 

of India, 118, 149, £65, 967, 291, 306, 

310, 363, 370, 371. 

of Jammu & Khashmir, 310. 

of Kuwait, 90, 314. 

of Oman, 371. 

of Saudi Arbia, 363 

of the United Arab Emirates, 312. 

Goya Jahanabadi (Urdu poet), 83. 
Greece, £32. 

Gujarat, 62, 66-68, 95, 180, 192, 193 
Gujranwala, 46, 59, 99. 
Gul, Mahmud Ahmed, Mau , 391 -393. 
■Gulaothi, 16, 37, 55, 170. 
Gupta (C. M. O. ), Dr., 397. 
Gurdaspur, Dist., (Punjab), 77. 
Haat Hazari (Dist. Chittagong), 73, 160. 
Habib, Sayyid (Mau. Madani's nephew), 58. 

Allah, Sayyid (Mau. Madani's father), 

55, 154. 

Khan, Amir (see Khan). 

al-Rahman A'zami, Mau. (see A'zami). 

Deobandi, Mau., 39, 40, 

66, 96, 127, 173, 174- 
176. 

Ludhianvi, Mau., 105. 

Shirwani, Mau., (see Sadr 

yar Jung). 

Hasan 'Wahshi' Deobandi (Urdu 

poet), 82. 
Hadi Hasan, Maulavi, 146. 
Hafeez Allah, Mau. 122. 



1 1 -Rah m 






., 54. 



Hafiz, Muhammad Mahmud, 387. 

ai-Qazi, Muhammad, Shaikh (Chief 

Justice), 387. 
Hamdard Dawakhana (Wakf) Delhi, 119. 



413 

Hameed Ansari, 64. 

, H. A., 265, 303. 

Hamid al-Ansari Ghazi, Mau., 16, 46, 64, 
114, 238, 256, 31 7,' 395! 
Hapur, 58, 74,157, 158. 
Hardayal, Lala, 138 
Hardey, P G., Prof., 264, 295 
Hasan, Aal-e, Mau., 357. 

bin Husain (U. A. E.), 389. 

, Zahid, Sayyid, 391, 393. 

Hasanpur, 262, 270. 
Hashimi, Rahat, Mau., 393. 

, Sayyid Ahmed, Mau., 402. 

, Faridabadi, 137. 

, Press (Meerut), 115. 

Hauzwali Masjid, 13, 17. 
Hazara, Dist. (PalO, 41, 101, 149. 
Hebrew, 232, 

Hejaz, 21, 44, 47, 49-51, 54, 56, 57, 63, 79, 
83, 92, 97, 107, 137, 139, 143, 145, 
146, 148, 150, 154, 155, 177 
Herat, 74. 

Hidayatullah (Vice-President of India), 40 
Hifz al-Kahman Sioharvi, Mau., 106, 107, 



297. 
Hill, A. R. (MBE), 263, 286. 
Himalayas, 357 
Hippocrates, 232. 
Hitler, 47. 

"Hizb Allah", 44, 139, 147. 
HOLY PROPHET, THE, 3, 175, 217, 232, 285, 
293, 294, 298, 307, 308, 
314, 327-329. 
Hujweri, AM, Shaikh, 348. 
Humayun (Mughal Emperor), 200. 

Kabir, Prof., 264, 296. 

Hungary, 262, 277. 



Husa 



, 74. 



, H. M., 263, 293. 

, Nawab, Munshi, 391. 

, Shah (of Jordan), 357, 359, 365. 

Ahmed Madani, Mau., 20, 21, 48, 55, 

84, 133, 140, 144, 146, 154, 
157, 288, 297, 319, 340. 

Mian Bebaak, Sayyid, 193. 

, AM, Hafiz, 32. 

, Bihari, Muhammad, Mau, 391, 

Hejazi, Shaikh, 264, 294 

, Taha, Dr., 209. 

Wafai, Mau., 104. 

Husam al-Din, 266, 315. 
Huwaish, Mulla, Nuri, 388. 
Hyderabad & State, 33, 39, 60, 64, 85, 99, 
121, 171-174, 188, 191, '262^ 
263, 275, 281, 303, 390. 



Ibn Abd al-Ra^zaq, 112. 

— Hajar Asq.lani, Hafiz, 153. 

— Humam, Shaikh, 151. 

— Mansoor al-S'adi, al-Shaikh, 311. 

— Sa'ud (King of Saudi Arabia), 5 



, 177, 
248. 



Ibrahim, al-Shaikh, 311. 

al-Rifai, Anwar. 

Khalil, 264 

Lakhnavi, Hakim, 27. 

Idara-e Da'wat wa Irshad (Riyadh), 385, 386. 

Mabahis-e Faqiha, 110. 

Idris al-yusuf, Nakar, Shaikh, 389. 

Ifham Allah, Hakim, 238, 395. 

Ikram al-Nisa, 16. 

Ilahi, Fazl, Munshi, 393, 401 

imarat-e Shariyyah-e Bihar wa Orissa, 122, 
358. 

Imdad AN, Chaudhri, 13. 

Allah Mahajir-e Makki, Haji, Shaikh 

16, 19, 20, 24, 27, 29, 32, 34, 
51, 56, 62, 128, 133, 154, 164, 



I, 321. 

il-Hasan, Mau. (Amir-e Tabligh), 358, 

385. 

India, 1, 7, 8, 10, 16, 20, 21, 38-41, 44, 46, 
47, 52, 54-56, 63, 64, 69, 77, 83, 86^ 
98, 99, 110, 111, 118, 119, 122, 125— 
127, 129, 135, 136, 138—144, 146, 
147, 150, 154, 155, 177, 179, 1Bl' 
182, 185, 192, 197—202, 212, 2is| 
217, .219, 221, 222, 225, 226, 229, 
231—233, 235, 243, 247, 248' 253,' 
269, 269,-275, 277, 279—281, 283^ 
284, 287—291, 294, 296, 297, 299, 
301, 303, 307, 309, 313, 314, 317— 
319, 324, 325, 356, 357, 359, 360, 
363, 364, 368, 369, 377,-379, 384. 
Indian Constituent Assembly, 182. 

National Congress, 44, 106, 135, 138, 

141, 142. 



Iqbal, Allamah, 51. 

Iran, 47, 150, 196, 200, 285, 358 359 

Iraq, 53, 150, 285, 356, 357, 361 

Irfan al-Hasan, Munshi, 391. 

Irshad Husain, Mau., 17 

Isa Siraj al-Din (Egyptian 

Ambassador), 265, 304, 305. 
Ishaq Sanbhali, (MLC), 264, 297. 
Ishrati, Amir Ahmed, Hakim, 129, 
Islamabad (Pak.), 121 
Isma'il Bismillah, Mufti, 94 



Israel, 382. 

Istanbul, 194, 265, 310 
Italy, 135, 138. 

Izaz Ali Amrohi, Mau., 20, 36, 64, 65, 76, 
133, 175, 187, 188 
Ja'fri, Husain, Muhammad, Mau., S3. 
Jagjivan Ram, 372, 373. 
Jain, Ajit Prasad (Governor of Kerala), 264, 

302. 
Jalalabad (Afshanistan), 63 

(U. P.), 119, 322. 

Jalal al-Din, Ahmed, Dr., 263, 284. 
Jalianwala Bagh (Amntsar), 105. 
Jamal al-din (Madar al-Miham, Bhopal 
State), Mau., 18, 130. 

Pasha, 155. 

Jama'at-e Islami-e Hind, 358 
Jam'e-a Azhar (Cairo), 90, 271, 273, 279, 
280, 301. 
Jam'e al-Ulum (Kanpur), 35. 
Jameel al-Din Naginvi, Hakim, 36, 72, 160. 
James, Gilbert A., 265, 306. 
Jamia-e Abbasia (Bhawalpur), 70,88, 100, 
182, 191, 192. 

Ashrafia (Lahore), 100 

(Rander, Surat),192. 

Ayn-e Shams (Cairo), 389 

Dimyat-e Urdu (Deoband), 98, 100. 

Islamia (Akoda Khatak, Pakistan), 

86. 

(Dabhel, Surat), 30, 32, 66-69, 

73, 88, 95, 102, 103, 106, 

107, 112, 120, 123, 160, 

161, 179, 187,. 

Madina (Lahore), 96. 

Malik Abd al-Aziz, 385. 

Millia Islamia (New Delhi), 40, 44, 

45, 69, 78, 116, 149, 181, 216. 
Osmania (Hyderabad, Deccan), 

216. 

Qurania (Dacca), 117. 

Rahmani (Monghyr), 122. 

Tibbia (Hyderabad, Deccan), 27, 

356. 
Jami'at al-Ansar, 44, 63. 

al-lrshad, 273. 

al-Ulama-e Afganistan, 72 



, 116, 141, 

153, 159, 174, 177, 181, 

182, 358, 373. 

- Islam, 70, 101, 102, 107, 

119, 182. 

- Maharashtra, 114. 



— Pakistan, 101, 125. 

— Smdh, 53. 

— Transvaal, 111 . 






Ali, 



Jammu & Kashmir, 265, 370. 

Jampur, 43. 

Jan Mir, Mirza, 199. 

Jannat al-Baq'ee, 58, 79, 103, 168. 

Japan, 254. 

House (Calcutta), 263, 277 

Jaunpur, 36, 55, 61, 72, 160, 395. 
Java, 280 
Jeddah, 140, 390. 
Jehangir Ashraf Semnani, 

Makhdoom, 128, 
Jehlum (Punjab), 102. 
Jelb, Zaki, 310. 
Jhang Dist. (Punjab), 72, 160. 
Jhanjhana, 14. 

Jigar Moradabadi {famous Urdu poet), 83. 
Jodhpur State, 323. 

Johannesburg (South Africa), 95,110-112. 
Jordan, 356, 357, 359, 361. 
Josh Malihabadi (famous revolutionary 

Urdu poet), 148. 
Jullundur, 87. 

Junaid (famous Sufi saint), 150. 
Junud-e Rabbaniya, 46, 53. 
Kabir, Humayun, Prof., 264, 296. 
Kabul, 44, 60, 129, 137-139, 269. 
Kachchuchvi Mufti, 67. 
Kaftaru, Ahmed, Mufti (Syria), 385, 388. 

, Mahmud, Prof., 388. 

Kakori, 90. 

Kalachi, 124 

Kamal al-Faraj, Prof , 389. 

al-Muntasir, Shaikh, 389. 

al-yamn. Prof., 389. 

Kamarla Dist. (Bangla Desh), 124. 

Kandhla, 263, 276. 

Kanpur, 22, 35, 43, 45, 60, 191, 246, 390. 

Karachi, 52, 70, 77, 82, 93, 125, 182, 296 

Karam-e Azeem, 32. 

Karatpur (Dist. Bijnor), 118. 

Karim Bakhsh, Mau., 23. 

Rampuri, Mianji, 164. 

Sanbhali, Mau., 58. 

Kamal, Dist., 141. 

Kashghar, 280. 

Kashmir, 49, 95, 104, 149, 310. 

Kathore (Dist. Meerut), 47, 48. 

( Surat), 95. 

Kauthari, Allamah (Shaikh al-lslam of 
Turkey), 19S. 
Kazim Hasan, Sayyid, 192. 



Kazirr 

Kenya, 97, 177, 358 

Kerala, 240, 302. 

Khadda Mohalla (Karachi), 53. 

Khairabad, 201, 202. 

Khair al-Madaris (Jullunder), 87. 

Muhammad Jullundhari, Mau.,43. S7. 

Khalid, Mau., 74, 158. 

, Shah, Jalalat al-Mulk, 357, 359, 

361, 363, 3S5. 

, Ansari Bhopali, Mau., 130. 

, Mahmud, Prof., 347. 

Khalil, Ibrahim, 302. 

Ahmed Anbathvi, Mau., 15, 17, 19, 

22, 81, 86, 102, 103 127. 

Akhtar , Mau., 130. 

al-Rahman, 145. 

(Patwari), 391. 

if Turkey), 
293. 
, Abd al-Majeed (Dehelvi), Hakim (see 

Abd). 

, Aftab Ahmed, Sahibzada, 256. 

, Ahmed Hasan, Nawata, 262, 271. 

Bareillvi, Ahmed Re2a, Mau. 

(see Ahmed), 

, , Sayyid, Sir 16, 232. 

, Ajmal, Hakim, Masih al-Mulk (see 

Ajmal). 

, Akbar Ali (Governor of U.P ) 265, 

309- 

, Ali Hasan, Nawab, 131, 350. 

, Allah Nawaz, 147. 

, Amir Shah, 350. 

, Amrohi, Amjad Ali, Hakim 

(see Amjad). 

, Anwar Allah, Mau., 262, 272 

, Baz, Mir, Mau., 11, 12, 

, Habib Allah, Amir (of Afghanistan), 

138. 

, Haq Nawaz, Khan Bahadur, 147, 148. 

, Hazarvi, Ghulam Rasul, Mau., 41, 67. 

, , Rasul, Mau , 67. 

, Hedayat Allah, Mau., 72, 160 

, Inayat Allah, Sardar, 60. 

, Lakhnavi, Abd al-Aziz, Hakim 

<see Abd). 

, Liaqat Ali, Nawabzada, 70. 

, M*hmud Ali, 263. 

, Dehelvi, Mahmud, Hakim, 21, 40. 

, Masih Allah, Mau , 119, 358, 360, 368. 

Moradabadi, Mansoor Ali, Hakim (see 

ir). 



, Muhi al-Din, Qazi, 14 

, Najib Allah, Sardar (Afghan ambas- 
sador), 263, 287. 

, Namdar, Hafiz, 23, 183 

, Naseer Ahmed, Mau., 163, 404 

, Niyaz al-Din, Muhammad, 262, 271. 

, Nur al-Hasan, Nawab, 13. 

, Osman Ali, Mir, Nawab, 3B. 

, Rashad, Sultan (of Turkey), 248 

, Shafa'at Ahmed, Dr., 263, 282. 

, Shakir, A. Rahman (see Abd). 

, Siddiq Hasan, Nawab (of Bhopal), 

131. 

, 'Tajwar' Najibabadi, Ahsan Allah, 82, 

83. 

, , Zafar Ali, Mau. (Editor), 266, 

319. 
Khanqah-e Ashrafia (Thana Bhavan), 99. 

Imdadiya (Thana Bhavan), 33, 35, 

82, 92, 123. 

Rahmania (Monghyr), 76, 121, 

122 
"Khatm-e Khwajagan", 30, 186. 
Khilafat Committee, 53, 69, 141, 142, 182. 

Movement, 53, 56, 71, 76, 77, 81, 

83, 104, 105, 140-142, 155, 159. 
"Khitta-e Saulihin", 38, 
Khurasan, 196, 197. 
Khurja, 22, 24. 

Khurshid A'lam, Mau., 391, 392. 
Kifayat Ali, Mau., 47 

Allah Dehelvi, Mufti, Mau., 20, 26, 

29, 52, 53, 95, 133, 185, 
192. 

Gangohi, Mufti, Mau , 191 

Kiochen, M. I Shah, 263, 280 
Kishoreganj, 102. 
Koda Jahanabad, 51. 



Kot / 



124. 



Kotana (village near Delhi), 130. 
Kuchak, Ghulam Muhammad (MP), 370. 
Kumar, Naresh, Babu, 392, 393. 

, Shyam, Thakur, 392, 393. 

Kuwait, 97, 266, 356, 357, 361, 366 
Lahore, 17, 51, 6S, 77, 82, 83, 96, 

99, 105, 115, 244, 263, 2S4. 
Lajpur (village near SuraO, 46, 66 
Las Bela (Pak.), 53. 

Latif Yar Jung Bahadur, Nawab, 262, 275 
La Touche, J. D., 262, 270. 
Lebanon, 30, 396. 
Lenin, 138. 

Liaqat Ali Khan, Nawabzada (see Khan). 
Libya, 358, 361 
London, 387. 



416 



Lucknow, 23, 27, 51, 79, 90, 91, 127, 141, 
200-202, 232, 262, 264, 265, 
395, 272, 290, 303, 358, 390. 
Ludhiana, 105, 263, 283. 
Luqman al-Haq, Mau-, 404. 
Lutf Ali, Hafiz, 169. 
— Allah, Mufti, 17. 

Aligarhi, Mau , 46, 61 191. 

Madagascar, 97, 177. 

Madani, (Husain Ahmed), Mau., 65, 73, 
115, 118, 122, 146-148 154-156, 
159, 182, 188, 351. 

, As'ad, Sayyid, Mau., 368, 372, 

373, 404. 

Madhya Pradesh, 15, 100, 101. 

Madina, 19, 23, 56, 57, 63, 75, 77, 79, 80, 

86, 103, 107, 114, 139, 154—156, 

168, 199, 200, 276, 303, 366, 

368. 



71, 71- 



■73, 



Shar 



-(Me« 



ut) 81, 115. 



- Husain Bakhsh (Delhi), 79. 

- (Mubarakpur, Azamgarh), 195. 

- Imdad al-lslam (Meerut), 67, 115. 

al-Ulum (Meerut), 36 

(Thana Bhavan), 

81, 123, 161. 

- Imdadia (Darbhanga) 72. 

(Moradabad) 91. 

- Isha'at al-Ulum (Bareilly), 43, 

161. 

- Islamia (Inderkot, Meerut), 28, 
29, 184. 

(Roorkee), 59. 

- Islamiya (Amroha), 32. 
Izazia (Shahjahanpur), 53- 

Jam'e al-Ulum (Jatinpur, 
Azamgarh) 195. 
(Kanpur), 33, 58, 60, 



92, 



, 194. 



- Abna, 193. 

- Afzal al-Madaris (Shahjahanpur 



(Calcutta), 55, 60, 61, 112, 
191. 
(Dacca), 31. 
(Haibatnagar), 124. 
(Sylhet), 61, 191. 

(Fatehpuri, Delhi),22, 



112 117 118 160 162 163 178 
195. 



I-Huda (Patna), 
61, 117, 163, 191. 

- Aminiya (Delhi), 49, 52, 54, 95, 

100, 110, 149, 192. 

- Ashrafia (Lahore), 68. 
(Rander, Surat), 192. 

- Ayn al-'llm (Shahjahanpur) 53 

192. 

- Azizia (Bihar Sharif) 61, 191, 

195. 

- Chi 



(Amroha), 113. 
Dar al-Ulum (Mau, Azamgarh), 
58, 72, 88, 89, 113, 160. 

(Mau Nath Bhanjan) 

195. 



- Dar al-Fuyuz (Sind), 88. 

- Dar al-Rishad (Larlcana, Sind), 88 

- Darbhanga (Bihar), 160. 

- Faiz-e A'am (Kanpur), 33 43, 60, 

191 



- Khair al-Madaris (Multan) 87. 

- Laadi, 124. 

- Manba al-Ulum (Gulaothi) 22, 37, 

62, 74, 87, 158, 163 170. 

- Mazhar al-Ulum 
(Benaras), 89. 

(Khadda, Karachi) 

88. 

- Miftah al-Ulum (Jalalabad) (U P ), 
119, 355. 

(Mau, Azamgarh) 

89 

- Misbah al-Ulum (Bareilly) 19. 

- Moeenia (Ajmer), 63. 

- Muradia (Muzaffarnagar) 17. 

- Najm al-Madaris (Kalachi) 124 

- Naumania (Pureni), 64, 76, 1B7. 

- Nizamia (Baghdad) 291 
• Qasim al-Ulum 

(Faqifwali, Bhawalpur),192. 

(Lahore), 88. 

(Meerut), B1. 

(Multan), 125. 

- Qaumia (Meerut), 36. 

- Rahmanie (Roorkee), 83 

- Rifah al-Muslimin (Lucknow), 272. 

- Sahiwal (Pak.), 372. 

- Saulatiya (Mecca), 33, 58. 

- Shah (Moradabad), 24, 96, 32, 
37, 53, 107 110, 112, 117, 125 

153, 162, 170 

- Siddiqia (Delhi), 79 

- Talim al-Din (Dabhel), 67, 95. 

- Tando Allahyar (Pakistan) 120. 



Madra 



il-Shar'a (Sanbhal), 59 

al-Shan'ah (Madina), 57, 58, 79. 

Mahadeo Prashad, 265, 306- 
Maharashtra, 52, 53, 390. 
Mahdi Hasan, Mufti, Mau., 192-194. 
Mahendra Pratap, Raja, 44, 138, 139, 266, 



Mahmud, Mufti, t 



101, 



351. 
125, 357, 



36 



Ahmed Nanautavi, Muf., Mau 100. 

al-Qays, Shaikh, 389. 

Ghaznavi, Sultan, 197, 204 

Deobandi, Shaikh al-Hind, Mau., 19, 

21, 23, 31, 71, 72, 127, 130, 132, 
137, 139, 145, 146, 304, 319, 338 

Gangohi, Muf., 194. 

Iqaar, 209. 

, Khalid, Prof, 347. 

Mainpuri, 90 

Majid All Jaunpuri, Mau., 55, 74-, 158. 

Majlis-e Ahrar, 105. 



- Musr 



107 



Majnu Gorakhpuri (professor, poet 
and writer), 83. 

Majzoob, Aziz al-Hasan, Khwaja, 350. 
Malaya, 290. 
Malaysia, 150, 265, 311 
Malesaon, 392, 395. 
Maler Kotla, 22, 23, 114. 
Malik Shah Seljuqi, Sultan, 91. 
Malkana Rajputs, 96 
Malta, 21, 56, 83, 140, 142, 155. 
Malwa, 100, 101. 

Mamluk AN Nanautavi, Mau., 17, 18 26, 

126, 130 169 

Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Mau., 20, 84 85, 90, 

133, 152, 169, 351. 

Manfaluti, 209. 

Maniar, Abd al-Hafeez (Hafiz Brothers, 

Surat), 34. 

Mansoor AN Khan Moradabadi, Mau., 27, 

127. 



Mathur, C. L, 264, 294. 

Mathura, 90, 138, 323. 

Mau (Azamgarh), 88, 89. 

Mazahir-e UJum Saharanpur, 15, 18, 19, 23, 

57, 60, 81, 86, 99, 102, 116, 

117, 141, 156, 162, 194. 

Mazhar al-Din Sherkoti, Mau., 71. 

al-Haq, Munshi, 391. 

Husain, 117, 162. 

Mecca, 16, 19, 21, 27, 2B, 32, 33, 49, 56, 

67, 98, 107, 114, 129, 133, 140, 

144, 148, 154, 184, 199, 200, 265, 

308, 318, 365. 

Meerak Shah Kashmiri, Sayyid, Mau., 95. 

Meerut, 58, 29, 36, 44, 47, 48, 81, 102, 

114-116, 127, 184, 191, 263, 275, 

395. 

"Mehndiyun", 52, 109. 

Mehrban AN, Sayyid, Munshi, 16. 

Mehtab All, Mau , 19, 132, 166 237 

Mendhu (Dist. Aligarh), 55. 

Meraj al-Haq, Mau., 391, 404. 

Mhow Cantt CM P.), 100, 101. 

Middle East, 150, 233, 289. 

Minnat Allah Rahmani, Mau., 121, 238, 368, 



Manzoor Ahmed, 126. 

Marghub al-Rahman, Mau., 27, 238, 395. 

Masjid Fatehpuri (Delhi), 44. 

Panipatian, 52. 

Masjid-e Aqsa, 382 

e Shah-e Islam, 17. 

Masnavi Farogh, 5, 6, 320-322. 

Zer-o Bum, 132, 164 

Mas'ud Hasan Gangohi, Qazi, 263, 275. 

, Rasheed (MP), (See Rasheed) 

Matba-e Majidi (Kanpur), 22. 

Qasimi (Deoband), 59. 

Siddique (Bareilly), 169 



39b 



z Kashmiri, Muhammad Yusuf Shah, 



Mirza Jan, Mir, 199. 
Mo'een al-Din, 131. 

Mohsin Kakorvi (famous Urdu poet), 90. 
Mo'in al-Din Chishti Ajmeri, Shaikh, 
Khwaja, 348. 
Momin Dehelvi, (famous Urdu poet), 130. 
Monghyr, 76 

Monghyri, Sayyid Muhyammad AM, Mau., 

10. 

Moradabad, 54, 25, 27, 37, 42, 44, 53, 96, 



Morocco, 135. 

Moscow, 63. 

Muazzam AM Shah Kashmiri 

Mubarak All, Mau., 280, 288. 

Husain Sanbhali, Mau 

Shah (MP), 370 

Muhammad, Apostle of Alle 



-, Imam, 193, 194. 

- V (Sultan of Turkey), 293 

- Abd Allah, Qari, 33. 
, Shaikh, 265 304, 

395 



-Abd al-Fattah Udah, 264, 288. 
-Abd al-Hakim, Shaikh (Mufti of 

Aleppo], 311. 

-,A. Amin, 264. 

—Abd al-Raheem, 358 

--Abd al-Vahid (Munsif), 262, 

268. 

-A'bid Deobandi, Sayyid, Haji, 

37, 130, 164, 166, 168, 

170, 321, 328, 338. 

-Ahmed, Hafiz, Mau., 25, 37, 39, 

49, 64, 85, 90, 127, 170, 

173, 188, 339. 

& Sons (Delhi), 277. 

al-'Adwi, 263, 979. 

Nanautavi, Mau., 169. 

--al-faham, Shaikh, 266, 313. 
-al-Hakim, Shaikh, 265. 
-al-Hasani, Sayvid, 10. 
-al-Mahjub, Prof. (Cairo), 389. 
-AM, (Jauhar) Mau., 138. 

Monghyn, Sayiid, Mau., 10, 

76, 121. 

Road (Karachi), 70, 182. 

—Anwar, 42. 

Deobandi, Haji, 165. 

— Shah Kashmiri, Mau., 

20, 30, 39, 52, 56, 59, 
66, 68, 75, 80, 81, 92, 
96, 102, 102, 105, 



-Hasan Deobandi, Shah, Mau., 



111, 115, 120, 


133, 


149-155, 158, 


174, 


176, 179, 180, 


187, 


216, 319, 


, 340. 


asimi, 350, 374, 


401, 



-Asia 

404. 

-Atiq, Munshi, 392. 
--Ayyub Qadri, Prof., 128, 351. 
-Azhar Siddiqui (see Siddiqui). 
-bin Ahmed Allah Thanvi, 11. 
-bin Ibrahim al-Sa'ud, 369,387. 
—bin Musa Afriqi, Mau., 111 
-bin Tughlaq, 



— Chiragh Gujn 
— Farouq, Dr. 



Tughlaq). 

iwalvi, Mau., 99. 

Dr., (Kashmir), 265, 

305, 370. 

, Mir, Wa'iz, Maulavi, 

370. 

Ahmed, Mufti Mau., 



- Chiryakoti, Mau., 160, 



-Hashi 



-Rampuri, Mau., 
n, Maulavi, 115. 



64. 



-Hasain, Sayyid, 262, 269. 

Bihari, Maulavi, 404. 

-Ibrahim, 263, 279. 

, Balliavi, Mau., 20, 36, 

72, 73, 118, 133, 157, 
159, 160, 163, 298. 
, Sayyid, 262, 272. 



403. 
—bin Ibrahim al-Qa'ud, 387. 

— Kandhlavi, Mau., 99. 

— Hafiz al-Qazi, Shaikh. 387. 

— Ihtesham Kazimi, (see Kazimi). 

— Imrna Khan Nadvi Azhan 

Bhapali, Mau., 34. 

— Iqbal Lahori, Shaikh, Sir, 51, 

152, 153. 
— Ishaq, Dr., Prof., 265. 308. 

Burdwani, Mau., 60, 191. 

Kathori, Hakim, Mau., 47, 

48 
Meeruthi, Qari, 103. 

— Ishlam, Maulavi, 392. 
— Jsma'il, 263, 277- 

, Mau. 40, 404. 

, Khan, Nawab, 263. 

, Shaheed, Mau., 1, 4. 

— Izaz Ali amfohim Mau. 20, 270. 

— Khalid Balliavi, Mau., 401, 404 
— Mahmud Hafiz, 387. 

— Masih Allah Khan, Mau., (see 

Khan). 

— Massom Nabi, Shaikh, 391. 

— Manzoor Naumani, Mau., 58, 59, 

94, 113, 125, 238, 395. 

— Mazhar Nanautavi, Mau., 11, 

130, 133, 169. 

—Mian Deobandi, Sayyid Mau., 7, 

109, 110, 352 

— Shahjahanpuri, Sayyid, 

192, 193. 
-Mohsin 263, 284. 
-Mujeeb, Prof., 116. 
-Munir, Abd al-Jalil (Egypt), 



- Fazil, Maulavi, 11. 

- Hafiz al-Qazi, Shaikh, 366. 



■- Murad Farouqi Muzaffarnagri, 

Mau., 16, 17 

-- Mustansir Allah, Shaikh, 264, 

290. 

-- Na'eem, Mau., 391 — 393, 404. 

--Qasim Nanautavi, Mau., 1, 2, 14, 

26, 62, 127, 129, 131, 

135, 168, 231, 336, 237, 

268, 273, 304, 309, 319, 

351, 327, 374, 376. 

Nayanagri, Munshi, 128, 

130. 
--Rasheed Faridi, Maulavi 17. 
-Sadiq Karachvi, Mau., 52 
-- Sa'eed Buzurg Surti Dabheli, 
Mau., 67, 238, 395. 

Dehelvi, Hakim, 357, 

385 

-- Sahool Bhagalpuri, Muf., 60, 61 , 

190, 191. 

- Salim Qasimi, Mau,, 98, 100, 

368, 390-393, 399-401, 404 
-- Sehsarami, Mau., 60. 

— 5haf'ee Deobandi, Muf., Mau., 

93, 190. 
--Shahmir, Munshi, 322. 

- Shah Muhaddith Rampuri, Mian, 

262, 269. 
-Shamim, Mau., 385. 
-Siddiq, Hafiz, 43. 
-Talha, Mau., 385. 
-Taqi Usmani, Mau., 94. 

- Tayyib Qasimi Deobandi, Qari, 

Mau., 1, 2, 23, 26, 53, 
54, 73 79, 85, 96-98, 
118, 123 124, 159, 160, 
175, 178, 185, 193, 237, 
260, 284, 294, 297, 298, 
305, 311, 315-317 323, 
350, 353, 358, 362,367, 
368, 370-375 395, 396, 
398, 399 404 
-Thanvi, Shaikh, 13, 33. 

— Tughlaq, Sultan, 114 
-Umar, Mau., 13 

-- Usman, Mau., 91. 

-Yahaya Sehsarami, Mau., 404. 

— Yaqub Nanautavi, Mau. 16, 18, 

19, 23, 28, 31, 35—37, 
42, 126—131, 133, 156, 
166, 170, 183, 184, 242, 
268, 273, 321, 323, 324, 
328, 350. 

-yasin, Mau., 87. 

Sirhindi Bareillvi, Mau., 43. 



- yugel, Dr. (Turkish an 

sador), 265, 310. 

- Yusuf Binnori, Mau., 120, 12 

15 

Francis, Haji, 264, 296. 

— Shah Kashmiri Mir Wa'i 
Mau., 103, 104. 



Zahir 



Shar 



(Ex-king 



Afghanistan), 

264, 293. 

Zakaria, Shaikh al- Ha 

34, 56, 57, 156, 194, 
351, 368. 

, (Mau. ainnori's father), 

120. 

Zaman, Hakim, 238, 395 

al-Zaman Farouqi, 

— Zia al-Haq, Gen., 357, 367, 385. 

Muhaqqiq Dawwani, Allamah, 199. 
Muni al-Din, Sayyid, 263, 279. 
Mujaddid Alf-e Sani, Hazrat, 120, 121, 348, 
349. 
Mujtabai Press (Meerut), 30. 
Mukerjee, Bishwanath, 263, 284. 
Mukerji, S. K., Mr , 394 
Mullan, Sulaiman Yusuf, 263, 276. 
Multan, 87, 125, 147, 198 

Jail, 54. 

Mumtaz Ali, Munshi, 127. 
Munadi, Azim al-Din, Sayyid, 95. 
Munne Shah, Mianji, 62. 
Murtaza Hasan Chandpuri, Mau., 42 

, Sa'eed, Sayyid (MP), 403. 

Muslim League, 70, 71, 182. 

Majlis, 104. 

Mustafa Hasan Alavi, Dr , (see Alavi). 
Muston, James, Sir, 221. 
Mutahadda Muhaz (Pakistan), 125 367. 
Mutamar-e Ansar, 25. 

e A'lam-e Islami (Cairo) 98, 101, 

113, 120, 122 125. 
Muzaffar al-Din, 96, 175. 

Husain Kandhlavi, Mau., 129. 

Mian (S. Muhammad Mian 

Deobandi), 109 
Muzaffarnagar & Dist., 11, 15, 17. 
Muzaffarpur, 51 . 
Nadir al-Din, Mau., 52. 

Shah, 63. 

Nadvat al-Musannafin (Delhi-6), 103, 106— 
108, 112, 114, 115. 

al-Ulama (Lucknow), 58, 79, 80, 90, 

113, 116, 122, 202, 313, 
358. 



i, 25, 36. 



Nagpur, 193. 

Najibabad, 82 

Najm al-Din Jhelumi, Mau., 102. 

Shah, Mau., 47. 

Najm al-Madaris (Kalachi), 124.Nami Press 
(Kanpur), 22. 

Nakar Idris al-yusuf, 389. 

Nanauta, 18, 37, 100, 126, 127, 131, 169, 
170. 

Nanautavi, Hazrat, 12, 14, 17, 19—27, 32, 
37, 53, 68, 73,96, 114, 115, 130, 
132,133, 142, 161, 166, 169,170, 
175, 176, 179, 211,231, 377. 

Nasim al-Din, Hafiz, 117, 162. 

Nasir al-Din, Qazi, 197. 

, Mahmud, Sultan, 244. 

Nav-darah, 168. 

Navsari (Gujarat), 67, 95, 121, 296. 

Nawal Kishore Press (Lucknow), 23. 

Nazarat al-Ma'arif al-Qurania, Majlis-e, 44, 
76. 

Nazeer Ahmed Deobandi, Mau., 352 

Palanpun, Mau, 111 

Husain, Mau., 61, 191. 

Nazimabad (Pak.), 82. 

Nazim-e 'Amumi-e Rabeta-e 'Alami 
(Mecca), 265. 

Nazir Hasan Deobandi, Mau., 31, 115. 

Nehru, Jawaharlal, Pandit, 216. 

, Motilal, Pandit, 138. 

, Shiv Rajvati (MLC), 264, 297 

Nepal, 359, 361, 385. 

New Delhi, 109, 129, 403. 

Town (Karachi), 120. 

York (USA), 265, 307. 

Nihal Ahmed, Shaikh, 12, 237. 

Nikodar (Dist. JulJundur), 105 

Niyaz Berkes (see Berkes), 

Nizam (of Deccan), 38, 41, 172, 173, 248, 
272. 

Nizamabad, 38, 172, 173. 

Nizam al-Din, Mau., Muf., 195. 

, Awlia (Delhi), Khwaja, 198. 

Sahalvi Lakhnavi, Mulla, 200 

Nizam-e Islam Party, 102, 124. 

Nizamia (Baghdad), 274. 

Nizami, Pir Zamin, 358. 

Sani, Hasan, Khwaja, 358. 

Press, 322. 

Nur al-Haq Dehelvi, Shaikh, 199. 

Nuri, al-Shaikh, 311. 

Nusrat Husain, Hakim, 21, 140. 

N. W, F. P. (North-west Frontier Province), 21, 
47, 87, 88 101, 120, 125, 136 



O'dwyer, Michael, Sir, 148. 

Oman, 356, 357, 361, 371 385, 388 

Omar Abu Reesha (see Abu). 

Ondra (Dist. Azamgarh), 195. 

Orissa, 122. 

Ottoman Caliphate, 136, 141 

Empire, 135. 

Govt., 139. 

Ozair Gul Peshawari, Mau., 21, 83, 84, 140. 

Paggot, P. C , 262, 269. 

Pakistan, 47, 70, 77, 78, 82, 87, 88, 93, 94,99, 

101, 103, 104, 120, 121, 125,127^ 

182, 190, 223, 244, 356,357, 359, 

360, 367, 368, 384,385, 396, 399. 

Constituent Assembly, 70, 93, 125, 

182. 

, East, 101, 102, 117 

PakPatan, 16. 

Palanpur, 111. 

Palestine, 316, 357, 372, 382, 385 

Pali (Jodhpur State), 322, 323 

Palmer, John, 343 

Pand